Security Considerations for Writers
The VSS infrastructure requires writer processes to be able to function both as COM clients and as servers.
When acting as servers, VSS writers expose COM interfaces (for example, the VSS event handlers such as CVssWriter::OnIdentify) and receive incoming COM calls from VSS processes (such as requesters and the VSS service) or RPC calls from processes that are external to VSS, typically when these processes generate VSS events (for example, when a requester calls IVssBackupComponents::GatherWriterMetadata). Therefore, a VSS writer needs to securely manage which COM clients are able to make incoming COM calls into its process.
Similarly, VSS writers may also act as COM clients, making outgoing COM calls to callbacks supplied by the VSS infrastructure or RPC calls to processes that are external to VSS. These callbacks that are provided either by a backup application or by the VSS service allow the writer to perform tasks such as updating the Backup Components Document through the IVssComponent interface. Therefore, VSS security settings must allow writers to make outgoing COM calls into other VSS processes.
The simplest mechanism for managing writer security issues involves the proper selection of the user account under which it runs. A writer typically needs to run under a user who is a member of either the Administrators group or the Backup Operators group, or it needs to run as the Local System account.
By default, when a writer is acting as a COM client, if it does not run under these accounts, any COM call it makes is automatically rejected with E_ACCESSDENIED without even getting to the COM method implementation.
When developing a writer, set the COM COMGLB_EXCEPTION_DONOT_HANDLE global options flag to disable COM exception handling. It is important to do this because COM exception handling can mask fatal errors in a VSS application. The error that is masked can leave the process in an unstable and unpredictable state, which can lead to corruptions and hangs. For more information about this flag, see IGlobalOptions.
Writers need to be aware that when their processes act as a server (for example, to handle VSS events), they must allow incoming calls from other VSS participants, such as requesters or the VSS service.
However, by default, a process will allow only COM clients that are running under the same logon session the SELF SID) or running under the Local System account. This is a potential problem because these defaults are not sufficient to support the VSS infrastructure. For example, requesters may run as a "Backup Operator" user account that is neither in the same logon session as the writer process nor a Local System account.
To handle this type of problem, every COM server process can exercise further control over whether an RPC or COM client is allowed to perform a COM method the server (a writer in this case) implements by using CoInitializeSecurity to set a process-wide default COM access check permission.
Writers can explicitly do the following:
- Allow all processes access to call into the writer process.
This option may be adequate for many writers, and is used by other COM servers—for example, all SVCHOST-based Windows services are already using this option, as are all COM+ Services by default.
Allowing all processes to perform incoming COM calls is not necessarily a security weakness. A writer acting as a COM server, like all other COM servers, always retains the option of authorizing its clients on every COM method implemented in its process.
To allow all processes COM access to a writer, you can pass a NULL security descriptor as the first parameter of CoInitializeSecurity. (Note that CoInitializeSecurity must be called at most once for the entire process. Please see the COM documentation for more details on CoInitializeSecurity.)
The following is a code example that includes a call to CoInitializeSecurity:
// Initialize COM security. hr = CoInitializeSecurity( NULL, // PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR pSecDesc, -1, // LONG cAuthSvc, NULL, // SOLE_AUTHENTICATION_SERVICE *asAuthSvc, NULL, // void *pReserved1, RPC_C_AUTHN_LEVEL_PKT_PRIVACY, // DWORD dwAuthnLevel, RPC_C_IMP_LEVEL_IDENTIFY, // DWORD dwImpLevel, NULL, // void *pAuthList, EOAC_NONE, // DWORD dwCapabilities, NULL // void *pReserved3 );
When explicitly setting a writer's COM-level security with CoInitializeSecurity, you should do the following:
- Set the authentication level to at least RPC_C_AUTHN_LEVEL_CONNECT.
For better security, consider using RPC_C_AUTHN_LEVEL_PKT_PRIVACY.
- Set the impersonation level to RPC_C_IMP_LEVEL_IDENTIFY unless the writer process needs to allow impersonation for specific RPC or COM calls that are unrelated to VSS.
- Set the authentication level to at least RPC_C_AUTHN_LEVEL_CONNECT.
Allow only specified processes access to call into the writer process.
A COM server (such as a writer) that is calling CoInitializeSecurity with a non-NULL security descriptor can use the descriptor to configure itself to accept incoming calls only from users that belong to a specific set of accounts.
A writer must ensure that COM clients running under valid users are authorized to call into its process. A writer that specifies a Security Descriptor in the first parameter must allow the following users to perform incoming calls into the requester process:
- Local System
- Members of the local Administrators group
- Members of the local Backup Operators group
- The account under which the writer is running
There are cases where restricting access to a writer to processes running as Local System, or under the local Administrators or local Backup Operators local groups, may be too restrictive.
For example, a writer process (perhaps a third-party non-system writer) might not ordinarily need to be run under an Administrator or Backup Operator account. For security reasons, it would be best not to artificially promote the process's privileges to support VSS.
In these cases, the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\VSS\VssAccessControl registry key must be modified to instruct VSS that a specified user is safe to run a VSS writer.
Under this key, you must create a subkey that has the same name as the account that is to be granted or denied access. This subkey must be set to one of the values in the following table.
|0||Deny the user access to your writer and requester.|
|1||Grant the user access to your writer.|
|2||Grant the user access to your requester.|
|3||Grant the user access to your writer and requester.|
The following example grants access to the "MyDomain\MyUser" account:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE SYSTEM CurrentControlSet Services VSS VssAccessControl MyDomain\MyUser = 1
This mechanism can also be used to explicitly restrict an otherwise permitted user from running a VSS writer. The following example will restrict access from the "ThatDomain\Administrator" account:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE SYSTEM CurrentControlSet Services VSS VssAccessControl ThatDomain\Administrator = 0
The user ThatDomain\Administrator would not be able to run a VSS writer.