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Core Network Companion Guide: Deploying Password-based 802.1X Authenticated Wireless Access

Letzte Aktualisierung: Oktober 2012

Betrifft: Windows Server 2012

This Guide is a companion guide to the Windows Server® 2012 Core Network Guide. The Core Network Guide provides instructions for planning and deploying the components required for a fully functioning network and a new Active Directory® domain in a new forest.

This guide explains how to build upon a core network by providing instructions about how to deploy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.1X-authenticated IEEE 802.11 wireless access using Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol – Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2 (PEAP-MS-CHAP v2).

Because PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 requires that users provide password-based credentials rather than a certificate during the authentication process, it is typically easier and less expensive to deploy than EAP-TLS or PEAP-TLS.

noteHinweis
In this guide, IEEE 802.1X Authenticated Wireless Access with PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 is abbreviated to “wireless access” and “WiFi access.”

This guide provides instructions about how to deploy a WiFi access infrastructure that uses the following components:

  • One or more 802.1X-capable 802.11 wireless access points (APs).

  • AD DS Users and Computers.

  • Group Policy Management.

  • One or more Network Policy Server (NPS) servers.

  • Server certificates for computers running NPS.

  • Wireless client computers running Windows® 8, Windows® 7, Windows Vista® or Windows XP with Service Pack 2.

This guide is designed for network and system administrators who have:

1. Followed the instructions in the Windows Server 2012 Core Network Guide to deploy a core network, or for those who have previously deployed the core technologies included in the core network, including AD DS, Domain Name System (DNS), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), TCP/IP, NPS, and Windows Internet Name Service (WINS).

The Core Network Guide is available at the following locations:

2. Either followed the instructions in the Windows Server 2012 Core Network Companion Guide: Server Certificate Deployment to deploy and use Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS) to autoenroll server certificates to computers running NPS, or who have purchased a server certificate from a public CA, such as VeriSign, that client computers already trust. A client computer trusts a CA if that CA cert is already in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store on Windows-based computers. By default, computers running Windows have multiple public CA certificates installed in their Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store.

This guide is available at the following locations.

It is recommended that you review the design and deployment guides for each of the technologies that are used in this deployment scenario. These guides can help you determine whether this deployment scenario provides the services and configuration that you need for your organization's network.

Following are the requirements for deploying a wireless access infrastructure by using the scenario documented in this guide:

  • Before deploying this scenario, you must first purchase and install 802.1X-capable wireless access points to provide wireless coverage in the desired locations at your site.

  • Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) is installed, as are the other network technologies, according to the instructions in the Windows Server 2012 Core Network Guide.

  • Server certificates are required when you deploy the PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 certificate-based authentication method.

  • You or someone else in your organization is familiar with the IEEE 802.11 standards that are supported by your wireless APs and the wireless network adapters installed in the client computers on your network; for example, radio frequency types, 802.11 wireless authentication (WPA2 or WPA), and ciphers (AES or TKIP).

Following are some items this guide does not provide:

Comprehensive guidance for selecting 802.1X-capable wireless access points

Because many differences exist between brands and models of 802.1X-capable wireless APs, this guide does not provide detailed information about:

  • Determining which brand or model of wireless AP is best suited to your needs.

  • The physical deployment of wireless APs on your network.

  • Advanced wireless AP configuration, such as for wireless VLAN.

  • Instructions on how to configure wireless AP vendor-specific attributes in NPS.

Additionally, terminology and names for settings vary between wireless AP brands and models, and might not match the generic setting names referenced in this guide. For wireless AP configuration details, you must review the product documentation provided by the manufacturer of your wireless APs.

Instructions for deploying NPS server certificates

There are two alternatives for deploying NPS server certificates. This guide does not provide comprehensive guidance to help you determine which alternative will best meet your needs. In general, however, the choices you face are:

  • Purchasing certificates from a public CA, such as VeriSign, that are already trusted by Windows-based clients. This option is typically recommended for smaller networks.

  • Deploying a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) on your network by using AD CS.

The following table describes some of the main considerations for deciding whether to deploy a PKI or purchase a certificate from a public CA.

 

Features Purchased Public CA certificate PKI

Scales well

No.

Certificates must be purchased and installed on a per-server basis.

Yes.

If autoenrollment is used, NPS servers automatically enroll certificates. New NPS servers you add later will also automatically enroll certificates.

Has recurring costs over time

Yes.

Public CA certificates must be renewed.

No.

When certificates expire, the CA automatically issues new ones.

Requires extensive planning and knowledge

No.

On smaller networks, certificates can be purchased and installed on a per-server basis more easily than deploying a PKI.

Yes.

Deploying a PKI requires knowledge of AD CS.

Requires additional hardware

No.

Maybe.

To deploy one or more CAs, you must have additional servers or virtual machines.

Is easily extensible

No.

Yes.

You can use the PKI to deploy additional authentication methods and certificates used for other purposes.

NPS network policies and other NPS settings

Except for the configuration settings made when you run the Configure 802.1X wizard, as documented in this guide, this guide does not provide detailed information for manually configuring NPS conditions, constraints or other NPS settings.

For more information about NPS, see Additional Resources in this guide.

DHCP

This deployment guide does not provide information about designing or deploying DHCP subnets for wireless LANs.

For more information about DHCP, see the Additional Resources in this guide.

Following are technology overviews for deploying wireless access:

The IEEE 802.1X standard defines the port-based network access control that is used to provide authenticated network access to Ethernet networks. This port-based network access control uses the physical characteristics of the switched LAN infrastructure to authenticate devices attached to a LAN port. Access to the port can be denied if the authentication process fails. Although this standard was designed for wired Ethernet networks, it has been adapted for use on 802.11 wireless LANs.

This scenario requires the deployment of one or more 802.1X-capable wireless APs that are compatible with the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol.

802.1X and RADIUS-compliant APs, when deployed in a RADIUS infrastructure with a RADIUS server such as an NPS server, are called RADIUS clients.

This guide provides comprehensive configuration details to supply 802.1X authenticated access for domain-member users who connect to the network with wireless client computers running Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista or Windows XP with Service Pack 2 or later. Computers must be joined to the domain in order to successfully establish authenticated access.

Wireless computers that are running Windows Server 2012 configured by the same configuration settings as for Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista. Wireless computers running Windows Server 2003 are configured by the same wireless security and connectivity settings as for computers running Windows XP.

noteHinweis
On your domain wireless client computers running Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista, users can view the profiles you configure in the Windows Vista Wireless Network Policy by opening Network and Sharing Center and then clicking Manage wireless networks

The Windows Vista Wireless Policies in Windows Server 2012 Group Policy also provide settings that you can use to manage specific features and enhancements that are found only in wireless client computers running Windows 7.

Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows Vista Windows Server 2003, and, Windows XP, provide built-in support for 802.11 wireless networking. An installed 802.11 wireless network adapter appears as a wireless network connection in the Network Connections folder. Although there is built-in support for 802.11 wireless networking, the wireless components of Windows are dependent upon the following:

  • The capabilities of the wireless network adapter. The installed wireless network adapter must support the wireless LAN or wireless security standards that you require. For example, if the wireless network adapter does not support Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), you cannot enable or configure WPA security options.

  • The capabilities of the wireless network adapter driver. To allow you to configure wireless network options, the driver for the wireless network adapter must support the reporting of all of its capabilities to Windows. Verify that the driver for your wireless network adapter was written for the capabilities of Windows Vista or Windows XP and is the most current version by checking Microsoft Update or the Web site of the wireless network adapter vendor.

The following table shows the transmission rates and frequencies for common IEEE 802.11 wireless standards.

 

Standards Frequencies Bit Transmission Rates Usage

802.11

S-Band Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) frequency range (2.4 to 2.5 GHz)

2 megabits per second (Mbps)

Obsolete. Not commonly used.

802.11b

S-Band ISM

11 Mbps

Commonly used.

802.11a

C-Band ISM (5.725 to 5.875 GHz)

54 Mbps

Not commonly used due to expense and limited range.

802.11g

S-Band ISM

54 Mbps

Widely used. 802.11g devices are compatible with 802.11b devices.

802.11n (IEEE standards development are in progress)

C-Band and S-Band ISM

250 Mbps

Devices based on the pre-ratification IEEE 802.11n standard became available in August 2007. Many 802.11n devices are compatible with 802.11a, b, and g devices.

Wireless network security methods is an informal grouping of wireless authentication (sometimes referred to as wireless security) and wireless security encryption. Wireless authentication and encryption are used in pairs to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the wireless network, and to protect wireless transmissions. When configuring wireless security settings in the Wireless Network Policies of Group Policy there are multiple combinations to choose from. However, only the WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Enterprise, and Open with 802.1X authentication standards are supported for 802.1X Authenticated wireless deployments. You must select WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Enterprise, or Open with 802.1X in order to gain access the EAP settings in the Wireless Network Policies that are required for 802.1X authenticated wireless deployments.

This guide recommends the use of two wireless authentication standards for 802.1X authenticated wireless deployments:

Wi-Fi Protected Access – Enterprise (WPA-Enterprise) WPA is an interim standard developed by the WiFi Alliance to comply with the 802.11 wireless security protocol. The WPA protocol was developed in response to a number of severe flaws that were discovered in the preceding Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol.

WPA-Enterprise provides improved security over WEP by:

  1. Requiring authentication that uses the 802.1X EAP framework as part of the infrastructure that ensures centralized mutual authentication and dynamic key management

  2. Enhancing the Integrity Check Value (ICV) with a Message Integrity Check (MIC), to protect the header and payload

  3. Implementing a frame counter to discourage replay attacks

Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 – Enterprise (WPA2-Enterprise) Like the WPA-Enterprise standard, WPA2-Enterprise uses the 802.1X and EAP framework. WPA2-Enterprise provides stronger data protection for multiple users and large managed networks. WPA2-Enterprise is a robust protocol that is designed to prevent unauthorized network access by verifying network users through an authentication server.

Wireless security encryption is used to protect the wireless transmissions that are sent between the wireless client and the wireless AP. Wireless security encryption is used in conjunction with the selected network security authentication method. By default, computers running Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista support two encryption standards:

  1. Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is an older encryption protocol that was originally designed to provide more secure wireless encryption than what was provided by the inherently weak Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol. TKIP was designed by the IEEE 802.11i task group and the Wi-Fi Alliance to replace WEP without requiring the replacement of legacy hardware. TKIP is a suite of algorithms that encapsulates the WEP payload, and allows users of legacy WiFi equipment to upgrade to TKIP without replacing hardware. Like WEP, TKIP uses the RC4 stream encryption algorithm as its basis. The new protocol, however, encrypts each data packet with a unique encryption key, and the keys are much stronger than those by WEP. Although TKIP is useful for upgrading security on older devices that were designed to use only WEP, it does not address all of the security issues facing wireless LANs, and in most cases is not sufficiently robust to protect sensitive government or corporate data transmissions.

  2. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the preferred encryption protocol for the encryption of commercial and government data. AES offers a higher level of wireless transmission security than either TKIP or WEP. Unlike TKIP and WEP, AES requires wireless hardware that supports the AES standard. AES is a symmetric-key encryption standard that uses three block ciphers, AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256.

ImportantWichtig
Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP) was the original wireless security standard that was used encrypt network traffic. You should deploy WEP on your network as there are well-known vulnerabilities in this outdated form of security.

AES encryption is strengthened by enabling the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 standard. FIPS 140-2 is a U.S. government computer security standard that is used to certify cryptographic modules, and specify that wireless transmissions adhere to the FIPS 140-2 standard for cryptography. The option to enable FIPS 140-2 is only available when WPA2-Enterprise with AES, or WPA2-Personal with AES are selected. You must select WPA2-Enterprise with AES to deploy FIPS-140-2 in 802.1X authenticated wireless deployments.

The following table shows wireless security standards (as listed in the Wireless Network Policies extensions of Group Policy) and their corresponding authentication and encryption methods that can be used in 802.1X authenticated deployments.

 

Wireless network authentication type: Wireless encryption: Encryption key bit size: Comments:

WPA2-Enterprise

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

128

Strongest 802.1X-based wireless network authentication with very strong AES encryption.

WPA2-Enterprise

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)

128

Strongest 802.1X-based wireless network authentication with less strong TKIP encryption.

WPA-Enterprise

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

128

Mid-strength 802.1X-based wireless network authentication with very strong AES encryption.

WPA-Enterprise

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)

128

Mid-strength 802.1X-based wireless network authentication with less strong TKIP encryption.

IEEE 802.1X

Open

N/A

Not recommended for production environments.

IEEE 802.11

WEP

40 or 104

Use in production environments is strongly discouraged due to weak Wi-Fi authentication and encryption.

AD DS provides a distributed database that stores and manages information about network resources and application-specific data from directory-enabled applications. Administrators can use AD DS to organize elements of a network, such as users, computers, and other devices, into a hierarchical containment structure. The hierarchical containment structure includes the Active Directory forest, domains in the forest, and organizational units (OUs) in each domain. A server that is running AD DS is called a domain controller.

AD DS contains the user accounts, computer accounts, and account properties that are required by IEEE 802.1X and PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 to authenticate user credentials and to evaluate authorization for wireless connections.

Active Directory Users and Computers is a component of AD DS that contains accounts that represent physical entities, such as a computer, a person, or a security group. A security group is a collection of user or computer accounts that administrators can manage as a single unit. User and computer accounts that belong to a particular group are referred to as group members.

Group Policy Management is a Windows Server 2012 feature that enables directory-based change and configuration management of user and computer settings, including security and user information. You use Group Policy to define configurations for groups of users and computers. With Group Policy, you can specify settings for registry entries, security, software installation, scripts, folder redirection, remote installation services, and Internet Explorer maintenance. The Group Policy settings that you create are contained in a Group Policy object (GPO). By associating a GPO with selected Active Directory system containers—sites, domains, and OUs—you can apply the GPO's settings to the users and computers in those Active Directory containers. To manage Group Policy objects across an enterprise, you can use the Group Policy Management Editor Microsoft Management Console (MMC).

This guide provides detailed instructions about how to specify settings in the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies extension of Group Policy Management. The Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies configure domain-member wireless client computers with the necessary connectivity and wireless settings for 802.1X authenticated wireless access.

This deployment scenario requires server certificates for each NPS server that performs 802.1X authentication.

A server certificate is a digital document that is commonly used for authentication and to secure information on open networks. A certificate securely binds a public key to the entity that holds the corresponding private key. Certificates are digitally signed by the issuing CA, and they can be issued for a user, a computer, or a service.

A certification authority (CA) is an entity responsible for establishing and vouching for the authenticity of public keys belonging to subjects (usually users or computers) or other CAs. Activities of a certification authority can include binding public keys to distinguished names through signed certificates, managing certificate serial numbers, and revoking certificates.

Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS) is a Windows Server 2012 server role that issues certificates as a network CA. An AD CS certificate infrastructure, also known as a public key infrastructure (PKI), provides customizable services for issuing and managing certificates for the enterprise.

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) extends Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) by allowing additional authentication methods that use credential and information exchanges of arbitrary lengths. With EAP authentication, both the network access client and the authenticator (such as the NPS server) must support the same EAP type for successful authentication to occur. Windows Server 2012 includes an EAP infrastructure, supports two EAP types, and the ability to pass EAP messages to NPS servers. By using EAP, you can support additional authentication schemes, known as EAP types. The EAP types that are supported by Windows Server 2012 are:

  • Transport Layer Security (TLS)

  • Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2 (MS-CHAP v2)

securitySicherheit Hinweis
Strong EAP types (such as those that are based on certificates) offer better security against brute-force attacks, dictionary attacks, and password guessing attacks than password-based authentication protocols (such as CHAP or MS-CHAP version 1).

Protected EAP (PEAP) uses TLS to create an encrypted channel between an authenticating PEAP client, such as a wireless computer, and a PEAP authenticator, such as an NPS server or other RADIUS servers. PEAP does not specify an authentication method, but it provides additional security for other EAP authentication protocols (such as EAP-MS-CHAP v2) that can operate through the TLS encrypted channel provided by PEAP. PEAP is used as an authentication method for access clients that are connecting to your organization's network through the following types of network access servers (NASs):

  • 802.1X-capable wireless access points

  • 802.1X-capable authenticating switches

  • Computers running Windows Server 2012 and the Routing and Remote Access service (RRAS) that are configured as virtual private network (VPN) servers

  • Computers running Windows Server 2012 and Terminal Services Gateway

PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 is easier to deploy than EAP-TLS because user authentication is performed by using password-based credentials (user name and password), instead of certificates or smart cards. Only NPS or other RADIUS servers are required to have a certificate. The NPS server certificate is used by the NPS server during the authentication process to prove its identity to PEAP clients.

This guide provides instructions to configure your wireless clients and your NPS server(s) to use PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 for 802.1X authenticated access.

Network Policy Server (NPS) is included in Windows Server 2012, and allows you to centrally configure and manage network policies by using the following three components: Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server, RADIUS proxy, and Network Access Protection (NAP) policy server. NPS is an optional service of a core network, but it is required to deploy 802.1X wireless access.

When you configure your 802.1X wireless access points as RADIUS clients in NPS, NPS processes the connection requests sent by the APs. During connection request processing, NPS performs authentication and authorization. Authentication determines whether the client has presented valid credentials. If NPS successfully authenticates the requesting client, then NPS determines whether the client is authorized to make the requested connection, and either allows or denies the connection. This is explained in more detail as follows:

Authentication

Successful mutual PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 authentication has two main parts:

  1. The client authenticates the NPS server. During this phase of mutual authentication, the NPS server sends its server certificate to the client computer so that the client can verify the NPS server's identity with the certificate. To successfully authenticate the NPS server, the client computer must trust the CA that issued the NPS server certificate. The client trusts this CA when the CA’s certificate is present in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store on the client computer.

    If you deploy your own private CA, the CA certificate is automatically installed in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store for the Current User and for the Local Computer when Group Policy is refreshed on the domain member client computer. If you decide to deploy server certificates from a public CA, ensure that the public CA certificate is already in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store.

  2. The NPS server authenticates the user. After the client successfully authenticates the NPS server, the client sends the user’s password-based credentials to the NPS server, which verifies the user’s credentials against the user accounts database in Active Directory Doman Services (AD DS).

If the credentials are valid and authentication succeeds, the NPS server begins the authorization phase of processing the connection request. If the credentials are valid and authentication succeeds, the NPS server begins the authorization phase of processing the connection request. If the credentials are not valid and authentication fails, NPS sends an Access Reject message and the connection request is denied.

Authorization

The server running NPS performs authorization as follows:

  1. NPS checks for restrictions in the user or computer account dial-in properties in AD DS.

  2. NPS then processes its network policies to find a policy that matches the connection request. If a matching policy is found, NPS either grants or denies the connection based on that policy’s configuration.

If both authentication and authorization are successful, and if the matching network policy grants access, NPS grants access to the network, and the user and computer can connect to network resources for which they have permissions.

noteHinweis
To deploy wireless access, you must configure NPS policies. This guide provides instructions to use the Configure 802.1X wizard in NPS to create NPS policies for 802.1X authenticated wireless access.

In 802.1X-authenticated wireless networks, wireless clients must provide security credentials that are authenticated by a RADIUS server in order to connect to the network. For Protected EAP [PEAP]-Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2 [MS-CHAP v2], the security credentials are a username and password. For EAP-Transport Layer Security [TLS], the security credentials are certificates, such as client user and computer certificates or smart cards.

When connecting to a network that is configured to perform either PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 or EAP-TLS authentication, by default, Windows wireless clients must also validate a computer certificate that is sent by the RADIUS server. The computer certificate that is sent by the RADIUS server for every authentication session is commonly referred to as a server certificate.

As mentioned previously, RADIUS servers can be issued server certificate in one of two ways: from a commercial CA (such as VeriSign, Inc.,), or from a private CA that you deploy on your network. If the RADIUS server sends a computer certificate that was issued by a commercial CA that already has a root certificate installed in the client's Trusted Root Certifications Authorities certificate store, then the wireless client can validate the RADIUS server's computer certificate, regardless of whether the wireless client has joined the Active Directory domain. In this case the wireless client can connect to the wireless network, and then join the computer to the domain.

noteHinweis
The behavior requiring the client to validate the server certificate can be disabled, but disabling server certificate validation is not recommended in production environments.

Wireless bootstrap profiles are temporary profiles that are configured in such a way as to enable wireless client users to connect to the 802.1X-authenticated wireless network before the computer is joined to the domain, and/or before the user has successfully logged on to the domain by using a given wireless computer for the first time. This section summarizes what problem is encountered when trying to join a wireless computer to the domain, or for a user to use a domain-joined wireless computer for the first time to log on to the domain.

For deployments in which the user or IT administrator cannot physically connect a computer to the wired Ethernet network to join the computer to the domain, and the computer does not have the necessary issuing root CA certificate installed in its Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store, you can configure wireless clients running Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista with a temporary wireless connection profile, called a bootstrap profile, to connect to the wireless network. A bootstrap profile removes the requirement to validate the RADIUS server's computer certificate. This temporary configuration enables the wireless user to join the computer to the domain, at which time the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies are applied and the appropriate root CA certificate is then installed on the computer. When Group Policy is applied, one or more wireless connection profiles that enforce the requirement for mutual authentication are applied on the computer; the bootstrap profile is no longer removed. After joining the computer to the domain and restarting the computer, the user can use a wireless connection to log on to the domain.

The following illustration shows the components that are required to deploy 802.1X authenticated wireless access with PEAP-MS-CHAP v2.

Windows Server-WLAN-Topologie

The following components are required for this wireless access deployment:

After the required network infrastructure services supporting your wireless local area network are in place, you can begin the design process for the location of the wireless APs. The wireless AP deployment design process involves these steps:

  • Identify the areas of coverage for wireless users. While identifying the areas of coverage, be sure to identify whether you want to provide wireless service outside the building, and if so, determine specifically where those external areas are.

  • Determine how many wireless APs to deploy to ensure adequate coverage.

  • Determine where to place wireless APs.

  • Select the channel frequencies for wireless APs.

Users and Computers

Use the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in to create and manage user accounts, and to create a wireless security group for each domain member to whom you want to grant wireless access.

Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies

You can use the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies extension of Group Policy Management to configure policies for computers that are running Windows 8, Windows® 7 and Windows Vista®, and Windows XP. As is the case with Group Policy Management found in Windows Server 2012, there are two separate wireless policy nodes in the Windows Server 2012 Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies extension of Group Policy. For the purpose of this discussion, a wireless policy node is a collection of Group Policy settings that can be applied to computers running specific operating systems. By default, the two wireless policy nodes in the Windows Server 2012 Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies are named:

  • New XP Wireless Network Policy

  • New Wireless Network Policy

TipTipp
When configuring either the New XP Wireless Network Policy or the New Wireless Network Policy you are provided the option to change the name and description of the policy. If you change the name of either policy, that change is reflected in the Details pane of Group Policy Management Editor, and on the title bar of the wireless network policy dialog. Regardless of how you rename your policies, the New XP Wireless Policy will always be listed in Group Policy Management Editor with the Type displaying XP. The New Wireless Network Policy will always be listed with the Type showing Vista and later Releases.

The following table describes which of the operating systems can be configured by each wireless policy.

 

Policy Can be applied to computers running Windows XP, Windows Server 2003 Can be applied to computers running Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008 Can be applied to Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012

New XP Wireless Network Policy

Yes

Yes

But this policy cannot configure new wireless features in Windows Vista

Yes

But this policy cannot configure new wireless features in Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 8, and Windows Server 2012.

New Wireless Network Policy

No

Yes

Includes settings for all of the wireless features in Windows Vista.

Yes

Includes settings for all of the wireless features in Windows Vista, and settings for wireless feature enhancements in Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 8, and Windows Server 2012. Computers running Windows Vista will ignore Windows 7-specific settings.

noteHinweis
To enable wireless service on computers running Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2012, you must enable the wireless LAN Service. For more information, see Wireless LAN Service Overview.

The Windows Vista Wireless Network Policy enables you to configure, prioritize, and manage multiple wireless profiles. A wireless profile is a collection of connectivity and security settings that are used to connect to a specific wireless network. When Group Policy is updated on your wireless client computers, the profiles you create in the Windows Vista Wireless Network Policy are automatically added to your wireless client computers that are running Windows 7 and Windows Vista to which the Wireless Network Policy applies.

If you have wireless clients that you want to be able to connect to more than one wireless network, you can configure a wireless profile that contains the specific connectivity and security settings for each network. For example, assume your company has one wireless network for the main corporate office, with a service set identifier (SSID) WlanCorp. Your branch office also has a wireless network to which you also want to connect. The branch office has the SSID configured as WlanBranch. In this scenario, you can configure a profile for each network, and laptops that are used at both the corporate office and branch office will be able to connect to the wireless networks when they are at either location.

Alternately, assume your network has a mixture of wireless computers that support different security standards. Perhaps some older computers have wireless adapters that can only use WPA-Enterprise, while newer devices can use the stronger WPA2-Enterprise standard. You can create two different profiles that use the same SSID and nearly identical connectivity and security settings. However in one profile, you can set the wireless authentication to WPA2-Enterprise with AES, and in the other profile you can specify WPA-Enterprise with TKIP. This is commonly known as a mixed-mode deployment. The ability to configure mixed-mode deployments using a common SSID is one of the enhancements in the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies for Windows Vista.

Network Policy Server (NPS) enables you to create and enforce network access policies for client health, connection request authentication, and connection request authorization. When you use NPS as a RADIUS server, you configure network access servers, such as wireless access points, as RADIUS clients in NPS. You also configure the network policies that NPS uses to authenticate access clients and authorize their connection requests.

For the purpose of this guide, wireless client computers are computers that are equipped with IEEE 802.11 wireless network adapters and that are most typically running Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista or Windows XP. Within the context of this deployment scenario, however, wireless client computers can also be computers that are running Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2003.

By default, the functionality for 802.11 wireless is disabled on computers that are running Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2008 R2. To use 802.11 wireless on computers running Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2008 R2 you must first install and enable the Wireless LAN Service feature on the server computer. You can install the Wireless LAN Service feature by using the Add Features Wizard in Server Manager.

The process of configuring and deploying wireless access occurs in these stages:

Stage 1 – AP Deployment

Plan, deploy, and configure your APs for wireless client connectivity and for use with NPS. Depending on your preference and network dependencies, you can either pre-configure settings on your wireless APs prior to installing them on your network, or you can configure them remotely after installation.

Stage 2 – AD DS Group Configuration

You must create one or more wireless users security groups. Then, you must add each user for whom you want to allow wireless access to the wireless network to the appropriate wireless users security group.

Stage 3 – Group Policy Configuration

Configure the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies extension of Group Policy by using the Group Policy Management Editor Microsoft Management Console (MMC).

To configure domain-member computers using the settings in the wireless network policies, you must apply Group Policy. When a computer is first joined to the domain Group Policy is automatically applied. If changes are made to Group Policy, the new settings are automatically applied:

  • by Group Policy at pre-determined intervals

  • if a domain user logs off and then back on to the network

  • by restarting the client computer and logging on to the domain

You can also force Group Policy to refresh by running gpupdate at the command prompt.

Stage 4 – NPS server configuration

Use a configuration wizard in NPS to add wireless access points as RADIUS clients, and to create the network policies that NPS uses when processing connection requests. When using the wizard to create the network policies, specify PEAP as the EAP type, and the wireless users security group that was created in the second stage.

Stage 5 – Deploy wireless clients

Use client computers to connect to the network.

For domain member computers that can log on to the wired LAN, the necessary wireless configuration settings are automatically applied when Group Policy is refreshed. If you have enabled the setting in Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies to connect automatically when the computer is within broadcast range of the wireless network, your wireless, domain-joined computers will then automatically attempt to connect to the wireless LAN. To connect to the wireless network, users need only supply their domain user name and password credentials when prompted by Windows.

Before you deploy wireless access, you must plan the following items:

  • Installation of wireless access points (APs) on your network

  • Wireless client configuration and access

When you design your wireless network access solution, you must determine what standards your wireless APs must support, the areas where you want to provide wireless service, and where to locate wireless APs. Additionally, you must plan an IP address scheme for your wireless AP’s and wireless clients. See the section Plan the configuration of wireless AP’s in NPS below for related information.

For the purposes of consistency and ease of deployment and AP management, it is recommended that you deploy wireless APs of the same brand and model.

The wireless APs that you deploy must support the following:

  • IEEE 802.1X

  • RADIUS authentication

  • Wireless Authentication and Cipher. Listed in order of most to least preferred:

    1. WPA2-Enterprise with AES

    2. WPA2-Enterprise with TKIP

    3. WPA-Enterprise with AES

    4. WPA-Enterprise with TKIP

noteHinweis
To deploy WPA2, use wireless network adapters and wireless APs that also support WPA2. Otherwise, use WPA-Enterprise.

In addition, to provide enhanced security for the network, the wireless APs must support the following options:

  • DHCP filtering. The wireless AP must filter on IP ports to prevent the transmission of DHCP broadcast messages in those cases in which the client is a DHCP server. The wireless AP must block the client from sending IP packets from UDP port 68 to the network.

  • DNS filtering. The wireless AP must filter on IP ports to prevent a client from performing as a DNS server. The wireless AP must block the client from sending IP packets from TCP or UDP port 53 to the network.

  • Client isolation If your wireless access point provides client isolation capabilities, it should be enabled to prevent possible Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) spoofing, exploits.

Use architectural drawings of each floor for each building to identify the areas where you want to provide wireless coverage. For example, identify the appropriate offices, conferences rooms, lobbies, cafeterias, or courtyards. On the drawings, indicate any devices that interfere with the wireless signals, such as medical equipment, wireless video cameras, cordless telephones that operate in the 2.4 through 2.5 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) range, and Bluetooth-enabled devices. On the drawing, mark aspects of the building that might interfere with wireless signals; metal objects used in the construction of a building can affect the wireless signal. For example, the following common objects can interfere with signal propagation: Elevators, heating and air-conditioning ducts, and concrete support girders.

Refer to your AP manufacturer for information about sources that might cause wireless AP radio frequency attenuation. Most APs provide testing software that you can use to check for signal strength, error rate, and data throughput.

On the architectural drawings, locate your wireless APs close enough together to provide ample wireless coverage but far enough apart that they do not interfere with each other. The necessary distance between APs depends upon the type of AP and AP antenna, aspects of the building that block wireless signals, as well as other sources of interference. Typically, mark wireless APs placements so that each wireless AP is not more than 300 feet from any adjacent wireless AP. See the wireless AP manufacturer’s documentation for AP specifications and guidelines for placement.

Temporarily install wireless APs in the locations specified on your architectural drawings. Then using a laptop equipped with an 802.11 wireless adapter and the site survey software that is commonly supplied with wireless adapters, determine the signal strength within each coverage area. In coverage areas where signal strength is low, reposition the AP to improve signal strength for the coverage area, install additional wireless APs to provide the necessary coverage, relocate or remove sources of signal interference.

Update your architectural drawings to indicate the final placement of all wireless APs. Having an accurate AP placement map will assist later during troubleshooting operations or when you want to upgrade or replace APs.

NPS has the ability to configure wireless APs individually or in groups. If the following conditions are met, you can configure the wireless APs that you deploy in groups:

  1. If you are running NPS servers on computers running Windows Server 2012 Enterprise or Windows Server 2012 Datacenter

  2. If you have deployed wireless APs within the same IP address range

  3. And if the wireless APs are all configured with the same shared secret

The advantage of configuring your wireless APs in NPS by groups is that it cuts down on your administrative overhead; which is very useful feature if you have deployed a large number of wireless APs. If you have not deployed your NPS servers on computers running either Windows Server 2012 Enterprise or Windows Server 2012 Datacenter, then you must configure each wireless AP individually in NPS.

In an 802.1X infrastructure, wireless access points are configured as RADIUS clients to RADIUS servers. When PEAP fast reconnect is deployed, a wireless client that roams between two or more access points is not required to be authenticated with each new association. PEAP fast reconnect reduces the response time for authentication between client and authenticator because the authentication request is forwarded from the new access point to the NPS server that originally performed authentication and authorization for the client connection request. Because both the PEAP client and NPS server both use previously cached Transport Layer Security (TLS) connection properties (the collection of which is named the TLS handle), the NPS server can quickly determine that the client is authorized for a reconnect.

ImportantWichtig
For fast reconnect to work, the APs must be configured as RADIUS clients of the same NPS server

If the original NPS server becomes unavailable, or if the client moves to an access point that is configured as a RADIUS client to a different RADIUS server, full authentication must occur between the client and the new authenticator.

The following list summarizes items commonly configured on 802.1X-capable wireless APs:

noteHinweis
The item names can vary by brand and model and might be different from those in the following list. See your wireless AP documentation for configuration-specific details.

  • Service set identifier (SSID). This is the name of the wireless network (for example, ExampleWlan), and the name that is advertised to wireless clients. To reduce confusion, the SSID that you choose to advertise should not match the SSID that is broadcast by any wireless networks that are within reception range of your wireless network.

    In cases in which multiple wireless APs are deployed as part of the same wireless network, configure each wireless AP with the same SSID. In cases in which multiple wireless APs are deployed as part of the same wireless network, configure each wireless AP with the same SSID.

    In cases where you have a need to deploy different wireless networks to meet specific business needs, your wireless AP’s on one network should broadcast a different SSID than the SSID your other network(s). For example, if you need a separate wireless network for your employees and guests, you could configure your wireless APs for the business network with the SSID set to broadcast ExampleWLAN. For your guest network, you could then set each wireless AP’s SSID to broadcast GuestWLAN. In this way your employees and guests can connect to the intended network without unnecessary confusion.

    TipTipp
    Some wireless AP’s have the ability to broadcast multiple SSID’s to accommodate multi-network deployments. Wireless AP’s that can broadcast multiple SSID’s can reduce deployment and operational maintenance costs.

  • Wireless authentication and encryption.

    Wireless authentication is the security authentication that is used when the wireless client associates with a wireless access point.

    Wireless encryption is the security encryption cipher that is used with wireless authentication to protect the communications that are sent between the wireless AP and the wireless client.

  • Wireless AP IP address (static). Each wireless AP, configure a unique static IP address that falls within the DHCP exclusion range as documented in the Windows Server 2012 Core Network Guide procedure “Creating a new DHCP Scope.”

  • DNS name. Some wireless APs can be configured with a DNS name. Configure each wireless AP with a unique name. For example, if you have a deployed wireless APs in a multi-story building, you might name the first three wireless APs that are deployed on the third floor AP3-01, AP3-02, and AP3-03.

  • Wireless AP subnet mask. Configure the mask to designate which portion of the IP address that is the network ID and which portion of the IP address is the host.

  • AP DHCP service. If your wireless AP has a built-in DHCP service, disable it.

  • RADIUS shared secret. Use a unique RADIUS shared secret for each wireless AP. Each shared secret should be a random sequence at least 22 characters long of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and punctuation. To ensure randomness, you can use a random character generation program to create your shared secrets. It is recommended that you record the shared secret for each wireless AP and store it in a secure location, such as an office safe. When you configure RADIUS clients in the NPS console you will create a virtual version of each AP. The shared secret that you configure on each virtual AP in NPS must match the shared secret on the actual, physical AP.

  • RADIUS server IP address. Type the IP address of the NPS server that you want to use to authenticate and authorize connection requests to this access point...

  • UDP port(s). By default, NPS uses UDP ports 1812 and 1645 for RADIUS authentication messages and UDP ports 1813 and 1646 for RADIUS accounting messages. It is recommended that you do not change the default RADIUS UDP ports settings.

  • VSAs. Some wireless APs require vendor-specific attributes (VSAs) to provide full wireless AP functionality.

  • DHCP filtering. Configure wireless APs to block wireless clients from sending IP packets from UDP port 68 to the network. See the documentation for your wireless AP to configure DHCP filtering.

  • DNS filtering. Configure wireless APs to block wireless clients from sending IP packets from TCP or UDP port 53 to the network. See the documentation for your wireless AP to configure DNS filtering.

When planning the deployment of 802.1X-authenticated wireless access, you must consider several client-specific factors:

  • Planning support for multiple standards.

    Determine whether your wireless computers are all using the same version of Windows. For example, determine whether all of your wireless client computers all running Windows 8, or whether your wireless deployment include have a mixture of computers running Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista and Windows XP.

    Determine whether all of the wireless network adapters on all of the wireless client computers support the same wireless standards, or whether you need to support varying standards. For example, determine whether some network adapter hardware drivers support WPA2-Enterprise and AES, while others support only WPA-Enterprise and TKIP.

  • Planning client authentication mode. Authentication modes define how Windows clients process domain credentials. You can select from the following three network authentication modes in the wireless network policies.

    1. User re-authentication This mode specifies that authentication is always performed by using security credentials based on the computer's current state. When no users are logged on to the computer, authentication is performed by using the computer credentials. When a user is logged on to the computer, authentication is always performed by using the user credentials.

    2. Computer only Computer only mode specifies that authentication is always performed by using only the computer credentials.

    3. User authentication User authentication mode specifies that authentication is only performed when the user is logged on to the computer. When there are no users logged on to the computer, authentication attempts are not performed.

  • Planning wireless restrictions. Determine whether you want to provide all of your wireless users with the same level of access to your wireless network, or whether you want to restrict access for some of your wireless users. You can apply restrictions in NPS against specific groups of wireless users. For example, you can define specific days and hours that certain groups are permitted access the wireless network.

  • Planning methods for adding new wireless computers. For wireless-capable computers that are joined to your domain before you deploy your wireless network, if the computer is connected to a segment of the wired network that is not protected by 802.1X, the wireless configuration settings are automatically applied on those computers after you configure Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies and Group Policy is refreshed.

    For computers that are not already joined to your domain, however, you must plan a method to apply the settings that are required for 802.1X-authenticated access. For example, determine whether you want to join the computer to the domain by:

    1. Connecting the computer to a segment of the wired network that is not protected by 802.1X, the joining the computer to the domain

    2. Provide your wireless users with the steps and settings that they require to add their own wireless bootstrap profile, and the join the computer to the domain

    3. Having the configuration performed by members of your IT staff

In Windows Server 2012, the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies extension in Group Policy provides a wide range of configuration options to support a variety of deployment options. You can deploy wireless APs that are configured with the standards that you want to support, and then configuring multiple wireless profiles in Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies, with each profile specifying one of the required set of standards.

For example, if your network has wireless computers that support WPA2-Enterprise and AES, other computers that support WPA-Enterprise and AES, while other computers support only WPA-Enterprise and TKIP, you must determine whether you want to:

  • Configure a single profile to support all of the wireless computers using the weakest encryption but which all of your computer can use; in this case, WPA-Enterprise and TKIP.

  • Configure two profiles to provide the best possible security that is supported by each wireless computer. In this instance you would configure one profile that specifies the strongest encryption (WPA2-Enterprise and AES), and one profile that uses the weaker WPA-Enterprise and TKIP encryption. In this example, it is essential that you place the profile that uses WPA2-Enterprise and AES highest in the preference order. Computers that are not capable of using WPA2-Enterprise and AES will automatically skip to the next profile in the preference order and process the profile that specifies WPA-Enterprise and TKIP.

ImportantWichtig
The profile with the most secure standards should be placed higher in the list because connecting computers will use the first profile that they are capable of using.

In many cases, you might want to provide wireless users with varying levels of access to the wireless network. For example, you might want to allow some users unrestricted access, any hour of the day, every day of the week. For other users, you might only want to allow access during core hours, Monday through Friday, and deny access on Saturday and Sunday.

This guide provides instructions to create an access environment that places all of your wireless users in a group with common access to wireless resources. You create one wireless users security group in the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in, and then make every user for whom you want to grant wireless access – a member of that group. When you configure NPS network policies, you specify the wireless users security group as the object that NPS processes when determining authorization.

However, if your deployment requires support for varying levels of access you need only do the following:

  1. Follow the procedure Create a Wireless Users Security Group in this guide, to create additional wireless security groups in Active Directory Users and Computers, each security group specifying a unique name.

  2. Follow the procedure Add Users to the Wireless Security Group to make each user a member of the appropriate security group.

  3. Follow the procedure Create NPS Policies for 802.1X Wireless Using a Wizard to configure an additional set of NPS policies for each additional wireless security group. In step 9 of the procedure, in Specify User Groups, click Add, and then type the name of the security group that you configured in Active Directory Users and Computers.

The preferred method to join new wireless computers to the domain and then log on to the domain is by using a wired connection to a segment of the LAN that has access to domain controllers, and is not protected by an 802.1X authenticating Ethernet switch.

In some cases, however, it might not be practical to use a wired connection to join computers to the domain, or, for a user to use a wired connection for their first logon attempt by using computers that are already joined to the domain. To join a computer to the domain by using a wireless connection or for users to logon to the domain the first time by using a domain-joined computer and a wireless connection, wireless clients must first establish a connection to the wireless network on a segment that has access to the network domain controllers.

For more information about the steps to join computers to the domain by using a wired connection, and to log on to the domain by using a wired connection, see the Windows Server 2012 Core Network Guide, in the section titled Joining computers to the Domain and Logging On. The Windows Server 2012 Core Network Guide is available for download in Word formant at the Microsoft Download Center (http://www.microsoft.com/download/details.aspx?id=29248) and in HTML format in the Windows Server 2012 Technical Library (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh911995.aspx).

This guide provides the following methods to configure wireless computers running Windows Vista with wireless profiles that users can use to either join the computer to the domain by using a wireless connection, or to log on to the domain by using a wireless connection and a computer that is already joined to the domain:

  1. A member of the IT staff joins a wireless computer to the domain, and then configures a Single Sign On bootstrap wireless profile. In this method, an IT administrator connects the wireless computer to the wired Ethernet network, and then joins the computer to the domain. Then the administrator distributes the computer to the user. When the user starts the computer, the domain credentials that they manually specify for the user logon process are used to both establish a connection to the wireless network and log on to the domain.

  2. The user manually configures wireless computer with bootstrap wireless profile, and then joins the domain. In this method, users manually configure their wireless computers with a bootstrap wireless profile based on instructions from an IT administrator. The bootstrap wireless profile allows users to establish a wireless connection, and then join the computer to the domain. After joining the computer to the domain and restarting the computer, the user can log on to the domain by using a wireless connection and their domain account credentials.

Follow these steps to deploy and configure your wireless APs:

noteHinweis
The procedures in this guide do not include instructions for cases in which the User Account Control dialog box opens to request your permission to continue. If this dialog box opens while you are performing the procedures in this guide, and if the dialog box was opened in response to your actions, click Continue.

When you deploy multiple wireless APs at a single geographical site, you must configure wireless APs that have overlapping signals to use unique channel frequencies to reduce interference between wireless APs.

  1. If there are other organizations that have offices in close proximity or in the same building as your organization, identify whether there are any wireless networks owned those organizations. Find out both the placement and the assigned channel frequencies of their wireless AP’s, because you need to assign different channel frequencies to your AP’s and you need to determine the best location to install your AP’s.

  2. Identify overlapping wireless signals on adjacent floors within your own organization. After identifying overlapping coverage areas outside and within your organization, assign channel frequencies for your wireless APs, ensuring that any two wireless APs with overlapping coverage are assigned different channel frequencies.

Use this information with the product documentation provided by the wireless AP manufacturer to configure your wireless APs.

This procedure enumerates items commonly configured on a wireless AP. The item names can vary by brand and model and might be different from those listed in the following list. For configuration-specific details, see your wireless AP documentation.

  • SSID. Specify the name of the wireless network(s) (for example, ExampleWLAN). This is the name that is advertised to wireless clients.

  • Encryption. Specify WPA2-Enterprise (preferred) or WPA-Enterprise, and either AES (preferred) or TKIP encryption cipher, depending on which versions are supported by your wireless client computer network adapters.

  • Wireless AP IP address (static). On each AP, configure a unique static IP address that falls within the exclusion range of the DHCP scope. Using an address that is excluded from assignment by DHCP prevents the DHCP server from assigning the same IP address to a computer or other device.

  • Subnet mask. Configure this to match the subnet mask settings of the LAN to which you have connected the wireless AP.

  • DNS name. Some wireless APs can be configured with a DNS name. The DNS service on the network can resolve DNS names to an IP address. On each wireless AP that supports this feature, enter a unique name for DNS resolution.

  • DHCP service. If your wireless AP has a built-in DHCP service, disable it.

  • RADIUS shared secret. Use a unique RADIUS shared secret for each wireless AP. Each shared secret should be a random sequence at least 22 characters long of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and punctuation. To ensure randomness, you can use a random character generation, such as the random character generator found in the NPS Configure 802.1X wizard, to create the shared secrets.

    TipTipp
    Record the shared secret for each wireless AP and store it in a secure location, such as an office safe. You must know the shared secret for each wireless AP when you configure RADIUS clients in the NPS.

  • RADIUS server IP address. Type the IP address of the server running NPS.

  • UDP port(s). By default, NPS uses UDP ports 1812 and 1645 for authentication messages and UDP ports 1813 and 1646 for accounting messages.

    TipTipp
    Do not change the default RADIUS UDP port settings.

  • VSAs. Some wireless APs require vendor-specific attributes (VSAs) to provide full wireless AP functionality. VSAs are added in NPS network policy.

  • DHCP filtering. Configure wireless APs to block wireless clients from sending IP packets from UDP port 68 to the network, as documented by the wireless AP manufacturer.

  • DNS filtering. Configure wireless APs to block wireless clients from sending IP packets from TCP or UDP port 53 to the network, as documented by the wireless AP manufacturer.

Follow these steps to create one or more wireless users security groups, and then add users to the appropriate wireless users security group:

You can use this procedure to create a wireless security group in the Active Directory Users and Computers Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to perform this procedure.

  1. Click Start, click Administrative Tools, and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. The Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in opens. If it is not already selected, click the node for your domain. For example, if your domain is example.com, click example.com.

  2. In the details pane, right-click the folder in which you want to add a new group (for example, right-click Users), point to New, and then click Group.

  3. In New Object – Group, in Group name, type the name of the new group. For example, type Wireless Group.

  4. In Group scope, select one of the following options:

    • Domain local

    • Global

    • Universal

  5. In Group type, select Security.

  6. Click OK.

You can use this procedure to add a user, computer, or group to your wireless security group in the Active Directory Users and Computers Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent is the minimum required to perform this procedure.

  1. Click Start, click Administrative Tools, and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. The Active Directory Users and Computers MMC opens. If it is not already selected, click the node for your domain. For example, if your domain is example.com, click example.com.

  2. In the details pane, double-click the folder that contains your wireless security group.

  3. In the details pane, right-click the wireless security group, and then click Properties. The Properties dialog box for the security group opens.

  4. On the Members tab, click Add, and then complete one of the following procedures:

  1. In Enter the object names to select, type the name of the user or group that you want to add, and then click OK.

  2. To assign group membership to other users or groups, repeat step 1 of this procedure.

  1. Click Object Types. The Object Types dialog box opens.

  2. In Object types, select Computers, and then click OK.

  3. In Enter the object names to select, type the name of the computer that you want to add, and then click OK.

  4. To assign group membership to other computers, repeat steps 1-3 of this procedure.

Follow these steps to configure Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Group Policy extension:

By default, the Group Policy Management feature is installed on computers running Windows Server 2012 when the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) server role is installed. The procedure that follows describes how to open the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) on your domain controller running Windows Server 2012. The procedure then describes how to either open an existing domain-level Group Policy object (GPO) for editing, or create a new domain GPO and open it for editing.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to perform this procedure.

  1. On your Windows Server 2012 domain controller, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then double-click Group Policy Management. The Group Policy Management Console opens.

  2. In the left pane, double-click your forest. For example, double-click Forest: example.com.

  3. In the left pane, double-click Domains, and then double-click the domain for which you want to manage a Group Policy object. For example, double-click example.com.

  4. Do one of the following:

    • To open an existing domain-level GPO for editing, double click the domain that contains the Group Policy object that you want to manage, right-click the domain policy you want to manage, and then click Edit.

    • To create a new Group Policy object and open for editing, right-click the domain for which you want to create a new Group Policy object, and then click Create a GPO in this domain, and Link it here.

      In New GPO, in Name, type a name for the new Group Policy object, and then click OK.

      Right-click your new Group Policy object, and then click Edit. Group Policy Management Editor opens.

This procedure describes how to activate the default Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies by using the Group Policy Management Editor (GPME).

noteHinweis
After you activate either the Windows Vista version of the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies or the Windows XP version, it is removed from the list of options when you right-click Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies, and it is added in the details pane of the GPME when you select the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies node. This state remains until the wireless policy is deleted, at which time the wireless policy returns to the menu when you right-click Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies in the GPME. Additionally, the Windows Vista and Windows XP wireless policies are only listed in the GPME details pane when the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies node is selected.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to perform this procedure.

  1. On your Windows Server 2012 domain controller, do one of the following:

    • If Group Policy Management Editor is already open, proceed to step 2.

    • If GPME is not already open, do the following:

      1. Click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then double-click Group Policy Management. The Group Policy Management Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in opens.

      2. In the left pane, double-click your forest. For example, double-click Forest: example.com.

      3. In the left pane, double-click Domains, and then double-click the domain in which you want to manage a Group Policy object (GPO). For example, double-click example.com.

      4. Right-click the domain-level GPO you want to manage, and then click Edit. The Group Policy Management Editor MMC opens. Proceed to step 2.

  2. In the GPME, in the left pane, double-click Computer Configuration, double-click Policies, double-click Windows Settings, and then double-click Security Settings.

  3. In Security Settings, right-click Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies, and then click either Create a new Wireless Policy for Windows Vista and Later Releases or Create a new Windows XP Policy. The properties dialog box opens for the policy you selected.

  4. Click OK. The default policy is activated and listed in the details pane of the GPME.

To access the properties of a policy you have already created, select Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies. In the details pane, right-click either the Windows Vista or Windows XP policy that you want to modify, and then click Properties.

You can use this procedure to open activated Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies for editing. If a policy was previously activated, you do not need to perform this step.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure.

  1. On your Windows Server 2012 domain controller, if Group Policy Management Editor is not already open, do the following: click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Group Policy Management. The Group Policy Management Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in opens.

  2. In the left pane, double-click your forest. For example, double-click Forest: example.com.

  3. In the left pane, double-click Domains, and then double-click the domain in which you want to manage a Group Policy object. For example, double-click example.com.

  4. Right-click the Group Policy object you want to manage, and then click Edit. For example, right-click Default Domain Policy, and then click Edit. The Group Policy Management Editor opens.

    noteHinweis
    The Group Policy object that you select must be the same object that you specified when you activated the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies.

  5. In Group Policy Management Editor, in the right pane, if it is not already expanded, double-click Computer Configuration, double-click Policies, double-click Windows Settings, double-click Security Settings, and then select Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies.

  6. In the details pane: right-click either New Wireless Network Policy or New XP Wireless Network Policy, and then click Properties. The properties dialog box for the policy you selected opens.

    1. To open the Windows Vista policy, right-click New Wireless Network Policy, and then click Properties. The New Wireless Network Policy Properties dialog opens.

    2. To open the Windows XP policy, right click New XP Wireless Network Policy, and then click Properties. The New XP Wireless Network Policy Properties opens.

    noteHinweis
    Wireless network policies are not necessarily listed as New Wireless Network Policy or New XP Wireless Network Policy in the details pane of the Group Policy Management Editor. If the default policy name was previously changed from to another name, the name change is reflected in the Group Policy Management Editor details pane, but with the Type specified as either Vista or XP.

Use the procedures in this section to configure Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies for client computers running Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista that connect to your wireless network by using 802.1X-capable wireless access points (APs). This policy enables you to configure security and authentication settings, manage wireless profiles, and specify permissions for wireless networks that are not configured as preferred networks.

This procedure provides the steps required to configure a PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 wireless profile.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure.

  1. If you have not already done so, use the steps in the topic Open Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies for Editing to open the Windows Vista New Wireless Network Policy Properties dialog.

  2. On your domain controller running Windows Server 2012, in New Wireless Network Policy Properties, on the General tab, in the Policy Name field, type a name for the policy, or accept the default name.

    TipTipp
    If you change the default policy name, New Wireless Network Policy, then both the New Wireless Network Policy Properties dialog and the activated policy module in Group Policy Management Editor will change to match the new policy name.

  3. In Description, type a brief description for the policy.

  4. To specify that WLAN AutoConfig is used to configure wireless network adapter settings, select Use Windows WLAN AutoConfig service for clients.

  5. On the General tab, do one of the following:

    • To add and configure a new profile, click Add, and then select Infrastructure.

    • To edit an existing profile, select the profile you want to modify, and then click Edit. The New Profile properties dialog opens.

  6. On the Connection tab, in the Profile Name field:

    1. If you are adding a new profile, it is recommended that you type a new name for the profile. For example, type Example.com WLAN Profile for Windows Vista.

    2. If you are editing a profile that is already added, use the existing profile name, or modify the name as needed.

  7. In Network Name(s) (SSID), type the SSID that corresponds to the SSID configured on your wireless APs, and then click Add.

    If your deployment uses multiple SSIDs and each wireless AP uses the same wireless security settings, repeat this step to add the SSID for each wireless AP to which you want this profile to apply.

    If your deployment uses multiple SSIDs and the security settings for each SSID do not match, configure a separate profile for each group of SSIDs that use the same security settings. For example, if you have one group of wireless APs configured to use WPA2-Enterprise and AES, and another group of wireless APs to use WPA-Enterprise and TKIP, configure a profile for each group of wireless APs.

  8. If NEWSSID is present, select it, and then click Remove.

  9. If you deployed wireless access points that are configured to suppress the broadcast beacon, select Connect even if the network is not broadcasting.

    noteHinweis
    Enabling this option can create a security risk because wireless clients will probe for and attempt connections to any wireless network. By default, this setting is not enabled.

  10. Click the Security tab, click Advanced, and then configure the following:

    1. To configure advanced 802.1X settings, in IEEE 802.1X, select Enforce advanced 802.1X settings.

      When the advanced 802.1X settings are enforced, the default values for Max Eapol-Start Msgs, Held Period, Start Period, and Auth Period are sufficient for typical wireless deployments.

    2. To enable Single Sign On, select Enable Single Sign On for this network.

    3. The remaining default values in Single Sign On are sufficient for typical wireless deployments.

    4. In Fast Roaming, select This network uses pre-authentication, if your wireless AP is configured for pre-authentication.

  11. To specify that wireless communications meet FIPS 140-2 standards, select Perform cryptography in FIPS 140-2 certified mode.

  12. Click OK to return to the Security tab. In Select the security methods for this network, in Authentication, select WPA2-Enterprise if it is supported by your wireless AP and wireless client network adapters. Otherwise, select WPA-Enterprise.

  13. In Encryption, select AES, if it is supported by your wireless AP and wireless client network adapters. Otherwise, select TKIP.

    noteHinweis
    The settings for both Authentication and Encryption must match the settings configured on your wireless AP. The default settings for Authentication Mode, Max Authentication Failures, and Cache user information for subsequent connections to this network are sufficient for typical wireless deployments.

  14. In Select a network authentication method, select Protected EAP (PEAP), and then click Properties. The Protected EAP Properties page opens.

  15. In Protected EAP Properties, confirm that Verify the server’s identity by validating the certificate is selected.

  16. In Trusted Root Certification Authorities, select the trusted root certification authority (CA) that issued the server certificate to your NPS server.

    noteHinweis
    This setting limits the root CAs that clients trust to the selected CAs. If no trusted root CAs are selected, then clients will trust all root CAs listed in their trusted root certification authority store.

  17. In the Select Authentication Method list, select Secured password (EAP-MS-CHAP v2).

  18. To enable PEAP Fast Reconnect, select Enable Fast Reconnect.

  19. If Network Access Protection (NAP) is configured on your network, select Network Access Protection. Otherwise, clear this check box.

  20. To require server cryptobinding TLV on connection attempts, select Disconnect if server does not present cryptobinding TLV.

  21. To specify that user identity is masked in phase one of authentication, select Enable Identity Privacy, and in the textbox, type an anonymous identity name, or leave the textbox blank.

    TipTipp
    The NPS policy for 802.1X Wireless must be created by using NPS Connection Request Policy. If the NPS policy is created in by using NPS Network Policy, then identity privacy will not work.

    noteHinweis
    EAP identity privacy is provided by certain EAP methods where an empty or an anonymous identity (different from the actual identity) is sent in response to the EAP identity request. PEAP sends the identity twice during the authentication. In the first phase, the identity is sent in plain text and this identity is used for routing purposes, not for client authentication. The real identity—used for authentication—is sent during the second phase of the authentication, within the secure tunnel that is established in the first phase. If Enable Identity Privacy checkbox is selected, the username is replaced with the entry specified in the textbox. For example, assume Enable Identity Privacy is selected and the identity privacy alias anonymous is specified in the textbox. For a user with a real identity alias jdoe@example.com, the identity sent in first phase of authentication will be changed to anonymous@example.com. The realm portion of the 1st phase identity is not modified as it is used for routing purposes.

  22. Click Configure. In the EAP MSCHAPv2 Properties dialog box, verify Automatically use my Windows logon name and password (and domain if any) is selected, click OK, and then click OK to close Protected EAP Properties.

  23. Click OK to close the Security tab, and then click OK again to close the Vista Wireless Network Policy.

This procedure provides the steps to specify the order in which wireless connection profiles are used to connect domain member wireless clients to wireless networks.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure.

  1. On your domain controller running Windows Server 2012, open Vista Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policy Properties.

  2. On the General tab, in Connect to available networks in the order of profiles listed below, select the profile that you want to reposition, and then click either the "up arrow" button or “down arrow” button to move the profile to the desired location in the list.

  3. Repeat step 2 for each profile that you want to reposition in the list.

  4. Click OK to save all changes.

You can configure settings on the Network Permissions tab for your domain members running Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista to which Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies apply. You can only apply these setting for wireless networks that are not configured on the General tab in the Vista Wireless Network Policy Properties page:

  • Allow or deny connections to specific wireless networks that you specify by network type and Service Set Identifier (SSID)

  • Allow or deny connections to ad hoc networks

  • Allow or deny connections to infrastructure networks

  • Allow or deny users to view network types (ad hoc or infrastructure) to which they are denied access

  • Allow or deny users to create a profile that applies to all users

  • Users can only connect to allowed networks by using Group Policy profiles

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete these procedures.

  1. On your domain controller running Windows Server 2012, open Vista Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policy Properties, and then click Network Permissions.

  2. On the Network Permissions tab, click Add. The New Permissions Entry dialog box opens.

  3. In the New Permission Entry dialog box, in the Network Name (SSID) field, type the network SSID of the network for which you want to define permissions.

  4. In Network Type, select Infrastructure or Ad hoc.

    noteHinweis
    If you are uncertain whether the broadcasting network is an infrastructure or ad hoc network, you can configure two network permission entries, one for each network type.

  5. In Permission, select Allow or Deny.

  6. Click OK, to return to the Network Permissions tab.

  1. On the Network Permissions tab, configure any or all of the following:

    • To deny your domain members running Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista access to ad hoc networks, select Prevent connections to ad-hoc networks.

    • To deny your domain members running Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista access to infrastructure networks, select Prevent connections to infrastructure networks.

    • To allow your domain members running Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista to view network types (ad hoc or infrastructure) to which they are denied access, select Allow user to view denied networks.

    • To allow users of computers that are running Windows 8, Windows 7 or Windows Vista to create profiles that apply to all users, select Allow everyone to create all user profiles.

    • To specify that your users can only connect to allowed networks by using Group Policy profiles, select Only use Group Policy profiles for allowed networks.

  1. To block users from hosting a wireless network on computers running Windows 7 that are equipped with wireless network adapters that support the Soft Access Point and Virtual Wi-Fi capability, select Don’t allow hosted networks.

    noteHinweis
    Computers running Windows Vista are not affected by these Windows 7 settings.

  2. To deny users with computers running Windows 7 to enter and store their domain credentials (username and password) which the computer can then use to authenticate to the network (even though the user is not actively logged on), in Windows 7 Policy Settings, select Don’t allow shared user credentials for network authentication.

    noteHinweis
    Shared user credentials can be allowed to enable the computer to reconnect to the network after the computer is restarted. This enables the computer to continue to receive updates, such as those made through Group Policy and Windows Updates, during extended periods when a user is not actively logged on to the computer.

  3. To specify the duration for which computers running Windows 7 are prohibited from making auto connection attempts to the network, select Enable Block Period, and in Block Period (minutes), specify the number of minutes for which you want the block period to apply. The valid range of minutes is 1-60.

    noteHinweis
    For more information about the settings on any tab, press F1 while viewing that tab.

  4. Click OK to save the settings, and close the Network Permissions tab.

Use the procedures in this section to configure Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies for client computers running Windows XP that connect to your wireless network by using 802.1X-capable wireless access points (APs).

This procedure provides the steps required to configure a PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 wireless profile for computers running Windows XP.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure.

  1. If you have not already done so, use the steps in the topic Open Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies for Editing to open the XP Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Properties page.

  2. On the General tab of the policy properties, in XP Policy Name, type a name for the policy, or leave the default name. In Description, type a brief description of the policy.

    noteHinweis
    For conceptual information about the settings on any tab of Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies, press F1 while viewing that tab.

  3. In Networks to access, select either Any available network (wireless AP preferred) or Access Point (infrastructure) network only.

  4. To specify that WLAN AutoConfig is used to configure wireless network adapter settings, select Use Windows WLAN AutoConfig service for clients.

  5. To allow clients to automatically connect to networks that are not specifically defined on the Preferred Networks tab, select Automatically connect to non-preferred networks.

  6. On the Preferred Networks tab, in Networks, click Add, and then select Infrastructure. The Network Properties dialog box opens.

  7. On the Network Properties dialog box, in Network Name (SSID), type the Service Set Identifier (SSID) that corresponds with the SSID configured on the wireless access point (AP).

  8. In Description, enter a description for the wireless network.

  9. If you deployed wireless APs that are configured to suppress the broadcast beacon frames, select Connect even if network is not broadcasting.

    noteHinweis
    Enabling this option can create a security risk because wireless clients will probe for and attempt connections to any wireless network. By default, this setting is not enabled.

  10. In Select the security methods for this network, in Authentication, select either WPA2 or WPA, and then in Encryption, specify either AES or TKIP.

    Additional considerations for these settings:

    1. In the XP Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policy, WPA2 and WPA correspond to the Windows Vista Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policy settings, WPA2-Enterprise and WPA-Enterprise settings, respectively.

    2. WPA2 is preferred over WPA; AES is preferred over TKIP. However, not all wireless network adapter drivers in Windows XP and Windows Vista support WPA2 or AES.

    3. Selecting WPA2 exposes additional settings for Fast Roaming that are not provided by WPA. The default settings for Fast Roaming are sufficient for typical deployments.

    4. Although available, do not select either WPA2-PSK or WPA-PSK. WPA2-PSK and WPA-PSK are intended for small office and home office networks, and cannot be used in this scenario.

  11. Click the IEEE 802.1X tab. In EAP type, by default, Protected EAP (PEAP) is selected.

  12. Click Settings. The Protected EAP Properties page opens.

  13. On the Protected EAP Properties page, in When Connecting, do the following:

    1. To specify that wireless clients must verify the authenticity of the NPS server certificate, select Verify the server’s identity by validating the certificate (recommended).

    2. To specify which RADIUS servers wireless clients must use to provide network authentication and authorization, type the name of each NPS server exactly as it appears in the Subject field of each RADIUS server’s certificate.

    3. In Trusted Root Certification Authorities, select the trusted root certification authority corresponding to your NPS server certificate. For example, if your domain CA in example.com is named CA-01, select example-CA-01-CA.

    4. Click OK to close the Protected EAP Properties page, and then click OK to close the XP Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Properties page.

Follow these steps to configure NPS to perform 802.1X authentication for wireless access:

You can use this procedure to register a server running Network Policy Server (NPS) in Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) in the domain where the NPS server is a member. For NPS servers to be granted permission to read the dial-in properties of user accounts during the authorization process, each NPS server must be registered in AD DS. Registering an NPS server adds the server to the RAS and IAS Servers security group in AD DS.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure.

  1. On your NPS server, click Start, click Administrative Tools, and then click Network Policy Server. The NPS snap-in opens.

  2. Right-click NPS (Local), and then click Register Server in Active Directory. The Network Policy Server dialog box opens.

  3. In Network Policy Server, click OK, and then click OK again.

Use this procedure to configure a wireless access point (AP), also known as a network access server (NAS), as a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) client by using the NPS snap-in. Unless your NPS servers are running Windows Server 2012 Enterprise or Windows Server 2012 Datacenter, you must repeat this procedure for every wireless AP that you deploy on your network.

ImportantWichtig
Client computers, such as wireless portable computers and other computers running client operating systems, are not RADIUS clients. RADIUS clients are network access servers—such as wireless access points, 802.1X-capable switches, virtual private network (VPN) servers, and dial-up servers—because they use the RADIUS protocol to communicate with RADIUS servers such as Network Policy Server (NPS) servers.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure.

  1. On the NPS server, click Start, click Administrative Tools, and then click Network Policy Server. The NPS snap-in opens.

  2. In the NPS snap-in, double-click RADIUS Clients and Servers. Right-click RADIUS Clients, and then click New.

  3. In New RADIUS Client, verify that the Enable this RADIUS client check box is selected.

  4. In New RADIUS Client, in Friendly name, type a display name for the wireless access point.

    TipTipp
    In NPS a wireless access point is one type of device that falls within a group called network access server (NAS).

    For example, if you want to add a wireless access point (AP) named AP-01, type AP-01.

  5. In Address (IP or DNS), type the IP address or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the NAS.

    If you enter the FQDN, to verify that the name is correct and maps to a valid IP address, click Verify, and then in Verify Address, in the Address field, click Resolve. If the FQDN name maps to a valid IP address, the IP address of that NAS will automatically appear in IP address. If the FQDN does not resolve to an IP address you will receive a message indicating that no such host is known. If this occurs, verify that you have the correct AP name and that the AP is powered on and connected to the network.

    Click OK to close Verify Address.

  6. In New RADIUS Client, in Shared Secret, do one of the following:

    • To manually configure a RADIUS shared secret, select Manual, and then in Shared secret, type the strong password that is also entered on the NAS. Retype the shared secret in Confirm shared secret.

    • To automatically generate a shared secret, select the Generate check box, and then click the Generate button. Save the generated shared secret, and then use that value to configure the NAS so that it can communicate with the NPS server.

      ImportantWichtig
      The RADIUS shared secret that you enter for your virtual AP’s in NPS must exactly match the RADIUS shared secret that is configured on your actual wireless AP’s. If you use the NPS option to generate a RADIUS shared secret, then you must configure the matching actual wireless AP with the RADIUS shared secret that was generated by NPS.

  7. In New RADIUS Client, on the Advanced tab, in Vendor name, specify the NAS manufacturer name. If you are not sure of the NAS manufacturer name, select RADIUS standard.

  8. In Additional Options, if you are using any authentication methods other than EAP and PEAP, and if your NAS supports the use of the message authenticator attribute, select Access Request messages must contain the Message-Authenticator attribute.

  9. If you plan on deploying Network Access Protection (NAP) and your NAS supports NAP, select RADIUS client is NAP-capable.

  10. Click OK. Your NAS appears in the list of RADIUS clients configured on the NPS server.

You can use this procedure to create the connection request policies and network policies required to deploy either 802.1X-capable wireless access points as Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) clients to the RADIUS server running Network Policy Server (NPS).

ImportantWichtig
Client computers, such as wireless portable computers and other computers running client operating systems, are not RADIUS clients. RADIUS clients are network access servers—such as wireless access points, 802.1X-capable switches, virtual private network (VPN) servers, and dial-up servers—because they use the RADIUS protocol to communicate with RADIUS servers such as Network Policy Server (NPS) servers.

After you run the wizard, the following policies are created:

  • One connection request policy

  • One network policy

noteHinweis
You can run the New IEEE 802.1X Secure Wired and Wireless Connections wizard every time you need to create new policies for 802.1X authenticated access.

Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure.

  1. Open the NPS snap-in. If it is not already selected, click NPS (Local). If you are running the NPS MMC snap-in and want to create policies on a remote NPS server, select the server.

  2. In Getting Started, in Standard Configuration, select RADIUS server for 802.1X Wireless or Wired Connections. The text and links below the text change to reflect your selection.

  3. Click Configure 802.1X. The Configure 802.1X wizard opens.

  4. On the Select 802.1X Connections Type wizard page, in Type of 802.1X connections, select Secure Wireless Connections, and in Name, type a name for your policy, or leave the default name Secure Wireless Connections. Click Next.

  5. On the Specify 802.1X Switches wizard page, in RADIUS clients, all 802.1X switches and wireless access points that you have added as RADIUS Clients in the NPS snap-in are shown. Do any of the following:

    • To add additional network access servers (NASs), such as wireless APs, in RADIUS clients, click Add, and then in New RADIUS client, enter the information for: Friendly name, Address (IP or DNS), and Shared Secret.

    • To modify the settings for any NAS, in RADIUS clients, select the AP for which you want to modify the settings, and then click Edit. Modify the settings as required.

    • To remove a NAS from the list, in RADIUS clients, select the NAS, and then click Remove.

      WarningWarnung
      Removing a RADIUS client from within the Configure 802.1X wizard deletes the client from the NPS server configuration. All additions, modifications, and deletions that you make within the Configure 802.1X wizard to RADIUS clients are reflected in the NPS snap-in, in the RADIUS Clients node under NPS / RADIUS Clients and Servers. For example, if you use the wizard to remove an 802.1X switch, the switch is also removed from the NPS snap-in.

  6. Click Next. On the Configure an Authentication Method wizard page, in Type (based on method of access and network configuration), select Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP), and then click Configure.

    TipTipp
    If you receive an error message indicating that a certificate cannot be found for use with the authentication method, and you have configured Active Directory Certificate Services to automatically issue certificates to RAS and IAS servers on your network, first ensure that you have followed the steps to Register NPS in Active Directory Domain Services, then use the following steps to update Group Policy: Click Start, click Run, and in Open, type gpupdate, and the press ENTER. When the command returns results indicating that both user and computer Group Policy have updated successfully, select Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP) again, and then click Configure.

    If after refreshing Group Policy you continue to receive the error message indicating that a certificate cannot be found for use with the authentication method, the certificate is not being displayed because it does not meet the minimum server certificate requirements as documented in the Core Network Companion Guide: Server Certificate Deployment. If this happens, you must discontinue NPS configuration, revoke the certificate issued to your NPS server(s), and then follow the instructions to configure a new certificate by using the version of deployment guide that corresponds to the operating system installed on your CA.

    1. For Windows Server 2012, the Core Network Companion Guide: Server Certificate Deployment, available for download in Word format at the Microsoft Download Center (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=251761) and in HTML format in the Windows 8 Technical Library (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/jj125379.aspx).

    2. For Windows 8, the Core Network Companion Guide: Server Certificate Deployment, available for download in Word format at the Microsoft Download Center (http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=29691) and in HTML format in the Windows 8 Technical Library (http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj125379.aspx).

  7. On the Edit Protected EAP Properties wizard page, in Certificate issued, ensure that the correct NPS server certificate is selected, and then do the following:

    noteHinweis
    Verify that the value in Issuer is correct for the certificate selected in Certificate issued. For example, the expected issuer for a certificate issued by a CA running Windows Server 2012 Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS) named corp-DC1, in the domain contoso.com, is corp-DC1-CA.

    • To allow users to roam with their wireless computers between access points without requiring them to reauthenticate each time they associate with a new AP, select Enable Fast Reconnect.

    • To specify that connecting wireless clients will end the network authentication process if the RADIUS server does not present cryptobinding Type-Length-Value (TLV), select Disconnect Clients without Cryptobinding.

    • To modify the policy settings for the EAP type, in EAP Types, click Edit, in EAP MSCHAPv2 Properties, modify the settings as needed, and then click OK.

  8. Click OK. The Edit Protected EAP Properties dialog box closes, returning you to the Configure 802.1X wizard. Click Next.

  9. In Specify User Groups, click Add, and then type the name of the security group that you configured for your wireless clients in the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in. For example, if you named your wireless security group Wireless Group, type Wireless Group. Click Next.

  10. Click Configure to configure RADIUS standard attributes and vendor-specific attributes for virtual LAN (VLAN) as needed, and as specified by the documentation provided by your wireless AP hardware vendor. Click Next.

  11. Review the configuration summary details, and then click Finish.

The easiest method to join new wireless computers that are running Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, or Windows XP to the domain is to physically attach the computer to a segment of the wired LAN (a segment not controlled by an 802.1X switch) before joining the computer to the domain. This is easiest because wireless group policy settings are automatically and immediately applied and, if you have deployed your own PKI, the computer receives the CA certificate and stores it in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store, allowing the wireless client to trust NPS servers with server certs issued by your CA.

Likewise, after a new wireless computer is joined to the domain, the preferred method for users to log on to the domain is to perform log on by using a wired connection to the network.

Computers running Windows Vista

In cases where it is not practical to join computers running Windows Vista to the domain by using a wired Ethernet connection, or in cases where the user cannot log on to the domain for the first time by using a wired connection, you must use an alternative method. This guide provides the following alternative methods to configure profiles that allow users to join computers to the domain and then log on, or log on to the domain by using a wireless connection:

  • Method 1. A member of the IT staff joins a wireless computer running Windows Vista to the domain and configures a Single Sign On bootstrap wireless profile. In this method, the IT administrator connects the wireless computer to the wired Ethernet network and joins the computer to the domain. Then the administrator distributes the computer to the user. When the user starts the computer without using a wired connection, the domain credentials that they manually specify for the user logon are used to both establish a connection to the wireless network and to log on to the domain.

    For more information, see Join the Domain and Log On by using Wireless Method 1.

  • Method 2. The user manually configures the wireless computer running Windows Vista with bootstrap wireless profile and joins the domain based on instructions from an IT administrator. The bootstrap wireless profile allows the user to establish a wireless connection and then join the domain. After joining the computer to the domain and restarting the computer, the user can log on to the domain by using a wireless connection and their domain account credentials.

    For more information, see Join the Domain and Log On by using Wireless Method 2.

Computers running Windows XP

In cases where it is not practical to either join computers running Windows XP to the domain by using a wired Ethernet connection or the user cannot log on to the domain for the first time by using a wired connection, you must manually configure a connection profile. This guide provides the following alternative methods to configure a profile that allows users to join computers running Windows XP to the domain by using a wireless connection, and then log on to the domain by using a wireless connection:

  • Method 3. The user manually configures the properties of the wireless connection in Network Connections on the wireless computer running Windows XP, based on instructions from an IT administrator. The configuration allows the user to establish a wireless connection and then join the domain. After the computer is joined to the domain and restarted, the user can log on to the domain by using a wireless connection and their domain account credentials. For more information, see Join the Domain and Log On by using Wireless Method 3 .

Domain member users with domain-joined wireless client computers running Windows Vista can use a temporary wireless profile to connect to an 802.1X-authenticated wireless network without first connecting to the wired LAN. This temporary wireless profile, known as a bootstrap wireless profile, requires the user to manually specify their domain user account credentials, and does not validate the certificate of the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server running Network Policy Server (NPS). After establish wireless connectivity, Group Policy is applied on the wireless client computer, and a new wireless profile is issued. The new policy automatically uses the computer and user account credentials for client authentication. Additionally, as part of the PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 mutual authentication, the client validates the credentials of the RADIUS server.

After you join the computer running Windows Vista to the domain, use this procedure to configure a Single Sign On bootstrap wireless profile, before distributing the wireless computer to the domain-member user.

  1. Configure a bootstrap profile by using the procedure Configure a Wireless Connection Profile for PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 with the following settings specified:

    • PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 authentication

    • Validate RADIUS server certificate disabled

    • Single Sign On enabled

  2. In Windows Vista Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies, on the General tab, click Export to export the profile to a network share, USB flash drive, or other easily accessible location.

  3. Join the new wireless computer to the domain (for example, through an Ethernet connection that does not require IEEE 802.1X authentication) and add the bootstrap wireless profile to the computer by using the netsh wlan add profile command.

    noteHinweis
    For more information, see Netsh Commands for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) at http://technet.microsoft.com/library/dd744890.aspx.

  4. Distribute the new wireless computer to the user with the procedure to “Log on to the domain using computers running Windows Vista.”

When the user starts the computer, Windows Vista prompts the user to enter their domain user account name and password. Because Single Sign On is enabled, the computer uses the domain user account credentials to first establish a connection with the wireless network and then log on to the domain.

  1. Log off the computer, or restart the computer.

  2. Press CTRL + ALT + DELETE. The logon screen appears.

  3. Click Switch User, and then click Other User.

  4. In User name, type your domain and user name in the format domain\user. For example, to log on to the domain example.com with an account named User-01, type example\User-01.

  5. In Password, type your domain password, and then click the arrow, or press ENTER.

In this method, you complete the steps in the General steps section, then you provide your domain-member users with the instructions about how to manually configure a wireless computer that is running Windows 8, Windows 7 or Windows Vista® with a bootstrap wireless profile. The bootstrap wireless profile allows the user to establish a wireless connection and then join the domain. After the computer is joined to the domain and restarted, the user can log on to the domain through a wireless connection.

  1. Configure a local computer administrator account, in Control Panel, for the user.

    ImportantWichtig
    To join a computer to a domain, the user must be logged on to the computer with the local Administrator account. Alternatively, the user must provide the credentials for the local Administrator account during the process of joining the computer to the domain. In addition, the user must have a user account in the domain to which the user wants to join the computer. During the process of joining the computer to the domain, the user will be prompted for domain account credentials (user name and password).

  2. Provide your domain users with the instructions for configuring a bootstrap wireless profile, as documented in the following procedure: To configure a Bootstrap Wireless Profile. Additionally, provide the user with both the local computer credentials (user name and password), and domain credentials (domain user account name and password) in the form DomainName\UserName, as well as the procedures to “Join the computer to the domain,” and to “Log on to the domain,” as documented in the Windows 8 Core Network Guide.

noteHinweis
After completing the general steps, provide the following procedures to users at your organization who will connect to your wireless network with computers running Windows 8, Windows 7 or Windows Vista.

  1. Use the credentials provide to you by your network administrator or IT support professional to log on to the computer with the local computers administrator account.

  2. Click Start, click Connect to, and then click Set up a connection or network. The Connect to a Network dialog box opens.

  3. Click Manually connect to a wireless network, and then click Next.

  4. In Manually connect to a wireless network, in Network name, type the SSID name of the AP.

  5. In Security type, select the setting provided by your administrator.

  6. In Encryption type, select the setting provided by your administrator.

  7. Select Start this connection automatically, and then click Next.

  8. In Successfully addedYour Network SSID, click Change connection settings.

  9. Click Change connection settings. The Your Network SSID Wireless Network property dialog box opens.

  10. Click the Security tab, and then in Choose a network authentication method, select Protected EAP (PEAP).

  11. Click Settings. The Protected EAP (PEAP) Properties page opens.

  12. In the Protected EAP (PEAP) Properties page, clear Validate server certificate, click OK twice, and then click Close.

  13. Windows Vista attempts to connect to the wireless network. The settings of the bootstrap wireless profile specify that you must provide your domain credentials. When Windows Vista prompts you for an account name and password, type your domain account credentials as follows: Domain Name\User Name, Domain Password.

  1. Log on to the computer with the local Administrator account.

  2. Click Start, right-click Computer, and then click Properties. The System dialog box opens.

  3. In Computer name, domain, and workgroup settings, click Change settings. The System Properties dialog box opens.

    noteHinweis
    On computers running Windows Vista, before the System Properties dialog box opens, the User Account Control dialog box opens, requesting permission to continue. Click Continue to proceed.

  4. Click Change. The Computer Name/Domain Changes dialog box opens.

  5. In Computer Name, in Member of, select Domain, and then type the name of the domain you want to join. For example, if the domain name is example.com, type example.com.

  6. Click OK. The Windows Security dialog box opens.

  7. In Computer Name/Domain Changes, in User name, type the user name, and in Password, type the password, and then click OK. The Computer Name/Domain Changes dialog box opens, welcoming you to the domain. Click OK.

  8. The Computer Name/Domain Changes dialog box displays a message indicating that you must restart the computer to apply the changes. Click OK.

  9. On the Computer Name tab of the System Properties page, click Close. The Microsoft Windows dialog box opens, and displays a message, again indicating that you must restart the computer to apply the changes. Click Restart Now.

  1. Log off the computer, or restart the computer.

  2. Press CTRL + ALT + DELETE. The logon screen appears.

  3. Click Switch User, and then click Other User.

  4. In User name, type your domain and user name in the format domain\user. For example, to log on to the domain example.com with an account named User-01, type example\User-01.

  5. In Password, type your domain password, and then click the arrow, or press ENTER.

In this method, users manually configure the wireless connection settings on computers that are running Windows XP, based on instructions that you provide them. The configuration allows users to establish a wireless connection and then join the domain. After the computer is joined to the domain and restarted, users can log on to the domain by using a wireless connection and their domain account credentials.

  1. The IT administrator configures a local computer administrator account, in Control Panel, for the user.

    ImportantWichtig
    To configure the necessary wireless connection settings and join a computer to a domain, the user must be logged on to the computer with a local Administrator account. In addition, the user must have a user account in the domain to which the user wants to join the computer. During the process of joining the computer to the domain, the user will be prompted for domain account credentials (user name and password).

  2. The IT administrator provides the user with the following items:

    • A wireless computer running Windows XP with Service Pack 2.

    • The instructions to manually configure the wireless connection settings in the properties of the wireless connection in Network Connections, as documented in the procedure that follows, “Manually configure wireless connection settings for Windows XP.”

      When you (the IT administrator) give your users the instructions to manually configure their wireless connection settings, you must provide the following values for your wireless network:

      • Network name (SSID): Specify the service set identifier for your wireless network.

      • Connect even if this network is not broadcasting: Specify whether to clear this check box if your wireless APs are not configured to suppress the broadcast beacon or to select this check box if your wireless APs are configured to suppress the broadcast beacon.

      • Network Authentication: Specify Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) or WPA2.

      • Data encryption: Specify Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) or Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

      • Validate server certificate: Specify whether to clear this check box if you have deployed a private certification authority (CA) on your network to issue server certificates to your NPS servers or whether to select this check box if you have purchased server certificates for your servers running Network Policy Server (NPS) from a public CA which are already trusted by your network clients.

      • Trusted Root Certification Authorities: Specify the name of the CA that issued the server certificate to your NPS server.

        TipTipp
        The procedure “Manually configure wireless connection settings for Windows XP” provides a step to specify the CA that issued server certificates to your NPS servers. To simplify the instructions given to your users for configuring wireless connection settings, retain this step regardless of whether Validate server certificate is selected or cleared.

    • Both the local computer credentials (user name and password), and domain credentials (domain user account name and password) in the form DomainName\UserName.

    • The procedures about joining the computer to the domain, and about logging on to the domain, which are provided later in this topic and documented in the Windows 8 Foundation Network Guide.

  1. Log on to the computer with your local computer Administrator account.

  2. Click Start, point to Connect To, and then click Show all connections. Network Connections opens.

  3. In Network Connections, in LAN or High-Speed Internet, right-click your wireless network connection, and then click Properties. The Wireless Network Connection Properties dialog box opens.

  4. In Wireless Network Connection Properties, click the Wireless Networks tab.

  5. On the Wireless Networks tab, click Add. The Wireless Network properties dialog box opens.

  6. On the Association tab, in Network name (SSID), type the SSID value specified by your administrator.

  7. In Connect even if this network is not broadcasting, select or clear the check box as specified by your administrator. By default, this check box is cleared.

  8. In Network Authentication, select TKIP or AES as specified by your administrator.

  9. Ensure that This is a computer-to-computer (ad-hoc) network: wireless access points are not used is cleared, and then click the Authentication tab.

  10. On the Authentication tab, ensure that Enable IEEE 802.1x authentication for this network is selected.

  11. In EAP type, select Protected EAP (PEAP), and then click Properties. The Protected EAP Properties dialog box opens.

  12. On the Protected EAP Properties dialog box, in Validate server certificate, select or clear the check box as specified by your administrator.

  13. In Trusted Root Certification Authorities, select the CA specified by your administrator.

  14. In Select Authentication Method, ensure Secured password (EAP-MSCHAP v2) is selected, and then click OK two times. The Protected EAP Properties dialog box closes, and the Authentication tab closes, returning you to the Wireless Networks tab.

  15. On the Wireless Network tab, in Preferred networks, select the SSID that you specified in step 6 of this procedure, and then click Move up until the wireless network is positioned at the top of the list in Preferred networks.

  16. Click OK. The Wireless Network Connection Properties closes, returning you to Network Connections.

  17. Close Network Connections.

  1. Log on to the computer with your local computer Administrator account.

  2. Click Start, right-click My Computer, and then click Properties. The System Properties dialog box opens.

  3. Click Change. The Computer Name Changes dialog box opens.

  4. In Computer Name Changes, in Member of, select Domain, and then type the name of the domain you want to join. For example, if the domain name is example.com, type example.com.

  5. Click OK. The Computer Name Changes dialog box opens. In User name, type the domain user account name, and in Password, type the domain user password, and then click OK.

  6. The Computer Name Changes dialog box opens, welcoming you to the domain.

  7. Click OK. The Computer Name Changes dialog box displays a message indicating that you must restart the computer to apply the changes.

  8. Click OK.

  9. In the System Properties dialog box, on the Computer Name tab, click OK, to close the System Properties dialog box. The System Settings Change dialog box opens, and displays a message, again indicating that you must restart the computer to apply the changes.

  10. Click Yes.

  1. Log off the computer, or restart the computer.

  2. Press CTRL + ALT + DELETE. The Log On to Windows dialog box appears.

  3. If Log on to is not displayed, click Options.

  4. In Log on to, in the drop down list, select your domain. For example, in the example.com domain, select EXAMPLE.

  5. Type your domain and user name in the format domain\user. For example, to log on to the example.com domain with an account named User-01, type example\User-01.

  6. In Password, type your domain password, and then press ENTER.

For more information about the technologies in this guide, see the following resources:

  • Active Directory Certificate Services in the Windows Server 2012 Technical Library at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=218045

  • Active Directory Domain Services in the Windows Server 2012 Technical Library at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=96418

  • Domain Name System (DNS) in the Windows Server 2012 Technical Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh831667.aspx

  • Group Policy in the Windows Server 2012 Technical Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh831791.aspx

  • Netsh Commands for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) in the Windows 8 Technical Library at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=81752

  • Network Policy Server (NPS) in the Windows Server 2012 Technical Library at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=104545 and Network Policy Server at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=93758

  • TCP/IP in the Windows Server 2003 Technical Library on Technet. The Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Technical Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/library/cc732974(WS.10).aspx provides an IPv6 Learning Roadmap, and Technical reference for architecture, as well as specifics for IPv4 and IPv6.Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2008 R2

  • "Joining Computers to the Domain and Logging On" topic in the Windows Server 2012 Foundation Network Guide in the Windows Server 2012 Technical Library at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=106051. See “Appendix D - Log on to the domain” in the Windows Server 2012 Core Network Guide in HTML format in the Windows Server 2012 Technical Library on TechNet.

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