Export (0) Print
Expand All

Partitions, Companies, and Data Isolation in Microsoft Dynamics AX [AX 2012]

Updated: February 21, 2014

Applies To: Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 R3, Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 R2

This topic provides comprehensive information about most aspects of the partition feature for the developer audience.

Section

Description

1. Overview of Partitions and Legal Entities

Explains the definition and purpose of partitions.

2. The Partitions Table

Identifies the infrastructure that supports partitions.

3. Steps for Working with Partitions

Lists the sequence of major actions you can perform when you work with partitions.

4. Data Access within Partitions and Companies

Describes the special processing that the Application Object Server (AOS) applies to queries that involve partitions.

5. Data at Different Isolation Levels

Describes the type of data that is shared across partitions and companies at different levels of data isolation.

In the glossary for Microsoft Dynamics AX, the formal definition of a partition is: A division of an application’s processing into logical or functional parts.

Partitions divide and isolate the business data of an installation by using special processing that the AOS applies to data queries. This special processing occurs immediately before the queries are sent to the underlying Microsoft SQL Server database when a system field named Partition is present in a queried table.

The purpose of a partition is to logically separate the data within its boundaries from the data in other partitions. A partition enables the AOS to isolate the data in the partition from users who are not authorized to access the data.

For example, a holding corporation might have several subsidiaries or other legal entities. An installation of Microsoft Dynamics AX for the corporation can have several partitions, perhaps one for each subsidiary.

Each partition contains at least one company or legal entity. A legal entity occurs in only one partition. When you create a legal entity, the system assigns it to the current partition. The legal entity can never be moved to another partition. However, its data can be exported from the partition and then imported to another company in another partition.

NoteNote

Partitions were added starting in Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 R2. When you upgrade from a version that did not support partitions, you must assign the existing companies or legal entities to one or more partitions during upgrade.

For more information including a diagram of the partition architecture, see Data partitioning architecture.

The system stores information about partitions in the Partitions system table. The Partitions table is located in the AOT under System Documentation > Tables.

The Partitions table has the following fields:

Field name

Data type

Description

PartitionKey

String, 8 characters is the maximum length.

This is the short identifier that you use and see most often when interacting with the partition. For example, you can specify this value in the message header when you use AIF services.

The values in this field are unique. A few tables have a foreign key field that refers to this field. The AOS has no special process for foreign keys to this field.

Name

String, 40 characters is the maximum length.

This is long name of the partition. This value is displayed or used in only a few places in the system.

RecId

This is a standard RecId system field that most tables have, of type int64.

The AOS has special processing for foreign key fields that reference this field. The processing adds filters to the Where clause.

Under AOT > System Documentation > Types, the following two types match fields on the Partitions table:

  • Partition – corresponds to the RecId field of the Partitions table.

  • PartitionKey – corresponds to the PartitionKey field of the Partitions table.

The properties of tables in the AOT can indicate whether a given table is affected by data partitions. The following table describes database tables and their partition-related fields.

AOT path

Property value

Description

AOT > Data Dictionary > Tables > SystemTable

Systemtable = Yes

or

TableGroup = Framework

These tables are used by the Microsoft Dynamics AX system. They do not contain business data. An example is the AifAction framework table.

The AifAction table is one of the few tables for which you can modify the SaveDataPerPartition property by using the Properties window. Do not modify the value of this property. The system might change this value.

AOT > Data Dictionary > Tables > BusinessTable

Systemtable = No

and

TableGroup != Framework

Most tables that contain business-related data are in this category. These tables have a system field named Partition.

Examples include the BankAccountTable and CustTable tables.

When you create a new table, the system adds the Partition field.

The Partition field never appears in the Fields list for the table. However, the Partition field is visible in the underlying SQL Server database.

AOT > Data Dictionary > Tables > InformalPartitionedTable

Not applicable.

A small number of tables do not have the system Partition field, but do have a PartitionKey field as a foreign key. Examples include the AifGatewayQueue and AifInboundPort tables.

AOT > System Documentation > Tables

Not applicable.

Some tables in this area of the AOT do have a Partition field. An example is the DataArea table.

Other tables in this area do not have a Partition field. An example is the TimeZonesList table.

The following subsections show the high-level steps that you perform when you work with partitions.

You add a new partition by using the Partitions form. You can access the form from the following locations:

  • System administration > Area page > Setup > Partitions

  • AOT > Forms > PartitionAdministration > Open

The following columns are displayed in the Partitions form:

  • Partition Key – The short 8 character name or identifier of the partition. This name must be unique across the installation.
    The values in this column correspond to the PartitionKey fields that are in some tables in the system.

  • Name – A short description of the partition, with a maximum length of 40 characters.

The Partitions form does not display the RecId value. The values in a RecId column correspond to values in the Partition fields on tables throughout the system.

A new installation of Microsoft Dynamics AX creates a default partition named initial. The following image shows the Partitions form after some partitions have been added.

Partitions administration form

You can never delete a partition.

  1. Click the Add button. This creates a new row in the grid.

  2. Enter string values into the cells of the new row.

  3. To commit the add, give focus to another row, or click the Close button to exit the form.

When you start the AX32.exe client, your session is assigned to one partition context for that whole session. You can switch to another partition only by starting a new client session.

When you start a new client session, the system reads a variety of items to determine which partition is specified for your session. The process reads items in the sequence that they are listed in the following table. The process stops when it finds that a partition is specified.

Item

Description

Command-line option

You can start the client at a command prompt in a cmd.exe window. You can add the –partition parameter with a Partition Key value, by using the following format:

ax32.exe -partition=partition_key

The Partition setting in the client configuration tool.

This text box control is located in the General tab. By default, the text box is empty.

The client configuration for each user is stored as an entry in the following subkey in the registry:
 HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Dynamics\6.0\Configuration\.

The default partition for the user.

In the Users form, the system administrator can select one user record in the grid, and then click the Edit menu. The form then shows a check box that is labeled Current partition is default partition. If the user is authorized for more than one partition, the administrator can select the check box to make the current partition be the default partition for the user.

The Users form and its check box control are discussed further elsewhere in this topic.

The initial partition.

The initial partition is used if no other partition is specified. The initial partition is part of every system.

If you specify a partition for which you do not have authorization, an error message is displayed, and then the empty client window closes.

The Partition initialization checklist is displayed the first time that you start the client in the context of a newly created partition. All tasks in the checklist are optional. Even if you mark all checklist items as complete, you can return to the checklist at any time. To return to the checklist, navigate as follows:
 Click System administration > Setup > Checklists > Partition initialization checklist.

The Partition initialization checklist.

A system might have several partitions. A typical user has authorization in only one partition. However, some users might be authorized to see data in more than one partition. System administrators are authorized to see data in all partitions.

Use the Users form to add a user to the current partition. You can open the Users form as follows:
 Click System administration > Common > Users > Users.

The Users form contains a check box that is labeled Current partition is default partition. This setting is considered in the startup sequence that determines the partition context for a client session.

When you create a new partition, the system adds one legal entity or company in the new partition. The short Company code value for the new company is always DAT. However, because each DAT company is in a different partition, each is a separate company from the others. You cannot change the value of the Company code. You can change the longer company Name value by using the Legal entities form. Or, you can add another company to the new partition.

To access the Legal entities form, navigate as follows:
 Click Organization administration > Setup > Organization > Legal entities.

The Legal entities form displays only the companies that are in the current partition.

Queries of business data are restricted to the partition context of the current client session. Typically queries are also restricted to data for the current company, although you can sometimes query across multiple companies. These restrictions apply to AOT > Queries and to X++ SQL.

The SQL statements in your X++ code are sent to the AOS for additional processing. The AOS generates Transact-SQL statements for SQL Server. The generated T-SQL often includes additional filters that are applied under the Where clause. The AOS adds filters for the current partition and the current company of your session. The filters target the fields named Partition and DataAreaId.

Do not add filters for partition and company to your X++ SQL source code.

Suppose a table has its SaveDataPerPartition property set to Yes, meaning the table has the Partition system field. The system can maintain data from the table in a data cache. Cached data for one partition can never be access from a second partition. However, a cache flush command that is issued in one partition can sometimes flush data for all partitions.

The value of the table’s CacheLookup property affects whether a cache flush that is issued in one partition affects all partitions. The details are shown in the following table.

CacheLookup value

Effect of flush

  • EntireTable

Data for only the current partition is flushed from the data cache.
But data for other partitions is not flushed and remains unaffected.

  • Found

  • FoundAndEmpty

  • NotInTTS

Data for the current partition is flushed from the data cache.
And data for other partitions is also flushed.

  • None

Not applicable.

For more information about caching, see Record Caching.

The crossCompany keyword can be added to your X++ SQL statement. The keyword suppresses the restriction that limits data access to the current company. It causes your X++ SQL statement to retrieve data regardless of what company the data is for.

The crossCompany keyword applies only to the companies that are in the current partition. The X++ crossCompany keyword is shown in the following X++ SQL code example:

while select crossCompany AccountNum from xrecCustTable {...}

For more information, see Cross-Company Data Access.

A query under AOT > Queries that has its AllowCrossCompany property set to Yes is also restricted to the companies in the current partition.

NoteNote

There is no crossPartition keyword in X++. If you must access data from multiple partitions in one statement, consider issuing direct T-SQL by using the Statement class. This is explained in the next section.

If you have sufficient authorization, you can use the Statement system class to issue Transact-SQL commands in a manner that bypasses the AOS and goes directly to SQL Server. When you bypass the AOS, you must decide whether your code will access data outside the current partition. In many cases, you must enforce the same restrictions that the AOS enforces. We recommend that you use Transact-SQL sparingly, and only when it is necessary.

You can use the following Transact-SQL Select statement to obtain a report of all the partitions on the system, and of all the companies that are in each partition.

-- T-SQL to run in the Dynamics AX database directly in SQL Server:
SELECT     da1.Partition, pt2.PartitionKey, pt2.Name, da1.ID as [Company-ID]
  FROM     DataArea as da1, Partitions as pt2 
  WHERE    da1.Partition = pt2.RecId 
  ORDER BY pt2.PartitionKey, da1.ID;

The following output was generated by the previous T-SQL Select statement. The output report shows that our test system had two partitions. It also shows that several companies existed in the initial partition:

Partition   PartitionKey  Name               Company-ID 
   
 5637144827  g2part        g 2 partition      DAT 
 5637144576  initial       Initial Partition  CEBD 
 5637144576  initial       Initial Partition  CEU 
 5637144576  initial       Initial Partition  DAT 
 5637144576  initial       Initial Partition  SDKA 
 5637144576  initial       Initial Partition  SUSA

NoteNote

For code examples of enforcing the partition restriction in direct T-SQL commands issued through the Statement class, see How to: Include a Filter for Partition in Direct Transact-SQL.

The following table describes the type of data that is shared across partitions and companies at different levels of data isolation.

Scope of sharing

Description

Example tables

Shared across:

  • Partitions

  • Companies

Data that is required by the Microsoft Dynamics AX system are shared across the system.

The Application Object Tree (AOT) displays metadata. All elements in the AOT are shared across the system.

About 4% of tables belong in this sharing category. The following tables are representatives:

  • AifPort

  • BatchJob

  • TimeZonesList

Shared across:

  • Companies only

Companies that are managed together on one installation of Microsoft Dynamics AX can benefit from sharing relatively static business data when appropriate. For example, the data in code tables does not have to be provided separately for each company.

Tables in this sharing category have the following two system fields:

  • Partition – for partition

About 30% of tables belong in this sharing category. The following tables are representatives:

  • BankStatementFormat

  • DirParyLocation

  • HCMReasonCode

  • NumberSequenceList

Not shared.

Transactional business data is not shared and is specific to one company or legal entity.

Tables in this sharing category have the following two system fields:

  • Partition – for partition

  • DataAreaId – for company

About 66% of tables belong in this sharing category. The following tables are representative:

  • BankAccountTable

  • BankAccountTrans

  • CustTable

  • SalesPool


Announcements: To see known issues and recent fixes, use Issue search in Microsoft Dynamics Lifecycle Services (LCS).
Was this page helpful?
(1500 characters remaining)
Thank you for your feedback

Community Additions

Show:
© 2014 Microsoft