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Chapter 14 - Data Backup and Recovery

Updated: June 29, 2001

Because data is the heart of the enterprise, it's crucial for you to protect it. And to protect your organization's data, you need to implement a data backup and recovery plan. Backing up files can protect against accidental loss of user data, database corruption, hardware failures, and even natural disasters. It's your job as an administrator to make sure that backups are performed and that backup tapes are stored in a secure location.

On This Page

Creating a Backup and Recovery Plan
Selecting Backup Devices and Media
Backing Up Your Data
Disaster Recovery and Preparation
Managing Media Pools

Creating a Backup and Recovery Plan

Data backup is an insurance plan. Important files are accidentally deleted all the time. Mission-critical data can become corrupt. Natural disasters can leave your office in ruin. With a solid backup and recovery plan, you can recover from any of these. Without one, you're left with nothing to fall back on.

Figuring Out a Backup Plan

It takes time to create and implement a backup and recovery plan. You'll need to figure out what data needs to be backed up, how often the data should be backed up, and more. To help you create a plan, consider the following:

  • How important is the data on your systems? The importance of data can go a long way in helping you determine if you need to back it up—as well as when and how it should be backed up. For critical data, such as a database, you'll want to have redundant backup sets that extend back for several backup periods. For less important data, such as daily user files, you won't need such an elaborate backup plan, but you'll need to back up the data regularly and ensure that the data can be recovered easily.

  • What type of information does the data contain? Data that doesn't seem important to you may be very important to someone else. Thus, the type of information the data contains can help you determine if you need to back up the data—as well as when and how the data should be backed up.

  • How often does the data change? The frequency of change can affect your decision on how often the data should be backed up. For example, data that changes daily should be backed up daily.

  • How quickly do you need to recover the data? Time is an important factor in creating a backup plan. For critical systems, you may need to get back online swiftly. To do this, you may need to alter your backup plan.

  • Do you have the equipment to perform backups? You must have backup hardware to perform backups. To perform timely backups, you may need several backup devices and several sets of backup media. Backup hardware includes tape drives, optical drives, and removable disk drives. Generally, tape drives are less expensive but slower than other types of drives.

  • Who will be responsible for the backup and recovery plan? Ideally, someone should be a primary contact for the organization's backup and recovery plan. This person may also be responsible for performing the actual backup and recovery of data.

  • What is the best time to schedule backups? Scheduling backups when system use is as low as possible will speed the backup process. However, you can't always schedule backups for off-peak hours. So you'll need to carefully plan when key system data is backed up.

  • Do you need to store backups off-site? Storing copies of backup tapes off-site is essential to recovering your systems in the case of a natural disaster. In your off-site storage location, you should also include copies of the software you may need to install to reestablish operational systems.

The Basic Types of Backup

There are many techniques for backing up files. The techniques you use will depend on the type of data you're backing up, how convenient you want the recovery process to be, and more.

If you view the properties of a file or directory in Windows Explorer, you'll note an attribute called Archive. This attribute often is used to determine whether a file or directory should be backed up. If the attribute is on, the file or directory may need to be backed up. The basic types of backups you can perform include

  • Normal/full backups All files that have been selected are backed up, regardless of the setting of the archive attribute. When a file is backed up, the archive attribute is cleared. If the file is later modified, this attribute is set, which indicates that the file needs to be backed up.

  • Copy backups All files that have been selected are backed up, regardless of the setting of the archive attribute. Unlike a normal backup, the archive attribute on files isn't modified. This allows you to perform other types of backups on the files at a later date.

  • Differential backups Designed to create backup copies of files that have changed since the last normal backup. The presence of the archive attribute indicates that the file has been modified and only files with this attribute are backed up. However, the archive attribute on files isn't modified. This allows you to perform other types of backups on the files at a later date.

  • Incremental backups Designed to create backups of files that have changed since the most recent normal or incremental backup. The presence of the archive attribute indicates that the file has been modified and only files with this attribute are backed up. When a file is backed up, the archive attribute is cleared. If the file is later modified, this attribute is set, which indicates that the file needs to be backed up.

  • Daily backups Designed to back up files using the modification date on the file itself. If a file has been modified on the same day as the backup, the file will be backed up. This technique doesn't change the archive attributes of files.

In your backup plan you'll probably want to perform full backups on a weekly basis and supplement this with daily, differential, or incremental backups. You may also want to create an extended backup set for monthly and quarterly backups that includes additional files that aren't being backed up regularly.

Tip You'll often find that weeks or months can go by before anyone notices that a file or data source is missing. This doesn't mean the file isn't important. Although some types of data aren't used often, they're still needed. So don't forget that you may also want to create extra sets of backups for monthly or quarterly periods, or both, to ensure that you can recover historical data over time.

Differential and Incremental Backups

The difference between differential and incremental backups is extremely important. To understand the distinction between them, examine Table 14-1. As it shows, with differential backups you back up all the files that have changed since the last full backup (which means that the size of the differential backup grows over time). With incremental backups, you only back up files that have changed since the most recent full or incremental backup (which means the size of the incremental backup is usually much smaller than a full backup).

Table 14-1 Incremental and Differential Backup Techniques

Day of Week

Weekly Full Backup with Daily Differential Backup

Weekly Full Backup with Daily Incremental Backup

Sunday

A full backup is performed.

A full backup is performed.

Monday

A differential backup contains all changes since Sunday.

An incremental backup contains changes since Sunday.

Tuesday

A differential backup contains all changes since Sunday.

An incremental backup contains changes since Monday.

Wednesday

A differential backup contains all changes since Sunday.

An incremental backup contains changes since Tuesday.

Thursday

A differential backup contains all changes since Sunday.

An incremental backup contains changes since Wednesday.

Friday

A differential backup contains all changes since Sunday.

An incremental backup contains changes since Thursday.

Saturday

A differential backup contains all changes since Sunday.

An incremental backup contains changes since Friday.

Once you determine what data you're going to back up and how often, you can select backup devices and media that support these choices. These are covered in the next section.

Selecting Backup Devices and Media

Many tools are available for backing up data. Some are fast and expensive. Others are slow but very reliable. The backup solution that's right for your organization depends on many factors, including

  • Capacity The amount of data that you need to back up on a routine basis. Can the backup hardware support the required load given your time and resource constraints?

  • Reliability The reliability of the backup hardware and media. Can you afford to sacrifice reliability to meet budget or time needs?

  • Extensibility The extensibility of the backup solution. Will this solution meet your needs as the organization grows?

  • Speed The speed with which data can be backed up and recovered. Can you afford to sacrifice speed to reduce costs?

  • Cost The cost of the backup solution. Does it fit into your budget?

Common Backup Solutions

Capacity, reliability, extensibility, speed, and cost are the issues driving your backup plan. If you understand how these issues affect your organization, you'll be on track to select an appropriate backup solution. Some of the most commonly used backup solutions include

  • Tape drives Tape drives are the most common backup devices. Tape drives use magnetic tape cartridges to store data. Magnetic tapes are relatively inexpensive but aren't highly reliable. Tapes can break or stretch. They can also lose information over time. The average capacity of tape cartridges ranges from 100 MB to 2 GB. Compared with other backup solutions, tape drives are fairly slow. Still, the selling point is the low cost.

  • Digital audio tape (DAT) drives DAT drives are quickly replacing standard tape drives as the preferred backup devices. DAT drives use 4 mm and 8 mm tapes to store data. DAT drives and tapes are more expensive than standard tape drives and tapes, but they offer more speed and capacity. DAT drives that use 4 mm tapes can typically record over 30 MB per minute and have capacities of up to 16 GB. DAT drives that use 8 mm tapes can typically record more than 10 MB per minute and have capacities of up to 36 GB (with compression).

  • Auto-loader tape systems Auto-loader tape systems use a magazine of tapes to create extended backup volumes capable of meeting the high-capacity needs of the enterprise. With an auto-loader system, tapes within the magazine are automatically changed as needed during the backup or recovery process. Most auto-loader tape systems use DAT tapes. The typical sys tem uses magazines with between 4 and 12 tapes. The main drawback to these systems is the high cost.

  • Magnetic optical drives Magnetic optical drives combine magnetic tape technology with optical lasers to create a more reliable backup solution than DAT. Magnetic optical drives use 3.5-inch and 5.25-inch disks that look similar to floppies but are much thicker. Typically, magnetic optical disks have capacities of between 1 GB and 4 GB.

  • Tape jukeboxes Tape jukeboxes are similar to auto-loader tape systems. Jukeboxes use magnetic optical disks rather than DAT tapes to offer high-capacity solutions. These systems load and unload disks stored internally for backup and recovery operations. Their key drawback is the high cost.

  • Removable disks Removable disks, such as Iomega Jaz, are increasingly being used as backup devices. Removable disks offer good speed and ease of use for a single drive or single system backup. However, the disk drives and the removable disks tend to be more expensive than standard tape or DAT drive solutions.

  • Disk drives Disk drives provide the fastest way to back up and restore files. With disk drives, you can often accomplish in minutes what takes a tape drive hours. So when business needs mandate a speedy recovery, nothing beats a disk drive. The drawbacks to disk drives, however, are relatively high costs and less extensibility.

Before you can use a backup device, you must install it. When you install backup devices other than standard tape and DAT drives, you need to tell the operating system about the controller card and drivers that the backup device uses. For detailed information on installing devices and drivers, see the section of Chapter 2 entitled "Managing Hardware Devices and Drivers."

Buying and Using Tapes

Selecting a backup device is an important step toward implementing a backup and recovery plan. But you also need to purchase the tapes or disks, or both, that will allow you to implement your plan. The number of tapes you need depends on how much data you'll be backing up, how often you'll be backing up the data, and how long you'll need to keep additional data sets.

The typical way to use backup tapes is to set up a rotation schedule whereby you rotate through two or more sets of tapes. The idea is that you can increase tape longevity by reducing tape usage and at the same time reduce the number of tapes you need to ensure that you have historic data on hand when necessary.

One of the most common tape rotation schedules is the 10-tape rotation. With this rotation schedule, you use 10 tapes divided into two sets of 5 (one for each weekday). As shown in Table 14-2, the first set of tapes is used one week and the second set of tapes is used the next week. On Fridays, full backups are scheduled. On Mondays through Thursdays, incremental backups are scheduled. If you add a third set of tapes, you can rotate one of the tape sets to an off-site storage location on a weekly basis.

Table 14-2 Using Incremental Backups

Day of Week

Tape Set 1

Tape Set 2

Friday

Full backup on Tape 5

Full backup on Tape 5

Monday

Incremental backup on Tape 1

Incremental backup on Tape 1

Tuesday

Incremental backup on Tape 2

Incremental backup on Tape 2

Wednesday

Incremental backup on Tape 3

Incremental backup on Tape 3

Thursday

Incremental backup on Tape 4

Incremental backup on Tape 4

Tip The 10-tape rotation schedule is designed for the 9 to 5 workers of the world. If you're in a 24 x 7 environment, you'll definitely want extra tapes for Saturday and Sunday. In this case, use a 14-tape rotation with two sets of 7 tapes. On Sundays, schedule full backups. On Mondays through Saturdays, schedule incremental backups.

Backing Up Your Data

Microsoft Windows 2000 provides a backup utility, called Backup, for creating backups on local and remote systems. You use Backup to archive files and folders, restore archived files and folders, access media pools reserved for Backup, access remote resources through My Network Places, create snapshots of the system state for backup and restore, schedule backups through the Task Scheduler, and create emergency repair disks.

Getting Started with the Backup Utility

You can access Backup in several different ways, including

  • In Computer Management, expand System Tools, and then in the console tree click System Information. The menu should be updated to include Tools. Click the Tools menu, choose Windows, and then select Backup.

  • Click the Start menu, and then click Run. In the Run dialog box, type ntbackup, and then click OK.

  • Click the Start menu, click Programs, click Accessories, click System Tools, and then click Backup.

Figure 14-1 shows the main window for the Backup utility. As you can see, Backup has four tabs that provide easy access to key features. These tabs are

  • Welcome Introduces Backup and provides buttons for starting the Backup Wizard, the Restore Wizard, and the Emergency Repair Disk creation utility.

  • Backup Provides the main interface for selecting data to back up. You can back up data on local drives and mapped network drives.

  • Restore Provides the main interface for restoring archived data. You can restore data to the original location or to an alternate location anywhere on the network.

    Figure 14-1: The Windows 2000 Backup utility provides a user-friendly interface for backup and restore.

    Figure 14-1: The Windows 2000 Backup utility provides a user-friendly interface for backup and restore.
  • Schedule Jobs Provides a month-by-month job schedule for backups. You can view executed jobs as well as jobs scheduled for future dates.

You must have certain permissions and user rights to back up and restore files. Members of the Administrators and the Backup Operators groups have full authority to back up and restore any type of file, regardless of who owns the file and the permissions set on it. File owners and those that have been given control over files can also back up files, but only those that they own or those for which they have Read, Read and Execute, Modify, or Full Control permissions.

Note: Keep in mind that while local accounts can only work with local systems, domain accounts have domain-wide privileges. Therefore, a member of the local administrators group can only work with files on the local system, but a member of the domain administrators group could work with files throughout the domain.

Backup provides extensions for working with special types of data, including

  • System state data Includes essential system files needed to recover the local system. All computers have system state data, which must be backed up in addition to other files to restore a complete working system.

  • Exchange server data Includes the Exchange information store and data files. You must back up this data if you want to be able to recover Exchange server. Only systems running Microsoft Exchange Server have this type of data.

  • Removable Storage data Is stored in %SystemRoot%\System32\ Ntmsdata. If you back up this data, you can use the advanced restore option Restore Removable Storage Database to recover the Removable Storage configuration.

  • Remote Storage data Is stored in %SystemRoot%\System32\Remote-storage. If you back up this data, you can restore Remote Storage by copying the data back to this directory.

Setting Default Options for Backup

You create backups using the Backup utility's Backup tab or the Backup Wizard. Both techniques make use of default options set for the Backup utility. You can view or change the default options by clicking Tools, and then selecting Options. As Figure 14-2 shows, there are five categories of default options: General, Restore, Backup Type, Backup Log, and Exclude Files. Each of these option categories is examined in the sections that follow.

Figure 14-2: Setting default options for the Backup utility.

Figure 14-2: Setting default options for the Backup utility.

General Backup Options

General options control the default behavior of Backup. You can work with these options using the fields in the General tab of the Options dialog box. The available options are summarized in Table 14-3.

Table 14-3 General Backup Options

Option

Description

Compute Selection Information Before Backup And Restore Operations

Calculates the number of files and bytes involved prior to the backup/restore procedure. Otherwise, this data is calculated during the backup/restore procedure.

Use The Catalogs On The Media To Speed Up Building Restore Catalogs On Disk

Allows you to use archive logs on the media rather than scan the entire archive to determine what files are included. Clear this option if the catalog is missing, damaged, or otherwise unavailable.

Verify Data After The Backup Completes

Checks the archive data against the original data to ensure that the data is the same. If the data isn't the same, there may be a problem with the backup media and you should run the backup again using different media.

Back Up The Contents Of Mounted Drives

Allows you to back up data on mounted network drives. Otherwise, only the path information for mounted drives will be backed up.

Show Alert Message When I Start Backup And Removable Storage Is Not Running

Displays an alert if you start Backup and the Removable Storage service isn't running. It's a good option to use if you work with removable media.

Show Alert Message When I Start Backup And There Is Compatible Import Media Available

Displays an alert if you start Backup and there is new media available in the import media pool. It's useful if you work with removable media.

Show Alert Message When New Media Is Inserted Into Removable Storage

Displays an alert when Removable Storage detects new media. It's useful if you work with removable media.

Always Move New Import Media To Backup Pools

Allows Removable Storage to move new media to the backup media pool automatically. Select this option if you use Removable Storage and you want new media to be available to Backup.

Setting Restore and Backup Options

The list of general options is quite extensive but, for the most part, the list doesn't control the behavior of the actual backup or restore operation. Table 14-4 summarizes options for controlling backup and restore behavior. The first column shows the tab where the option is available. This is followed by option names and descriptions.

Table 14-4 Restore, Backup Type, and Backup Log Options

Tab

Option

Description

Restore

Do Not Replace The Files On My Computer (Recommended) Replace The File On Disk Only If the File On Disk Is Older Always Replace The File On My Computer

Select this option if you don't want to copy over existing files. Select this option to replace older files on disk with newer files from the backup. Select this option to replace all files on disk with files from the backup.

Backup Type

Default Backup Type

Select this option to set the default backup type. Available types are Normal, Copy, Differential, Incremental, and Daily.

Backup Log

Detailed Summary None

Select this option to log all operations, including the names of files. Select this option to log only key information and backup failure. Select this option to disable logging.

Viewing and Setting Backup Exclusions

Many types of system files are excluded from backups by default. You manage exclusions in the Options dialog box, which you access by selecting Options from the Tools menu in Backup.

Viewing exclusions In Backup you can view file exclusions by clicking the Exclude Files tab in the Options dialog box. File exclusions are based on file ownership and can be set for all users as well as the user currently logged on to the system (see Figure 14-3).

Creating exclusions To exclude additional files, follow these steps:

  1. In the Options dialog box, choose the Exclude Files tab.

  2. If you want to exclude files that are owned by any user, click Add New under the Files Excluded For All Users list. This displays the Add Excluded Files dialog box shown in Figure 14-4.

  3. If you want to exclude only files that you own, click Add New under the Files Excluded For User Administrator list. This displays the Add Excluded Files dialog box.

  4. You can exclude files by registered file type by clicking a file type in the Registered File Type list box. Or you can exclude files by custom file type by typing a period and then the file extension in the Custom File Mask box. For example, you could choose .DOC or type the customer type .WBK.

  5. Enter a drive or file path in Applies To Path. Files will then be restricted from all subfolders of that path unless you clear the Applies To All Subfolders check box. For example, if you use C:\ and select Applies To All Subfolders, all files ending with the designated file extension are excluded wherever they occur on the C drive. Click OK.

    Figure 14-3: Viewing existing file exclusions for users.

    Figure 14-3: Viewing existing file exclusions for users.

    Figure 14-4: Setting file exclusions for users.

    Figure 14-4: Setting file exclusions for users.

Changing exclusions To change existing exclusions, follow these steps:

  1. In the Options dialog box, choose the Exclude Files tab.

  2. Select an existing exclusion you want to edit, and then click Edit. You can now edit the file exclusion.

  3. Select an existing exclusion you want to remove, and then click Remove. The exclusion is removed. Click Apply when you're finished.

Backing Up Data with the Backup Wizard

The procedures you use to work with the Backup Wizard are similar to those you use to back up data manually. You start and work with the wizard by completing the following steps:

  1. Start Backup. In the Welcome tab, click Backup Wizard, and then click Next.

    Note: You can select files in the Backup tab and then start the Backup Wizard. If you do this, you'll be given the opportunity to back up the selected files only. Clicking Yes takes you directly to the dialog box. Clicking No clears the selected files and starts the wizard as usual.

    Select what you want to back up. The options are

    • Back Up Everything On My Computer Back up all data on the computer, including the system state data.

    • Back Up Selected Files, Drives, Or Network Data Only back up data you select.

    • Only Back Up The System State Data Create a backup of the system state data.

    Note: For Windows 2000 Professional and servers that aren't domain controllers, system state data includes essential boot and system files, the Windows registry, and the COM+ class registration database. For domain controllers, system state data includes Active Directory directory service data and files stored on the system volume (Sysvol) as well.

    Click next. If you wanted to select data to back up, choose the items you want to back up:

    • You make selections by selecting or clearing the check boxes associated with a particular drive or folder. When you select a drive's check box, all the files and folders on the drive are selected. When you clear a drive's check box, all the files and folders on the drive are cleared.

    • If you want to work with individual files and folders on a drive, click the plus sign (+) to the right of the drive icon. You can now select and clear individual directories and files by clicking their associated check boxes. When you do this, the drive's check box shows a shaded checkmark. This indicates that you haven't selected all the files on the drive.

  2. Click Next, and then select the Backup Media Type. Choose File if you want to back up to a file. Choose a storage device if you want to back up files and folders to a tape or removable disk.

    Tip When you write backups to a file, the backup file normally has the .BKF file extension. However, you can use another file extension if you want. Also, keep in mind that Removable Storage is used to manage tapes and removable disks. If no media are available, you'll be prompted to allocate media to the Backup media pool. Follow the instructions given in the section of this chapter entitled "Managing Media Pools."

  3. In Backup Media Or File Name, select the backup file or media you want to use. If you're backing up to a file, type a path and file name for the backup file or click Browse to find a file. If you're backing up to a tape or removable disk, choose the tape or disk you want to use.

  4. Click Next. Click Advanced if you want to override default options or schedule the backup to be run as a job. Then follow steps 7–12. Otherwise, skip to step 13.

  5. Select the type of backup to perform. The available types are Normal, Copy, Differential, Incremental, and Daily.

  6. To back up data that has been designated for Remote Storage, select Backup Migrated Remote Storage Data. Placeholder files for Remote Storage are then archived with the backup, which ensures that you can recover an entire file system with necessary Remote Storage references intact.

    You can now set these options for verification and compression:

    • Verify Data After Backup Instructs Backup to verify data after the backup procedure is completed. If selected, every file on the backup tape is compared to the original file. Verifying data can protect against write errors or failures.

    • Use Hardware Compression, If Available Allows Backup to compress data as it's written to the storage device. The option is only available if the device supports hardware compression, and only compatible drives can read the compressed information, which may mean that only a drive from the same manufacturer can recover the data.

  7. Set options for copying data to the designated file, tape, or removable disk. To add the backup after existing data, select Append This Backup To The Media. To overwrite existing data, select Replace The Data On The Media With This Backup. If you're overwriting data, you can specify that only the owner and an administrator can access the archive file by selecting Allow Only The Owner And Administrator Access.

  8. Next, type a backup label and a media label, if desired. The backup label applies to the current backup only. The media label sets the label for a tape or removable disk.

    Note: The media label is only changed when you're writing to a blank tape or overwriting existing data.

  9. Determine when the backup will run. Select Now to run the backup now or select Later to schedule the backup for a specific run date. If you want to schedule the backup for a later date, type and confirm your password when prompted. Afterward, type a job name, click Set Schedule, and then set a run schedule as explained in the section of Chapter 4 entitled "Scheduling Tasks."

  10. Click Finish to start the backup using the default backup options. This starts the backup operation. You can cancel the backup by clicking Cancel in the Set Information and Backup Progress dialog boxes.

  11. During backup operations, the Backup utility behaves differently depending on the type and status of a file. If a file is open, the utility generally attempts to back up the last saved version. If the file is locked by an exclusive lock, it isn't backed up at all. The utility also doesn't back up any files on the exclusion list and only backs up system state data if you've elected to do so.

  12. When the backup is completed, click Close to complete the process or click Report to view the backup log.

Tip If you don't want to view the backup log now or if you scheduled backups for later, you can read the backup log later. Backup logs are written as ASCII text files and are stored in %USERPROFILE%\Local Settings\Microsoft\WindowsNT\ NTBackup\Data. To find the backup log you want to use, check the time/date stamp on the backup log file. Backup logs are named in the format backup##.log, where backup01.log is the initial log created by Backup.

Backing Up Files Without the Wizard

You don't have to use a wizard to back up files. You can configure backups manually by completing the following steps:

  1. Start Backup, and then click the Backup tab, shown in Figure 14-5.

  2. Clear any existing selections in the Backup tab by selecting New from the Job menu and clicking Yes when prompted.

    Choose the data you want to back up:

    • You make selections by selecting or clearing the check boxes associated with a particular drive or folder. When you select a drive's check box, all files and folders on the drive are selected. When you clear a drive's check box, all files and folders on the drive are cleared.

    • If you want to work with individual files and folders on a drive, click the plus sign (+) to the right of the drive icon. You can now select and clear individual directories and files by clicking their associated check boxes. When you do this, the drive's check box shows a shaded checkmark. This indicates that you haven't selected all the files on the drive.

      Figure 14-5: Use the Backup tab to configure backups by hand, and then click Start Backup.

      Figure 14-5: Use the Backup tab to configure backups by hand, and then click Start Backup.
    • If you want to back up system state data, select System State below the My Computer node. For Windows 2000 Professional and servers that aren't domain controllers, system state data includes essential boot and system files, the Windows registry, and the COM+ class registration database. For domain controllers, system state data includes Active Directory data and Sysvol files as well.

    • If you're backing up Microsoft Exchange server, be sure to select the Microsoft Exchange icon below the My Computer node. When you do this, you'll be prompted to type the Universal Naming Convention (UNC) name of the Microsoft Exchange server you want to backup, such as \\CorpMail.

  3. Use the Backup Destination selection list to choose the media type for the backup. Choose File if you want to back up to a file. Choose a storage device if you want to back up files and folders to a tape or removable disk.

    Tip When you write backups to a file, the backup file normally has the .BKF file extension. However, you can use another file extension if you want. Also, keep in mind that Removable Storage is used to manage tapes and removable disks. If no media are available, you'll be prompted to allocate media to the Backup media pool. Follow the instructions given in the section of this chapter entitled "Managing Media Pools."

  4. In Backup Media Or File Name, select the backup file or media you want to use. If you're backing up to a file, type a path and file name for the backup file, or click Browse to find a file. If you're backing up to a tape or removable disk, choose the tape or disk you want to use.

    In the Backup tab, click Start Backup. This displays the Backup Job Information dialog box shown in Figure 14-6. The options in this dialog box are used as follows:

    • Backup Description Sets the backup label, which applies to the current backup only.

    • Append This Backup To The Media Adds the backup after existing data.

    • Replace The Data On The Media With This Backup Over-writes existing data.

    • If The Media Is Overwritten, Use This Label To Identify The Media Sets the media label, which is only changed when you're writing to a blank tape or overwriting existing data.

    Click Advanced if you want to override the default options. The advanced options are

    • Back Up Data That Is In Remote Storage Archives placeholder files for Remote Storage with the backup. This ensures that you can recover an entire file system with necessary Remote Storage references intact.

    • Verify Data After Backup Instructs Backup to verify data after the backup procedure is completed. If selected, every file on the backup tape is compared to the original file. Verifying data can protect against write errors or failures.

      Figure 14-6: Use the Backup Job Information dialog box to configure backup options and information, as necessary, and then click Start Backup.

      Figure 14-6: Use the Backup Job Information dialog box to configure backup options and information, as necessary, and then click Start Backup.

      Caution: Backing up system protected files can substantially increase the size of the backup. With Windows 2000 Professional, this can add 200+ MB to the size of the backup. With Windows 2000 Server, this can add 700–1000 MB to the size of the backup.

    • If Possible, Compress Backup Data To Save Space Allows Backup to compress data as it's written to the storage device. This option is available only if the device supports hardware compression, and only compatible drives can read the compressed information, which may mean that only a drive from the same manufacturer can recover the data.

    • Automatically Back Up System Protected Files With The System State Backs up all the system files in the %SystemRoot% folder, in addition to the boot files that are included with the system state data.

    • Backup Type Indicates the type of backup to perform. The available types are Normal, Copy, Differential, Incremental, and Daily.

  5. Click Schedule if you want to schedule the backup for a later date. When prompted to save the backup settings, click Yes. Next, type a name for the backup selection script, and then click Save. In the Scheduled Job Options dialog box, type a job name, click Properties, and then set a run schedule as explained in the section of Chapter 4 entitled "Scheduling Tasks." Skip the remaining steps.

    Note: Backup selection scripts and backup logs are stored in %USERPROFILE%\Local Settings\Microsoft\WindowsNT\NTBackup\ Data. Backup selection scripts are saved with the .BKS extension. Backup logs are saved with the .LOG extension. You can view these files with any standard text editor.

  6. Click Finish to start the backup using the default backup options. This starts the backup operation. You can cancel the backup by clicking Cancel in the Set Information and Backup Progress dialog boxes.

  7. When the backup is completed, click Close to complete the process or click Report to view the backup log.

Recovering Data Using the Restore Wizard

You can restore files with the Windows 2000 Backup utility using the Restore Wizard or the Restore tab. To recover data with the Restore Wizard, follow these steps:

  1. Make sure that the backup set you want to work with is loaded into the library system, if possible.

  2. Start Backup. In the Welcome tab, click Restore Wizard, and then click Next.

    Note: You can select files in the Restore tab and then start the Restore Wizard. If you do this, you'll be given the opportunity to restore the selected files only. Clicking Yes takes you directly to the dialog box shown in Figure 14-8. Clicking No clears the selected files and starts the wizard as usual.

    As shown in Figure 14-7, you can now choose the data you want to restore. The left view displays files organized by volume. The right view displays media sets.

    • Select the check box next to any drive, folder, or file that you want to restore. If the media set you want to work with isn't shown, click Import File, and then type the path to the catalog for the backup.

    • To restore system state data, select the check box for System State as well as other data you want to restore. If you're restoring to the original location, the current system state will be replaced by the system state data you're restoring. If you restore to an alternate location, only the registry, Sysvol, and system boot files are restored. You can only restore system state data on a local system.

      Tip By default, Active Directory and other replicated data, such as Sysvol, aren't restored on domain controllers. This information is instead replicated to the domain controller after you restart it, which prevents accidental overwriting of essential domain information. To learn how to restore Active Directory, see the "Restoring Active Directory" section of this chapter.

      Figure 14-7: Select the files and folders to restore.

      Figure 14-7: Select the files and folders to restore.
    • If you're restoring Microsoft Exchange, select the Microsoft Exchange data to restore. Before the restore starts, you'll see the Restoring Microsoft Exchange dialog box. If you're restoring the Information Store, type the UNC name of the Microsoft Exchange server you want to restore, such as \\CorpMail. If you're restoring to a different server, select Erase All Existing Data. This destroys all existing data and creates a new Information Store.

  3. Click Next. Click Advanced if you want to override default options, and then follow steps 5–7. Otherwise, skip to step 8.

    Select the restore location using one of the following options:

    • Original Location Restores data to the folder or files it was in when it was backed up.

    • Alternate Location Restores data to a folder that you designate, preserving the directory structure. After selecting this option, enter the folder path to use or click Browse to select the folder path.

    • Single Folder Restores all files to a single folder without preserving the directory structure. After selecting this option, enter the folder path to use or click Browse to select the folder path.

    Tip If you aren't entirely sure that you want to overwrite the files in the original location, select Alternate Path, and then specify a new location for the files, such as C:\temp. Once the files are in the temp directory, you can compare them to the existing files and determine if you want to recover them. Keep in mind that you should always restore files backed up from Windows NT file system (NTFS) drives to NTFS drives. This ensures that the security permissions can be restored and that NTFS compression and encryption can be retained.

    Specify how you want to restore files. The available options are

    • Do Not Replace The Files On My Computer (Recommended) Select this option if you don't want to copy over existing files.

    • Replace The File On Disk Only If the File On Disk Is Older Select this option to replace older files on disk with newer files from the backup.

    • Always Replace The File On My Computer Select this option to replace all the files on disk with files from the backup.

    If they're available, you can choose to restore security and system files using the following options:

    • Restore Security Restores security settings for files and folders on NTFS volumes.

    • Restore Removable Storage Database Restores the Removable Storage configuration if you archived SystemRoot%\System32\ Ntmsdata. Choosing this option will delete existing Removable Storage information.

    • Restore Junction Points, Not The Folder And File Data They Reference Restores network drive mappings but doesn't restore the actual data to the mapped network drive. Essentially, you're restoring the folder that references the network drive.

  4. Click Next, and then click Finish. If prompted, type the path and name of the backup set to use. You can cancel the backup by clicking Cancel in the Operation Status and Restore Progress dialog boxes.

  5. When the restore is completed, click Close to complete the process or click Report to view a backup log containing information about the restore operation.

Recovering Data Without the Wizard

You don't have to use the Restore Wizard to recover data. You can recover archives manually by completing the following steps:

  1. As necessary, load the backup set you want to work with in the library system.

  2. Start Backup, and then click the Restore tab, shown in Figure 14-8.

    Choose the data you want to restore. The left view displays files organized by volume. The right view displays media sets.

    • Select the check box next to any drive, folder, or file that you want to restore. If the media set you want to work with isn't shown, right-click File in the left view, select Catalog, then type the name and path of the catalog you want to use.

    • To restore system state data, select the check box for System State as well as other data you want to restore. If you're restoring to the original location, the current system state will be replaced by the system state data you're restoring. If you restore to an alternate location, only the registry, Sysvol, and system boot files are restored. You can only restore system state data on a local system.

      Tip By default, Active Directory and other replicated data, such as Sysvol, aren't restored on domain controllers. Instead, this information is replicated to the domain controller after you restart it, which prevents accidental overwriting of essential domain information. To learn how to restore Active Directory, see the section of this chapter entitled "Restoring Active Directory."

    • If you're restoring Microsoft Exchange, select the Microsoft Exchange data to restore. Before the restore starts, you'll see the Restoring Microsoft Exchange dialog box. If you're restoring the Information Store, type the UNC name of the Microsoft Exchange server you want to restore, such as \\CorpMail. If you're restoring to a different server, select Erase All Existing Data. This destroys all existing data and creates a new Information Store.

      Note: On the Exchange server, the Information Store and Directory services are stopped prior to running the restore. After the restore is finished, you may need to restart these services.

    Use the Restore Files To selection list to choose the restore location. The options are

    • Original Location Restores data to the folder or files it was in when it was backed up.

    • Alternate Location Restores data to a folder that you designate, preserving the directory structure. After you select this option, enter the folder path to use or click Browse to select the folder path.

    • Single Folder Restores all files to a single folder without preserving the directory structure. After you select this option, enter the folder path to use or click Browse to select the folder path.

    Specify how you want to restore files. Click Tools, and then select Options. This displays the Options dialog box with the Restore folder selected. The available options are

    • Do Not Replace The Files On My Computer (Recommended) Select this option if you don't want to copy over existing files.

      Figure 14-8: Specify the files and folders to restore.

      Figure 14-8: Specify the files and folders to restore.
    • Replace The File On Disk Only If The File On Disk Is Older Select this option to replace older files on disk with newer files from the backup.

    • Always Replace The File On My Computer Select this option to replace all files on disk with files from the backup.

  3. In the Restore tab, click Start Restore. This displays the Confirm Restore dialog box.

    If you want to set advanced restore options, click Advanced, and then set any of the following options:

    • Restore Security Select this option to restore security settings for files and folders on NTFS volumes.

    • Restore Removable Storage Database Select this option if you archived %SystemRoot%\System32\Ntmsdata and want to restore the Removable Storage configuration. Choosing this option will delete existing Removable Storage information.

    • Restore Junction Points, And Restore File And Folder Data Under Junction Points To The Original Location Select this option to restore network drive mappings and the actual data to mapped network drives. Choose this option only if you're trying to recover a drive on a remote system. Otherwise, clear this option to restore folder references to network drives only.

    • When Restoring Replicated Data Sets, Mark The Restored Data As The Primary Data For All Replicas Select this option if you're restoring replicated data and want the restored data to be published to subscribers. If you don't choose this option, the data may not be replicated because it will appear older than existing data on the subscribers.

    • Preserve Existing Volume Mount Points Select this option if you're restoring an entire file system (which includes the volume mount points) and want to retain the current mount points rather than those in the archive. This option is useful if you've remapped a drive and created additional volumes and want to keep the current volume mappings.

  4. In the Confirm Restore dialog box, click OK to start the restore operation. If prompted, enter the path and name of the backup set to use. You can cancel the backup by clicking Cancel in the Operation Status and Restore Progress dialog boxes.

  5. When the restore is completed, you can click Close to complete the process or click Report to view a backup log containing information about the restore operation.

Restoring Active Directory

When restoring system state data to a domain controller, you must choose whether you want to perform an authoritative or nonauthoritative restore. The default is nonauthoritative. In this mode, Active Directory and other replicated data is restored using the information from other domain controllers. Thus, you can safely restore a failed domain controller without overwriting the latest Active Directory information. On the other hand, if you're trying to restore Active Directory throughout the network using archived data, you must use authoritative restore. With authoritative restore, the restored data is restored on the current domain controller and then replicated to other domain controllers.

To restore Active Directory on a domain controller and enable the restored data to be replicated throughout the network, follow these steps:

  1. Make sure the domain controller server is shut down.

  2. Restart the domain controller server. When you see the prompt Please Select The Operating System To Start, press F8 to enter Safe Mode.

  3. Select Directory Services Restore Mode.

  4. When the system starts, use the Backup utility to restore the system state data and other essential files.

  5. After restoring the data, but before restarting the server, use the Ntdsutil tool to mark objects as authoritative. Be sure to check the Active Directory data thoroughly.

  6. Restart the server. When the system finishes startup, the Active Directory data should begin to replicate throughout the domain.

Backing Up and Restoring Data on Remote Systems

You can use the Windows 2000 Backup utility to back up data on remote systems. To do this, you must create network drives for the remote file systems before you begin the backup procedure. When backing up data on network drives, be sure to select the General option Back Up The Contents Of Mounted Drives. If you don't, only folder references are backed up and not the actual data.

You can also use Backup to restore data on Remote Systems. When you do this, you can select restore locations in My Network Places. If you're restoring to a mapped network drive instead of to a specific system, be sure to select the advanced restore option Restore Junction Points, And Restore File And Folder Data Under Junction Points To The Original Location.

Disaster Recovery and Preparation

Backups are only one part of a comprehensive disaster recovery plan. You also need to have Emergency Repair disks and Boot disks on hand to ensure that you can recover systems in a wide variety of situations. You may also need to install the Recovery Console.

When you set out to recover a system, you should follow these steps:

  1. Try to start the system in Safe Mode, as described in the section of this chapter entitled "Starting a System in Safe Mode."

  2. Try to recover the system using the Emergency Repair disk (if available). See the section of this chapter entitled "Using the Emergency Repair Disk to Recover a System."

  3. Try to recover the system using the Recovery Console. See the section of this chapter entitled "Working with the Recovery Console."

  4. Restore the system from backup. Be sure to restore the system state data as well as any essential files.

Creating an Emergency Repair Disk

The Emergency Repair disk can often help you recover a system that won't boot. This disk stores the essential system files, partition boot sector, and startup environment for a particular system. You should create a repair disk for each computer on the network, starting with Windows 2000 servers. Normally, you'll want to update this disk when you install service packs, manipulate the boot drive, or modify the startup environment.

Tip When you completed the installation of the operating system, basic recovery information was saved in the %SystemRoot%\Repair folder on the system partition. The Repair folder contains a copy of the local Security Account Manager (SAM) data and other essential system files. It doesn't contain a backup of the Windows registry. You should create a registry backup when you create the Emergency Repair disk.

You can create an Emergency Repair disk by completing the following steps:

  1. Start Backup. In the Welcome tab, click Emergency Repair Disk.

  2. When prompted as shown in Figure 14-9, insert a blank 3.5-inch, 1.44-MB disk into the floppy drive.

    Figure 14-9: Insert a blank disk at prompt. You can also back up the registry.

    Figure 14-9: Insert a blank disk at prompt. You can also back up the registry.
  3. If you want to back up the registry as well, select Also Backup The Registry To The Repair Directory. A backup of the Windows registry will then be made in the %SystemRoot%\Repair folder. If you need to restore the registry, you must use the Recovery Console.

  4. Click OK. When prompted, remove the disk and label it as an emergency repair disk for the system.

Creating Setup Boot Disks

You should create boot disks for each version of Windows 2000 running on the network. For example, if you're running Windows 2000 Professional and Windows 2000 Server, you should create boot disks for both of these versions. You use the boot disks to start a system that won't boot so that you can use the Emergency Repair disk or the Recovery Console to fix the system.

Note: If all of your computers can boot from CD-ROM, you don't need the setup boot disks. Just insert the Windows 2000 CD-ROM when starting the system.

To create boot disks, follow these steps:

  1. Insert the Windows 2000 CD into the CD-ROM drive.

  2. Click the Start menu, and then click Run.

  3. In the Run dialog box, type h:\bootdisk\makeboot a: where h is the CD-ROM drive letter and a is the floppy drive letter. Click OK.

  4. You'll need four blank disks. When prompted, insert a blank 3.5-inch, 1.44-MB disk. Then press any key.

  5. When prompted, remove the disk and label it as 1 of 4. Repeat this procedure for the remaining disks.

Starting a System in Safe Mode

If a system won't boot normally, you can use Safe Mode to recover or troubleshoot system problems. In Safe Mode, Windows 2000 loads only basic files, services, and drivers. The drivers loaded include the mouse, monitor, keyboard, mass storage, and base video. No networking services or drivers are started—unless you choose the Safe Mode With Networking option. Because Safe Mode loads a limited set of configuration information, it can help you troubleshoot problems. In most cases, you'll want to use Safe Mode before trying to use the Emergency Repair disk or the Recovery Console.

You start a system in Safe Mode by completing the following steps:

  1. Start (or restart) the problem system.

  2. During startup you should see a prompt labeled Please Select The Operating System To Start. Press F8.

    Use the arrow keys to select the Safe Mode you want to use, and then press Enter. The Safe Mode option you use depends on the type of problem you're experiencing. The key options you may see are

    • Safe Mode Loads only basic files, services, and drivers during the initialization sequence. The drivers loaded include the mouse, monitor, keyboard, mass storage, and base video. No networking services or drivers are started.

    • Safe Mode With Command Prompt Loads basic files, services, and drivers, and then starts a command prompt instead of the Windows 2000 graphical interface. No networking services or drivers are started.

    • Safe Mode With Networking Loads basic files, services, and drivers, as well as services and drivers needed to start networking.

    • Enable Boot Logging Allows you to create a record of all startup events in a boot log.

    • Enable VGA Mode Allows you to start the system in Video Graphics Adapter (VGA) mode, which is useful if the system display is set to a mode that can't be used with the current monitor.

    • Last Known Good Configuration Starts the computer in Safe Mode using registry information that Windows 2000 saved at the last shutdown.

    • Directory Services Recovery Mode Starts the system in Safe Mode and allows you to restore the directory service. Option available on Windows 2000 domain controllers.

    • Debugging Mode Starts the system in debugging mode, which is only useful for troubleshooting operating system bugs.

  3. If a problem doesn't reappear when you start in Safe Mode, you can eliminate the default settings and basic device drivers as possible causes. If a newly added device or updated driver is causing problems, you can use Safe Mode to remove the device or reverse the update.

Using the Emergency Repair Disk to Recover a System

When you can't start or recover a system in Safe Mode, your next step is to try to recover the system using the Emergency Repair disk. This disk comes in handy in two situations. If the boot sector or essential system files are damaged, you may be able to use the repair disk to recover the system. If the startup environment is causing problems on a dual or multi-boot system, you may be able to recover the system as well. You can't recover a damaged registry, however. To do that, you must use the Recovery Console.

You can repair a system using the Emergency Repair disk by completing the following steps:

  1. Insert the Windows 2000 CD or the first setup boot disk into the appropriate drive, and then restart the computer. When booting from a floppy disk, you'll need to remove and insert disks when prompted.

  2. When the Setup program begins, follow the prompts, and then choose the Repair Or Recover option by pressing R.

  3. If you haven't already done so, insert the Windows 2000 CD in the appropriate drive when prompted.

    Choose emergency repair by pressing R, and then do one of the following:

    • Press M For Manual Repair Select this option to choose whether you want to repair system files, the partition boot sector, or the startup environment. Only advanced users or administrators should use this option.

    • Press F For Fast Repair Select this option to have Windows 2000 attempt to repair problems related to system files, the partition boot sector, and the startup environment.

  4. Insert the Emergency Repair disk when prompted. Damaged or missing files are replaced with files from the Windows 2000 CD or from the %SystemRoot%\ Repair folder on the system partition. These replacement files will not reflect any configuration changes made after setup, and you may need to reinstall service packs and other updates.

  5. If the repair is successful, the system is restarted and should boot normally. If you still have problems, you may need to use the Recovery Console.

Working with the Recovery Console

The Recovery Console is one of your last lines of defense in recovering a system. The Recovery Console operates much like the command prompt and is ideally suited to resolving problems with files, drivers, and services. Using the Recovery Console, you can fix the boot sector and master boot record; enable and disable device drivers and services; change the attributes of files on FAT (file allocation table), FAT32, and NTFS volumes; read and write files on FAT, FAT32, and NTFS volumes; copy files from floppy or CD to hard disk drives; and run check disk and format drives.

The sections that follow discuss techniques you can use to work with the Recovery Console. As you'll learn, you can start the Recovery Console from the setup boot disks or you can install the Recovery Console as a startup option.

Installing the Recovery Console as a Startup Option

On a system with frequent or recurring problems, you may want to install the Recovery Console as a startup option. In this way, you don't have to go through the setup boot disks to access the Recovery Console. You can only use this option if the system is running. If you can't start the system, see the section of this chapter entitled "Starting the Recovery Console."

You install the Recovery Console as a startup option by completing the following steps:

  1. Insert the Windows 2000 CD into the CD-ROM drive.

  2. Click the Start menu, and then click Run. This displays the Run dialog box.

  3. Type h:\i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons in the Open field, where h is the CD-ROM drive letter.

  4. Click OK, and then when prompted, click Yes. The Recovery Console is then installed as a startup option.

Note: Normally, only administrators can install and run the Recovery Console. If you want normal users to be able to run the Recovery Console, you must enable the Auto Admin Logon policy for the local computer policy (Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Local Policies/Security Options/Auto Admin Logon).

Starting the Recovery Console

If a computer won't start and you haven't installed the Recovery Console as a startup option, you can start the computer and the Recovery Console by completing the following steps:

  1. Insert the Windows 2000 CD or the first setup boot disk into the appropriate drive, and then restart the computer. When booting from a floppy disk, you'll need to remove and insert disks when prompted.

  2. When the Setup program begins, follow the prompts, and then choose the Repair Or Recover option by pressing R.

  3. If you haven't already done so, insert the Windows 2000 CD into the appropriate drive when prompted.

  4. Choose Recovery Console by pressing C. When prompted, type the local administrator password.

  5. When the system starts, you'll see a command prompt into which you can type Recovery Console commands. Exit the console and restart the computer by typing exit.

Recovery Console Commands

The Recovery Console is run in a special command prompt. At this command prompt, you can use any of the commands summarized in Table 14-5.

Table 14-5 Recovery Console Commands

Command

Description

ATTRIB

Changes the attributes of a file or directory.

BATCH

Executes a series of commands set in a text file.

CD

Changes the current directory.

CHKDSK

Runs the Chkdsk utility to check the integrity of a disk.

CLS

Clears the screen.

COPY

Copies a single file to another location.

DEL

Deletes one or more files.

DIR

Displays a directory listing.

DISABLE

Disables a system service or a device driver.

DISKPART

Manages partitions on hard disk drives.

ENABLE

Starts or enables a system service or a device driver.

EXIT

Exits the Recovery Console and restarts your computer.

EXPAND

Expands a compressed file.

FIXBOOT

Writes a new partition boot sector.

FIXMBR

Repairs the master boot record.

FORMAT

Formats a disk.

HELP

Displays a list of Recovery Console commands.

LISTSVC

Lists the services and drivers available on the computer.

LOGON

Logs on to a Windows 2000 installation.

MAP

Displays drive letter mappings.

MD

Creates a directory.

MORE

Displays a text file one page at a time.

REN

Renames a single file.

RD

Removes a directory.

SET

Displays and sets environment variables.

SYSTEMROOT

Changes to the systemroot directory.

TYPE

Displays a text file.

Deleting the Recovery Console

If you installed Recovery Console as a startup option and no longer want this option to be available, you can delete the Recovery Console. To do that, follow these steps:

  1. Start Windows Explorer, and then select the hard disk drive on which you installed the Recovery Console. This is normally the boot drive.

  2. From the Tools menu, select Folder Options.

  3. In the View tab, select Show Hidden Files And Folders, and then clear the Hide Protected Operating System Files check box. Click OK.

  4. The right pane should show the root directory for the boot drive. Delete the Cmdcons folder and the Cmldr file.

  5. Right-click the Boot.ini file, and then click Properties.

  6. In the Properties dialog box, clear the Read-Only check box. Then click OK.

  7. Open Boot.ini in Notepad. Then remove the startup entry for the Recovery Console. The entry looks like this:

    C:\CMDCONS\BOOTSECT.DAT="Microsoft Windows 2000 Recovery Console" /cmdcons 
    
  8. Save the Boot.ini file, and then change its property settings back to read-only.

Once deleted, the Recovery Console is no longer listed as a startup option. You can reinstall the console if you need to at a later date or run the console as described in the "Starting the Recovery Console" section of this chapter.

Managing Media Pools

Collections of tapes are organized into media pools. The tasks you use to work with media pools are explained in the following sections.

Understanding Media Pools

You manage media pools through the Removable Storage node in Computer Management. With Removable Storage all media belongs to a pool of a specific media type. The concept of a media pool is very dynamic. Libraries can have multiple media pools, and some media pools can span multiple libraries.

You can also use media pools to establish a hierarchy in which top-level media pools contain lower-level media pools and these media pools in turn contain collections of tapes or discs.

Removable Storage categorizes media pools into types. The different types of media pools are

  • Unrecognized Media pools containing media that Removable Storage doesn't recognize, as well as new media that hasn't been written to yet. To make Unrecognized media available for use, move the media to the Free media pool. If you eject the media before doing this, the media are automatically deleted from the Removable Storage database and no longer tracked.

  • Free Media pools containing media that aren't currently in use and don't contain useful data. These media are available for use by applications.

  • Import Media pools containing media that Removable Storage recognizes but that haven't been used before in a particular Removable Storage system. For example, if you're transferring media from one office to another, the media may be listed as Import. To reuse the media at the new location, move the media to Free media or Application media pools.

  • Application Media pools containing media that are allocated to and controlled by an application, such as Windows 2000 Backup. Members of the Administrators and the Backup Operators groups can control Application media pools as well. You can configure Application media pools to automatically draw media from Free media pools, as necessary. Once they're allocated, you can't move Application media between media pools.

Free, Unrecognized, and Import media pools are referred to as system media pools. Unlike Application media pools that you can delete, you can't delete system media pools.

Preparing Media for Use in the Free Media Pool

If media have information that you don't need anymore, you can initialize the media and prepare them for use in the Free media pool. When you do this, you destroy the information on the media and move the media to the Free media pool.

To prepare media for the Free media pool, follow these steps:

  1. In Computer Management, access Removable Storage, and then double-click Physical Locations.

  2. Expand the library and the library's Media folder by double-clicking them.

  3. Right-click the media you want to prepare, and then click Prepare.

  4. Confirm the action by clicking Yes.

Moving Media to a Different Media Pool

You can move media to a different media pool to make it available for use or to allocate it to an application. To do that, follow these steps:

  1. In Computer Management, access Removable Storage, and then double-click Physical Locations.

  2. Expand the library and the library's Media folder by double-clicking them.

  3. In the Details pane, drag the media you want to move to the applicable media pool in the console tree.

Caution: Moving media to the Free media pool destroys the data on the media. Additionally, you can't move read-only media to the Free media pool.

Creating Application Media Pools

The only type of media pool you can create is an Application media pool. To do this, follow these steps:

  1. In Removable Storage, right-click Media Pools, and then click Create Media Pool. Or right-click an existing Application media pool and then click Create Media Pool.

  2. In the Create New Media Pool Properties dialog box, type a name and description of the media pool.

  3. If the media pool will contain other media pools, select Contains Other Media Pools. Otherwise, click Contains Media Of Type, and select an appropriate media type from the list.

  4. Complete the process by clicking OK. As necessary, allocate media and configure security. These procedures are described in the "Setting Allocation and Deallocation Policies" and "Setting Access Permissions for Removable Storage" sections of this chapter.

Changing the Media Type in a Media Pool

Each media pool can only contain one type of media. The media type is normally assigned when you create the media pool, but you can change the media type, provided no media is currently assigned to the media pool.

To change the media type, follow these steps:

  1. In Removable Storage, double-click Media Pools.

  2. Right-click the media pool you want to work with, and then select Properties.

  3. In the General tab, select Contains Media Of Type, and then select an appropriate media type from the list. Click OK.

Setting Allocation and Deallocation Policies

You can configure Application media pools to automatically allocate and deallocate Free media. By enabling this process, you ensure that when an application needs media, the application can obtain it. Then, when the media is no longer needed, it can be returned to the Free media pool.

You configure allocation and deallocation of media by completing the following steps:

  1. In Removable Storage, double-click Media Pools.

  2. Right-click the media pool you want to work with, and then select Properties. This media pool must contain media of a specific type and can't be a container for other media pools.

    In the General tab, use the following check boxes under Allocation/Deallocation Policy to control media allocation:

    • Draw Media From Free Media Pool Select this option to automatically draw unused media from a Free media pool when needed.

    • Return Media To Free Media Pool Select this option to automatically return media to a Free media pool when no longer needed.

    • Limit Reallocations Select this option if you want to limit the number of times that tapes or discs can be reused. Then use the Reallocations field to set a specific limit.

  3. Click OK.

Deleting Application Media Pools

In Removable Storage, you delete Application media pools by right-clicking them and selecting Delete. Do this only if you no longer need the media pool.

Note: You shouldn't delete Application media pools created by Windows 2000, such as Backup and Remote Storage. These are used by the operating system.

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