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Chapter 19 - Remote Networking and Mobile Computing

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This chapter describes how to use Dial-Up Networking and virtual private networking (VPN) to access a network from a remote location. It also describes how other Windows 98 mobile computing tools, such as Briefcase and Direct Cable Connection, can be used to connect to desktop computers or the network. This chapter benefits network administrators who need to install remote access service on clients and servers, implement virtual private networking, or add mobile computing features to clients on the network. It also explains to advanced users how to use Dial-Up Networking, virtual private networking, and mobile computing features.

See Also

  • For information about network protocols, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols." 

  • For information about setting up modems and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) devices, see Chapter 21, "Modems and Communications Tools." 

  • For information about connecting to the Internet, see Chapter 20, "Internet Access and Tools." 

Overview of Remote Networking and Mobile Computing

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Dial-Up Networking, virtual private networking (VPN), and mobile computing allow users not directly connected to the network to work as if they were. Dial-Up Networking allows them to make a dial-up connection to remote networks such as the Internet over a telephone or ISDN line. Virtual private networking allows users to connect securely to resources on a remote network by "tunneling" over an intermediary network (an existing Internet or local area network [LAN] connection) to a server on the remote network. The intermediary network is used as a substitute for a network wire, enabling you to connect to a server on a remote network even if you are not directly connected to the remote network. Finally, mobile computing tools allow intermittently-connected users to access network resources more easily.

Windows 98 Dial-Up Networking allows you to use a computer running Windows 98 as a dial-up client. From a remote site, you can use Dial-Up Networking to connect to a remote access server such as Windows NT version 3.1 or later Remote Access Service (RAS), a Windows 98 dial-up server, a Windows 95 dial-up server, any Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) server, Novell NetWare Connect version 1.0 or 1.1, or Shiva NetModem or LanRover, using the IP, IPX, and NetBEUI protocols. If the client and server are running the same network protocols, the dial-up client can connect to the network to access its resources. For information about using Windows 98 Dial-Up Networking to dial in to other remote access servers, or using other remote access software to dial in to Windows 98, contact your network vendor or software supplier.

Note A Microsoft Windows NT Client Access License is required if the computer will be connecting to servers running Windows NT Server. For information, see Chapter 16, "Windows 98 on Microsoft Networks," or contact your Microsoft reseller.

Dial-Up Networking also allows you to designate a computer running Windows 98 as a single-connection dial-up server. A remote user can dial in to the dial-up server and access resources on the dial-up server.

For clients running the IPX or the NetBEUI protocol, the dial-up server can be used to provide access to the network. However, if you need a dial-up server that provides access to the network using Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), you should use a Windows NT Server. For more information about the capabilities of the Windows 98 dial-up server, see "Configuring and Using the Windows 98 Dial-Up Server" later in this chapter.

Windows 98 provides the following tools to help users stay as functional as possible with the limited resources of a mobile site:

  • Briefcase allows users to update documents on a portable computer with source documents on a desktop computer or network. 

  • Direct Cable Connection allows users to connect a portable computer to a desktop computer to synchronize files and share other resources. 

  • Microsoft Outlook Express provides remote access to electronic mail. 

  • Deferred printing allows users to generate print jobs when no physical printer is available. 

Overview of Dial-Up and Virtual Private Networking

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Windows 98 includes the following enhancements to Dial-Up Networking:

  • Client support for a single virtual private networking connection. 

  • Support for ISDN modems and adapters. 

  • Multilink capabilities. 

  • Connection-time scripting to automate nonstandard logons. 

  • Improved performance and stability. 

This section provides an overview explanation of how you can use these enhancements and other Dial-Up Networking features for remote access. For information about ISDN, see Chapter 21, "Modems and Communications Tools."

With Dial-Up Networking and virtual private networking, you can connect from a remote site to a computer that has been configured as a remote access server, or connect to a network through the remote access server. For example, as Figure 19.1 shows, if you connect to a Windows NT Remote Access Server, you can access its shared resources (if the Microsoft File and Printer Sharing service has been enabled), or you can use it as a gateway to a network that is running the TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, and NetBEUI network protocols.

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Figure 19.1 Connecting to a remote access server 

Figure 19.1 illustrates two types of connections: a dial-up connection and a virtual private network connection through the Internet. You would use either the dial-up connection or the virtual private network connection to access those resources.

Note You can also access shared resources by connecting to a Windows 98 dial-up server. For a description of the capabilities and limitations of the Windows 98 dial-up server, see "Configuring and Using the Windows 98 Dial-Up Server" later in this chapter.

As Figure 19.2 shows, a Windows 98 dial-up client can connect to a wide variety of networks, because Windows 98 supports a variety of connection and network protocols.

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Figure 19.2 Connecting to remote networks 

With virtual private networking, you can connect to remote servers not only over telephone lines, but also over Internet connections and the corporate intranet. This provides the following benefits:

Inexpensive remote access With virtual private networking, remote users can connect to your company's network from the Internet instead of over a telephone line, so you do not need to maintain modem pools or pay long-distance charges. Your network must have a Windows NT Remote Access Server (RAS) virtual private networking server and a dedicated connection to the Internet, such as a 56Mbits, fractional T-1, T-1 connection. Users simply dial in to their local Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and then connect to the RAS VPN server over the Internet.

Secure access to private data In Windows, 98, virtual private networking is implemented using Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). Because PPTP is a secure protocol, only authenticated users can gain access to your dial-up server. Also, you can encrypt data transfer to prevent Internet intruders from listening in.

Private addressing schemes Using certain types of routers and gateway servers, it is possible to connect your network to the Internet so that all your computers and their IP addresses are visible on the Internet. However, this configuration presents two drawbacks. First, your computers are vulnerable to attack by intruders on the Internet. Second, you must obtain IP addresses that conform to the Internet addressing scheme. Using virtual private networking, on the other hand, you can configure all the computers on your private intranet by using a private addressing scheme that does not need to conform to the Internet addressing scheme. The VPN server then shields the internal addresses from the rest of the Internet. The IP addresses of the computers on your private intranet remain hidden, providing additional security for those computers.

Different remote access servers provide different security systems to protect access to a network. The Windows 98 dial-up server uses pass-through (user-level) or share-level security as described in "Configuring Security Options for a Windows 98 Dial-Up Server" later in this chapter.

Dial-Up Networking uses the Windows 98 communications architecture to communicate through a modem to a network. It initializes the modem, determines device status, and dials the telephone number by using the telephony application program interface (TAPI) and the Unimodem driver. For more information about the communications architecture and the Dial-Up Networking architecture, see Chapter 29, "Windows 98 Network Architecture."

A Windows 98 Dial-Up Networking configuration includes the components described in the following sections

Dial-Up Client

With Dial-Up Networking, you can configure a remote computer running Windows 98 as a dial-up client to dial in to a remote access server. A dial-up client, running the appropriate connection protocol, can connect to many types of remote access servers, including the following:

  • Windows NT 3.51 or later Server computer. 

  • Windows NT 3.51 or later Workstation computer. 

  • Windows 98 dial-up server. 

  • Windows 95 dial-up server. 

  • Windows for Workgroups version 3.11. 

  • NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1. 

  • Any network access server that supports PPP (including NetWare Connect 2.0). 

  • Any UNIX server that runs Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or PPP. 

Connection Protocols

Connection protocols control the transmission of data over the wide-area network (WAN). A Windows 98 dial-up client can use the following connection protocols to connect to a remote access server:

  • PPP. 

  • Novell NetWare Connect 1.0 and 1.1. 

  • Windows NT 3.1 or Windows for Workgroups RAS (Asynchronous NetBEUI). 

  • SLIP. 

The type of connection protocol you choose depends on the server you are connecting to. Some connection protocols support a subset of the common network protocols. For example, PPP allows you to connect to a network server or a computer running Windows 98 with TCP/IP, IPX/SPX-compatible, or NetBEUI network protocols.

This section describes the connection protocols.

Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard method for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links. It has become the standard for remote access because of its flexibility, password encryption security, and compatibility with future client and server hardware and software. A dial-up client running PPP can connect to a network running IPX, TCP/IP, or NetBEUI protocols. Windows 98 dial-up clients can use PPP to connect to any remote access server running PPP, including Windows NT Server version 3.51 or later. PPP is the default protocol for the Microsoft Dial-Up adapter.

Novell NetWare Connect NetWare Connect 1.0 and 1.1 is a proprietary connection protocol. It allows a computer running Windows 98 to connect directly to a NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 server and, if running a NetWare-compatible network client, connect to NetWare servers.

Windows 98 can connect to NetWare Connect 2.0 using PPP. For information about PPP, see "Technical Notes for PPP-Compatible Servers" later in this chapter.

Note Windows 98 can act only as a client for connecting to a NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 server. NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 clients themselves cannot directly connect to a Windows 98 dial-up server through a dial-up connection.

RAS for Windows NT 3.1 or Windows for Workgroups 3.11 (Asynchronous NetBEUI) Asynchronous NetBEUI is used to connect computers running Windows 98 to remote access servers running Windows NT Server 3.1 LAN Manager, or Windows for Workgroups 3.11. It is also supported by Windows NT Server 3.5 and later. The remote access server must also be running NetBEUI.

Serial Line Internet Protocol SLIP is an older remote access standard that is typically used by UNIX remote access servers. Use SLIP only if your site has a UNIX system configured as a SLIP server for Internet connections. The remote access server must be running TCP/IP.

Windows 98 does not provide SLIP server capabilities; SLIP is used for client dial-out only.

Local Area Network Protocols

Windows 98 makes it easy to configure dial-up clients to access a network. When you install Dial-Up Networking, any protocols already installed on the computer are automatically enabled for Dial-Up Networking. Windows 98 includes support for TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, and NetBEUI network protocols.

Note In Properties for your Dial-Up Networking connection, all network protocols show up as automatically enabled. However, remember that you cannot use them unless they have actually been installed on your computer. For information about how to install network protocols, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols."

The following list presents the combinations of protocols you can use to run either Windows Sockets or NetBIOS applications on a network.

Connection protocol

Network protocols (APIs)

NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1

IPX/SPX (Windows Sockets/NetBIOS)

PPP

TCP/IP (Windows Sockets/NetBIOS)
IPX/SPX (Windows Sockets/NetBIOS)
NetBEUI (NetBIOS)

RAS for Windows NT 3.1 or Windows for Workgroups 3.11

NetBEUI (NetBIOS)

SLIP

TCP/IP (Windows Sockets/NetBIOS)

Figure 19.3 shows the protocols Dial-Up Networking clients can use to connect to host servers and to remote networks.

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Figure 19.3 Connection protocols 

Dial-Up Server

You can designate a computer running Windows 98 a single-connection dial-up server. If both the server and the client are running IP, IPX, or NetBEUI, the dial-up server can provide access to its shared resources. If both the server and the client are running IPX or NetBEUI, the dial-up server can act as a gateway to a network running the same protocol. For more information about the capabilities of the Windows 98 dial-up server, see "Configuring and Using the Windows 98 Dial-Up Server" later in this chapter.

Using Software and Hardware Compression to Transfer Data

To improve the throughput and transfer times when you use Dial-Up Networking, Windows 98 supports dynamic compression of information when you are connected to another computer that also supports compression — for example, a computer running Windows 98 or Windows NT.

You do not need to perform any special configuration to enable hardware and software compression. Software compression on the client is enabled by default and is available for PPP connections. You should leave it enabled. Hardware compression is also enabled by default and is performed by the modem. You should leave it enabled. For more information about hardware compression, see Chapter 21, "Modems and Communications Tools."

Using Data Encryption for Dial-Up Clients

You do not need to perform any special configuration to enable data encryption on dial-up clients. This option can be required by either the server or the client. For instructions on how to configure a Dial-Up connection so that the dial-up client will refuse to connect to a server that does not support data encryption. For instructions, see "Configuring a Dial-Up Connection," later in this chapter.

Data encryption requires that the client and server share a common key, which is generated at connection time using Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication (MS-CHAP).

Security Options for Dial-Up Clients and Servers

Dial-Up Networking servers can be configured with either user-level or share-level security. Additionally, a Dial-Up Networking client can be configured to use encrypted passwords if the server it is connecting to supports that feature. For more information, see "Configuring Security Options for a Windows 98 Dial-Up Server" later in this chapter.

Planning for Dial-Up and Virtual Private Networking

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To use Dial-Up Networking to connect to the Internet or a remote network, you need the following hardware:

  • One or more compatible modems or ISDN devices, as described in Chapter 21, "Modems and Communications Tools." 

  • Enough available hard disk space to install Dial-Up Networking. Currently, about 2 to 3 MB of free disk space are required to install the client and server portions of Dial-Up Networking. 

In most cases, you will need the same hardware to use virtual private networking to connect to a remote network through the Internet. If you will be connecting to a remote network through a VPN server on your corporate network and you will never make a dial-up connection, you will not need a modem or ISDN device, but you will need a network adapter that is physically connected to the LAN.

To use a Dial-Up Networking client to connect to the network, you need to decide the following:

  • The kind of remote access server remote users will connect to. For example, a Windows 98 dial-up server allows only 1 remote connection at a time, whereas a Windows NT Server 3.5 or later remote access server allows 256 connections. Depending on the size and needs of your network, you might configure a Windows 98 dial-up client to connect to a Windows NT Server 3.5 or later remote access server or another remote access server. For a list of the types of remote access servers that a Windows 98 dial-up client can be configured to connect to, see "Dial-Up Client" earlier in this chapter. 

  • The type of connection protocol your dial-up client will use to connect to the remote access server. Windows 98 provides support for PPP, RAS for Windows for Workgroups 3.11 and Windows NT 3.1, NetWare Connect 1.0 and 1.1, and SLIP. The dial-up client and the remote access server must both be running the same connection protocol. For a complete list of protocol types, see "Connection Protocols" earlier in this chapter. 

  • The kind of network protocol to install on the dial-up client to connect the client to the network. Windows 98 dial-up clients support IPX/SPX, TCP/IP, and Microsoft NetBEUI protocols. For more information about network protocols and Dial-Up Networking, see "Local Area Network Protocols" earlier in this chapter. 

If you want to add a Windows 98 dial-up server to your network, you need to decide the following:

  • Which computers on the network will function as Windows 98 dial-up servers. 

  • Whether you want to connect the client to the network and what kind of network protocol you need to install on the dial-up server. Windows 98 dial-up servers support only the IPX/SPX and Microsoft NetBEUI protocols; to use TCP/IP to connect the client to the network, you must use a Windows NT Server instead of a Windows 98 dial-up server. 

  • The level of security you need for dial-up servers. You can enable either user-level or share-level security on a Windows 98 dial-up server. For more information, see "Configuring Security Options for a Windows 98 Dial-Up Server" later in this chapter. 

Installing Dial-Up Networking

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By default, Windows 98 Setup automatically installs Dial-Up Networking, other communications tools, and most of the components you need to connect to a network. Table 19.1 shows the communications tools that appear in the Add/Remove Programs option in Control Panel. For information about which of these tools are installed by default under the Typical, Portable, Compact, or Custom installations, see Chapter 2, "Setting Up Windows 98."

Table 19. 1 Communications tools available in Windows 98 

Tool

Purpose

Dial-Up Networking

Allows a Windows 98 computer to access a network or the Internet from a remote location.

Dial-Up Server

Gives a Windows 98 computer the ability to provide remote access to a single dial-up client.

Direct Cable Connection

Allows you to establish a direct serial or parallel cable connection between two computers.

HyperTerminal

Provides file transfer and terminal emulation capabilities.

Infrared

Allows a Windows 98 computer to communicate with other computers or the network using infrared.

Microsoft Chat 2.0

Allows you to chat with people on a chat server.

Microsoft NetMeeting

Allows you to call people on the Internet or a corporate intranet and talk, share applications, draw on a shared whiteboard, or share files and messages.

Phone Dialer

Allows a Windows 98 computer to make voice calls.

Virtual private networking

Allows a Windows 98 computer to connect securely to a remote server over telephone lines, the Internet, or a corporate intranet.

If you want to add an additional component, you must install it after running Windows 98 Setup.

To add an additional component

  1. In Control Panel, double-click Add/Remove Programs, and then click the Windows Setup tab. 

  2. Double-click Communications in the list of components. 

  3. Select the component. 

  4. Click OK, and then click Apply

Windows 98 Setup also installs most of the components you need to connect to a network. For example, Windows 98 installs the Microsoft Dial-Up adapter, connection protocols, and the Microsoft TCP/IP network protocol if TCP/IP has not already been installed on the computer.

Note If you are upgrading from Windows 3.1 or Windows for Workgroups, Setup does not upgrade your phonebook entries (your connection information). You must reenter all connection information. However, if you are upgrading from Windows 95, Setup does upgrade your connection information.

However, Windows 98 Setup does not automatically install network protocols such as IPX/SPX and NetBEUI. If you need to use those protocols but they are not already installed on your computer, you must install them.

To verify that the correct protocols are installed, in Control Panel, double-click Network, and then check the list of installed components.

For information about adding protocols, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols."

Configuring and Using Dial-Up Networking Clients

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Configuring computers as Dial-Up Networking clients consists of four tasks:

  • Running the Install New Modem Wizard to install a modem. 

  • Configuring Telephony Dialing Properties. 

  • Running the Make New Connection Wizard in Dial-Up Networking to set up a connection to a remote access server for the dial-up client.

  • Optionally, configuring the connection by selecting the remote access server type it will connect to, and by choosing whether to log on to the network after connecting to the remote access server. Selecting the server type automatically enables the correct connection protocol, such as PPP or SLIP. 

This section explains how to perform these four tasks.

Installing a Modem

If you have not already installed a modem, the Install New Modem wizard appears when you start Dial-Up Networking. It guides you through the process of installing a modem. For more information about modems, see Chapter 21, "Modems and Communications Tools."

Configuring Telephony Dialing Properties

After the Install New Modem wizard installs your modem, a Location Information dialog box appears. This dialog box asks for such information as what country you are in and what area code you are in. Windows 98 uses this information to establish a dialing rule (called a dialing location). Whenever you dial a call, Windows 98 uses this dialing rule to automatically adjust your dialing string. For example, if you enter "425" as your area code in the Location Information dialog box, then later try to dial the number "425-555-1212," Windows 98 adjusts the dialing string to "555-1212."

If you have a portable computer and frequently dial from different places, you might also want to use the Dialing Properties utility to create different dialing locations for each place. You can also define calling card rules that you can use with one or more of your dialing locations.

Note The information you entered in the Location Information dialog box also appears in the Dialing Properties utility, as your default dialing location.

The remainder of this section describes how to establish and use different calling locations using the Dialing Properties Utility. For more information about the Dialing Properties utility, including how to define calling card rules, see "Using Dialing Properties" in Chapter 21, "Modems and Communications Tools."

The Dialing Properties utility allows you to define different locations from which you dial. For each location, enter your country code, area code, and other information about the place you are dialing from. You can then dial a number using Dial-Up Networking, and Windows 98 automatically adjusts your dialing string based on the location from which you are calling.

For example, suppose you commonly dial from two different places:

  • Your home in the 206 area code region. You do not need to dial an outside line, but you dial *70 for each call to disable call waiting.

  • Your office in the 801 area code region. To reach an outside line, you must dial 9

You can create two different locations (home and office) and enter area code and other information for each location. Then, whenever you make a dialing location, Dialing Properties automatically adjusts the telephone number based on the place you are calling from.

For example, suppose you have defined a Dial-Up Networking Connection to your ISP at 206-555-5555.

If you are dialing from home, Dialing Properties adjusts the telephone number to *70,555-5555. But if you are dialing from your office, Dialing Properties changes the telephone number to 9,1-206-555-5555.

You can access Dialing Properties from several different places, including the Modems icon in Control Panel, the Telephony icon in Control Panel, and the connection you are dialing.

To define a new dialing location
  • In Dialing Properties, enter the name of your new dialing location, the area code you are dialing from, and other information about your location. Optionally, enter information about your calling card. This information will then be available to any Dial-Up Networking connection that you create. 

To use the dialing location
  1. When you configure the General properties for a Dial-Up Networking connect (described in "Configuring General Properties" later in this chapter), make sure that the check box "Use area code and Dialing Properties" is selected. 

  2. When you dial the connection (described in "Making a Dial-Up Networking Connection" later in this chapter), make sure that you have selected the correct dialing location. 

Defining a Dial-Up Networking Connection

When you first start Dial-Up Networking, the Make New Connection Wizard appears. You can define two different types of remote connections:

  • A dial-up connection allows you to use modems or ISDN devices to connect to the Internet or your intranet.

  • A VPN connection uses two connections. With the first connection, you use a network adapter, modem, or ISDN device to connect to a remote access server on the Internet or your intranet. With the second connection, you can "tunnel through" the first connection to a VPN tunnel server, in order to gain access to any server that the VPN tunnel server allows you to access. 

Before creating a new dial-up connection, you should install a modem, ISDN device, or network adapter. If you have not yet installed a modem and did not install a modem when Dial-Up Networking started, you can install one by using the Install New Modem Wizard in the Modems option in Control Panel. For information about modems and ISDN devices, see Chapter 21, "Modems and Communications Tools."

Additionally, if you are configuring a VPN connection, you must first install virtual private networking. To do so, follow the procedure "To add an additional component" described in "Installing Dial-Up Networking" earlier in this chapter.

To create a Dial-Up Networking connection using the Make New Connection Wizard
  1. From My Computer, double-click the Dial-Up Networking folder. 

  2. In the Dial-Up Networking window, double-click the Make New Connection icon.

  3. In the Type a name for the computer you are dialing dialog box, enter a name for your connection. 

  4. If you are creating a dial-up networking connection, in the Select a device box select a modem or ISDN device. 

    – Or – 

    If you are creating a VPN connection, in the Select a device: box select Microsoft VPN Adapter

  5. If you are creating a dial-up networking connection, the Make New Connection Wizard prompts you for information about your connection, such as a name for the computer you are dialing, modem type, area code, telephone number, and country code.

    – Or – 

    If you are creating a VPN connection, the Make New Connection Wizard prompts you for the host name or address of the VPN server. 

  6. The new icon for your connection appears in the Dial-Up Networking window. You need to provide this information only once for each connection you define.

    Once a connection has been established, remote network access becomes transparent to the user.

Configuring a Dial-Up Connection

The Dial-Up Networking defaults for the dial-up connection are designed for Internet connections and for most other types of connections. You can change these defaults, but you should do so only if you want to change the default behavior.

There is one exception. By default, Dial-Up Networking uses the PPP protocol to connect to servers. This default will work for most Internet connections and many other types of connections. But if you are connecting to a server that does not use PPP, you must change the server type by following the procedure in "Configuring Options for the Server to Which You Are Connecting" later in this chapter.

You can configure the following options:

  • General properties 

  • Server properties 

  • Scripting 

  • Multilink 

You can predefine Dial-Up Networking connections for users by including them as part of system policies. If you enable user profiles, different users sharing the same computer can use separate dialing configurations. For more information, see Chapter 7, "User Profiles," and Chapter 8, "System Policies."

Configuring General Properties

This section describes how to configure basic options for a dial-up connection.

To configure general properties for the connection
  1. In Dial-Up Networking, right-click a connection icon, and then select Properties from the File menu. 

  2. Review the information on the General tab to ensure that the telephone number is correct and that the correct modem or ISDN device is selected. Ensure that Use area code and Dialing Properties is selected if you have defined one or more dialing locations as described in "Configuring Telephony Dialing Properties" earlier in this chapter. Make any necessary changes. 

  3. Click Configure, and then click the Options tab.

  4. Optionally, click Bring up terminal window before dialing or Bring up terminal window after dialing. For modem connections, these options allow you to use a terminal window for an interactive logon session with the server. 

Configuring Options for the Server to Which You Are Connecting

Dial-Up Networking allows you to configure options for the server to which you are connecting. You do not need to change any values in this section if you are connecting to an ISP and your ISP's remote access server supports PPP.

To configure options for the server to which you are connecting
  1. In Dial-Up Networking, right-click a connection icon, and then click Properties

  2. Click the Server Types tab. 

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  3. In the Type of Dial-Up Server box, ensure that the correct remote access server type is selected. If it is not selected, you will not be able to connect to the server. The possible connections are as follows:

    This server type

    Connects to

    PPP: Internet, Windows NT Server, Windows 98 

    The default; selecting it allows Windows 98 to automatically detect and connect to other remote access servers that are running TCP/IP, NetBEUI, or IPX/SPX over PPP. Select this option for connections to your ISP. 

    NRN: NetWare Connect version 1.0 and 1.1 

    Novell NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 running IPX/SPX over NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1. 

    SLIP: UNIX Connection 

    Any SLIP server over TCP/IP. 

    Windows for Workgroups and Windows NT 3.1 

    Windows 98 dial-up server; Windows NT 3.1 or 3.5; Windows for Workgroups version 3.11 running NetBEUI over RAS. 

    CSLIP: UNIX Connection with IP Header Compression 

    Any SLIP server over TCP/IP that supports IP header compression. 

  4. Optionally, if you are making a connection to an ISP, deselect Log on to network to speed connection time. This option is selected by default, but it is unnecessary for Internet connections.

  5. Optionally, select Require encrypted password. If this option is selected, the client will use only Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) and MS-CHAP encryption when generating a password. If this option is not selected, the client can also perform Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) if the server requests it. However, PAP encryption is less secure. For more information about encryption, see "PPP Dial-Up Sequence" later in this chapter. 

  6. Optionally, select Require data encryption. If this option is selected, the client will refuse to connect with any server that does not use data encryption. However, most ISPs do not support data encryption. For more information, see "Using Data Encryption for Dial-Up Clients," earlier in this chapter. 

  7. Optionally, select Record a log file for this connection. If this option is selected, Dial-Up Networking will create a PPP log file that shows information about your connection. For information about PPP log files, see "PPP Log File" later in this chapter. 

  8. In the Allowed network protocols box, ensure that the network protocols used on the target network are selected. For example, if you are configuring a connection to the Internet, ensure that TCP/IP is selected.

    Note By default, all network protocols (TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, and NetBEUI) are selected in the Allowed network protocols box. However, for you to use those protocols, they must also be installed on the client workstation you are configuring. For information about how to install protocols, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols."

  9. Optionally, if you are configuring a connection to your ISP and your ISP requires you to enter information such as a static IP address for your computer or a DNS server to which you must connect, click TCP/IP Settings. However, in most cases you do not need to do so. For more information, see Chapter 20, "Internet Access and Tools." 

Configuring Scripting for Modem Connections

Windows 98 supports scripting on modem connections (not on ISDN or VPN connections.) In most cases, you do not need to create a script. Many ISPs do not require a manual logon, and ISPs that do require a manual logon almost always provide a script file you can use. Contact your ISP for more information.

However, if you need and do not have a logon script, you can create one. Windows 98 provides four sample scripts you can use as starting points. The sample scripts are located in your \Program Files\Accessories directory. Windows 98 also includes a document that explains how to write and modify logon scripts. The file is called Script.doc and located in your Windows directory.

After you have created a script, save it in your \Program Files\Accessories directory, using the file extension SCP.

Important Microsoft does not support logon scripts you create. Also, Microsoft does not support modifications to the four sample scripts.

After you have created the script, you must configure scripting for each connection that will use the script. Make sure your connection is working properly before you configure scripting.

To configure scripting for the Windows 98 dial-up client
  1. In Dial-Up Networking, right-click a connection icon, and then click Properties

  2. Click the Scripting tab, and then click Browse

  3. Locate the script, and then click Open

  4. Optionally, select the Step through script box.

    Selecting the Step through script box enables you to step through the script to verify that each line is working correctly, or to troubleshoot the script if the connection fails. 

  5. Click OK

Configuring Multilink

The PPP Multilink protocol allows you to use two or more devices (such as modems or ISDN devices) for a single dial-up link. With Multilink, you combine the bandwidth capabilities of both devices, thus inexpensively increasing the bandwidth on your dial-up connections. This section describes how to use Multilink. For additional information about Multilink, and for information about ISDN, see Chapter 21, "Modems and Communications Tools."

The Windows 98 PPP Multilink implementation complies with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) PPP Multilink standard defined by Request for Comments (RFC) 1717.

Before using Multilink, consider the following issues:

  • Multilink is available only for Windows 98 dial-up clients, not for the Windows 98 dial-up server. 

  • The server or ISP you connect to must also support PPP Multilink. Otherwise, Multilink will not function correctly. 

  • You can use Multilink only when your computer is configured with multiple devices that can be combined to form the logical PPP pipe over the communication link.

  • For best performance, the devices you use should be the same speed. 

  • When you combine both B channels under ISDN, you cannot use your second channel for other applications, such as fax or voice calls. 

To configure Multilink for the Windows 98 dial-up client
  1. In Dial-Up Networking, right-click your connection icon, and then click Properties

  2. Click the Multilink tab. 

  3. Select Use additional devices

  4. Click Add. 

  5. Specify the additional device you wish to use.

  6. If you need to edit an entry, click Edit

To use Multilink
  • After you have configured Multilink, click the connection icon and click Connect. Dial-Up Networking connects using the primary device, then the secondary device. 

To view information about your link
  1. Click the Dial-Up Networking icon displayed on your taskbar. 

  2. In the dialog box, click Details

Configuring a Connection to the Internet

To configure a Windows 98 Dial-Up Connection to dial the Internet, follow the procedures outlined in "Configuring and Using Dial-Up Networking Clients" earlier in this chapter. Keep in mind the following issues:

  • Before you begin, check to make sure TCP/IP is correctly installed on your computer. 

  • If you want to use a terminal window for an interactive logon session with the server, in the modem's Properties, click Bring up terminal window before dialing or bring up terminal window after dialing.

  • If you are using SLIP instead of PPP to connect to the Internet, in the Server Types dialog box, select SLIP: UNIX Connection

  • If you want to speed your connection time, in the Server Types dialog box, deselect Log on to network. This option is not necessary for Internet connections. 

  • If your ISP requires you to enter information such as an IP address for your computer or the IP address of a DNS server, enter this information in the Server types dialog box. In most cases, you will not need to enter information here. For more information, see Chapter 20, "Internet Access and Tools." 

Making a Dial-Up Networking Connection

After you have defined a remote connection by using the Make New Connection Wizard, you can make a connection.

Note If you selected Use area code and Dialing Properties in the General Properties for your connection, Dial-Up Networking automatically adjusts the dialing string (telephone number) according to your dialing location (the place you're dialing from). For more information about your dialing location, see "Configuring Telephony Dialing Properties" earlier in this chapter.

To make a Dial-Up Networking Connection
  1. Double-click its connection icon in the Dial-Up Networking folder. 

  2. Optionally, enter a user name and password. 

  3. If you selected Use area code and Dialing Properties in the General Properties for your connection, in the Dialing from area, ensure that you have selected the correct dialing location (the place you are dialing from). If necessary, select another dialing location or click Dial properties to define a new dialing location. 

After a connection has been made, a connection icon appears in the system tray. You can double-click this icon to see information about the connection, such as the server type it is using, the protocols it is using, and whether it is using authentication and compression.

Note If you are using PPP to connect to the remote server and you are dialing in to an IPX network, you will lose IPX connectivity to your local network. Thus, after you make a dial-up networking connection, NetWare servers on the local network will no longer be visible.

You might also lose IP connectivity to your local network if you are dialing in to an IP network. For specific details and for ways to restore IP connectivity, see "Technical Notes on Dial-Up and Virtual Private Networking" later in this chapter.

Dial-Up Networking starts automatically in certain circumstances, through an autodial feature included in Dial-Up Networking and an autodial feature included in the Internet Explorer 4 browsing software. The following sections describe the two features.

Using the Dial-Up Networking Autodial Feature

Dial-Up Networking provides an autodial feature. If autodial is enabled, Windows 98 starts Dial-Up Networking when you try to perform one of the following tasks:

  • You try to access a network resource when your computer is not connected to any network. 

  • You try to access a network resource that you have accessed before using Dial-Up Networking. 

  • Your application specifies a UNC name (which uses the form \\servername\ sharename) that cannot be accessed by using the network. 

Note The Dial-Up Networking autodial feature is separate from the Internet Explorer browsing software autodial feature, described below.

When you choose a remote connection, Windows 98 retrieves the server information from the addresses stored in the registry. If the information is not available, you are asked to select a server from the connection icons in Dial-Up Networking, or to type a new server name.

If Dial-Up Networking cannot find the network resource, it displays a network error message. If the connection is successful, Windows 98 remembers the connection for future use.

You can disable the prompt that asks if you want to use Dial-Up Networking when you are attempting to connect to a network resource.

To disable the Dial-Up Networking prompt
  1. In Dial-Up Networking, click the Connections menu, and then click Settings

  2. Click Don't prompt to use Dial-Up Networking

Using the Internet Explorer Browsing Software Autodial Feature

The Internet Explorer browsing software includes an autodial feature that can automatically start Dial-Up Networking while you are browsing. When you start the Internet Explorer browsing software or try to access a URL that is not locally available, and you have not already established a Dial-Up Networking connection, a dialog box appears and asks you if you want to use Dial-Up Networking.

Note The Internet Explorer autodial feature is separate from the Dial-up Networking autodial feature, described above.

The Internet Explorer browsing software starts Dial-Up Networking only if you have a modem and you have configured the Internet Explorer browsing software to automatically start Dial-Up Networking.

The following procedure shows how to do so.

To configure the Internet Explorer browsing software to automatically start Dial-Up Networking
  1. In Control Panel, double-click Internet, and then click the Connection tab. 

  2. In the Connection box, select Connect to the Internet using a modem

  3. Optionally, click the Settings box to specify a particular Dial-Up Networking connection and to enter information about that connection. 

The following procedure shows how to configure the Internet Explorer browsing software to not start Dial-Up Networking.

To configure the Internet Explorer browsing software to not start Dial-Up Networking
  1. In Control Panel, double-click Internet, and then click the Connection tab. 

  2. In the Connection box, select Connect to the Internet using a local area network.

Configuring and Using the Windows 98 Dial-Up Server

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With Dial-Up Networking, you can configure a computer running Windows 98 to be a remote access server for dial-up clients running Windows 98, Windows 95, Windows for Workgroups, or Windows 3.1, or any other client running PPP. The Windows 98 dial-up server can act as a server to the client, sharing its file and printer resources with one dial-up client at a time. Both the dial-up server and the dial-up client must be running the same protocol (IP, IPX, or NetBEUI). The Windows 98 dial-up server can also act as a gateway to an IPX/SPX or NetBEUI network, as long as both the client and the server are using the same protocol that is used on the network.

The Windows 98 dial-up server supports software compression. It also works with ISDN; however it can use only one B channel.

A Windows 98 dial-up server differs from the Windows NT 3.5 and later dial up servers in the following ways:

  • Windows NT Server 4.0 and later can act as a VPN server; Windows 98 cannot. 

  • Windows NT Server 3.5 and later can act as an IP router; Windows 98 cannot. IP router capabilities permit access to a TCP/IP network, such as the global Internet. Windows 98 provides all the protocols you need to connect to the Internet but cannot act as an IP router.

  • Windows NT Server 3.5 and later support 256 remote connections, whereas Windows 98 provides one remote connection. 

A Windows 98 dial-up server with the appropriate network protocols installed can act as a NetBIOS gateway, as shown in Figure 19.4.

Cc768189.wrkaa05(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

Figure 19.4 Dial-up server as NetBIOS gateway 

Configuring a computer running Windows 98 to be a dial-up server consists of the following steps:

  • Installing the Dial-Up Server, as described in "Installing a Windows 98 Dial-Up Server," later in this chapter. 

  • Optionally, enabling file and printer sharing services for either Microsoft or NetWare networks on the dial-up server. Perform this step only if you want the dial-up server to share files with the dial-up clients. For more information, see Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing." 

  • Enabling user-level or share-level security on the dial-up server. For information, see "Configuring Security Options for a Windows 98 Dial-Up Server" later in this chapter. 

  • Configuring the server type for the dial-up server, as described in the section "Configuring the Server Type for the Dial-Up Server" later in this chapter. 

After you perform the steps previously listed, your Dial-Up Server will be ready to answer incoming calls.

To disconnect any users who are currently connected to this computer through Dial-Up Networking

  • In the Dial-Up Server dialog box, click Disconnect User

Note The Dial-Up Server for Windows 98 can use only one modem at a time. You can enable caller access on multiple modems at any one time, but only one modem can be connected.

Installing a Windows 98 Dial-Up Server

In Windows 98, the Dial-Up Server is not automatically installed. To install it, follow this procedure.

To install the Dial-Up Server
  1. In Control Panel, double-click Add/Remove Programs, and then click the Windows Setup tab. 

  2. In Add/Remove Programs Properties, double-click Communications

  3. Select the Dial-Up Server check box, and then click OK, and then click OK again. 

Configuring Security Options for a Windows 98 Dial-Up Server

Dial-Up Networking gives you the option of requiring a password to connect to the remote access server, depending on whether the Windows 98 dial-up server is protected with share-level or user-level security.

  • Share-level security assigns a password to the Windows 98 dial-up server. When users dial in, they must provide the password before they can gain access to the server. After the connection is established, users can browse the resources on the dial-up server, subject to whatever level of security has been applied to them. Users can also log on to the network after connecting to the dial-up server if logging on to the network is enabled on the dial-up client. Because users can distribute passwords, this method is less secure than user-level security.

  • User-level security restricts access to a network resource until a security provider, such as a Windows NT domain controller or a NetWare server, authenticates the request. You can require that a user's logon password to a remote access server be the same as the network and Windows 98 logon passwords.

    With user-level security, when the user accesses shared resources on the dial-up server, Windows 98 controls a user's rights to the shared resources, such as whether the user has read-only access or full access to files. Access rights are specified in the sharing properties for each resource protected by user-level security. For more information, see Chapter 9, "Security," and Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing." 

The following procedure assumes that you have completed the installation procedure described in the previous section, "Installing a Windows 98 Dial-Up Server."

To configure the dial-up server for user-level security
  1. Make sure that your computer has file and printer sharing services installed and that user-level security is enabled. For more information, see Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing." 

  2. In Dial-Up Networking, click the Connections menu, and then click Dial-Up Server.

  3. In the Dial-Up Server properties, click Allow caller access, and then click Add.

  4. In the Add Users dialog box, specify the users who will have permission to access the dial-up server, and then click OK.

  5. In the Dial-Up Server properties, click Server Type, and make sure Require encrypted password is checked if your Dial-Up client supports encrypted passwords.

    Clicking the Require encrypted password option requires the client to send an encrypted as opposed to a text password. Some clients support only text passwords; however, encrypted passwords are preferred. Clearing this option does not disable password protection. 

To configure the dial-up server for share-level security
  1. Make sure that your computer has File and Printer Sharing services installed and that share-level security is enabled. For more information, see Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing." 

    Note Share-level security is not available on NetWare networks. 

  2. In Dial-Up Networking, click the Connections menu, and then click Dial-Up Server.

  3. In the Dial-Up Server dialog box, click Allow caller access, and then click Change Password to provide password protection for the Dial-Up Server.

  4. Optionally, to require password encryption, click Server Type. In the Server Type dialog box, make sure Require encrypted password is checked, and then click OK

Configuring the Server Type for the Dial-Up Server

This section explains how to configure the server type for the dial-up server. It assumes that you have already followed the procedures in the sections "Installing a Windows 98 Dial-Up Server" and "Configuring Security Options for a Windows 98 Dial-Up Server," earlier in this chapter.

To configure a computer as a dial-up server
  1. From the Connections menu in the Dial-Up Networking folder, click Dial-Up Server.

  2. Click Server Type, and then select the server type.

    Make sure that the server type is the same for both the dial-up server and the dial-up client. If the dial-up client uses PPP, you can also select the Default server type. If you select the Default server type, the dial-up server will automatically start in PPP mode for incoming calls and switch to Windows for Workgroups and Windows NT 3.1 if the PPP negotiation fails.

  3. Click OK, and the dial-up server is ready to answer incoming calls. 

Notice that changes to the server type do not apply to a currently open connection. Changes will apply to any future connections made to this computer.

Disabling Dial-Up Server Support

You can disable dial-up server support in several different ways. You can disable it from within Dial-Up Networking, as the following procedure explains.

To disable the dial-up server on a single computer
  1. From the Connections menu in the Dial-Up Networking window, click Dial-Up Server.

  2. In the Dial-Up Server dialog box, click No caller access

You can also completely remove Dial-Up Server capabilities from a user's computer by using the Add/Remove Programs option in Control Panel.

Finally, you can disable dial-up support on each computer or on a system-wide basis by using System Policy Editor to change a single computer's registry or to define policies that can be shared by multiple computers.

To disable dial-up support by using System Policy Editor, click Disable Dial-in. The Dial-Up Server menu option still appears on the Connections menu after dial-up support has been disabled, but no dialog box for setting up the dial-up server will appear. For more information, see Chapter 8, "System Policies."

Configuring and Connecting to Remote Servers

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With Dial-Up Networking, you can connect to many different kinds of servers. This section discusses how to connect to and configure a Windows NT Remote Access Server and a Novell NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 server. It also provides technical information about PPP-compatible servers.

Connecting to a Windows NT Remote Access Server

Connecting to a Windows NT remote access server is the same as connecting to a Windows 98 Dial-Up Networking server. All you need is the telephone number of the Windows NT server when creating a connection. Dial-Up Networking negotiates the proper protocols and server connection type. You do not need to specify a default server type.

Planning the Connection to a Windows NT Remote Access Server

Windows NT Server 3.5 and later remote access servers support PPP and RAS clients. PPP is the recommended protocol. Windows NT Server 3.5 and later support IPX/SPX, NetBEUI, and TCP/IP network protocols and can function simultaneously as a NetBIOS gateway, IPX router, and IP router. Windows NT Server 4.0 and later can act as a VPN server, so you can set up a VPN connection to Windows NT 4.0 RAS servers using the PPTP protocol.

Note Windows NT 3.1 supports only the RAS protocol, which is a proprietary protocol that supports only NetBEUI. It is a fast connection type but does not allow for multiple protocols over the connection. RAS in Windows NT 3.1 cannot support the IPX/SPX or TCP/IP protocols.

Microsoft recommends that you upgrade from Windows NT RAS to Windows NT Server 3.5 or later, which provides many additional benefits, including PPP support.

A Windows NT 3.5 or later remote access server provides several features that a Dial-Up Networking server does not. For an explanation of these differences, see "Configuring and Using the Windows 98 Dial-Up Server" earlier in this chapter.

For more information about Windows NT remote access servers, see the Microsoft Windows NT Server Networking Guide in the Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource Kit (for Microsoft Windows NT Server version 4.0). See also the Networking Supplement for Windows NT Server version 4.0.

Configuring a Windows NT Server for Windows 98 Dial-Up Clients

To configure a computer running Windows NT Server 3.5 or later so that Windows 98 dial-up clients can remotely access it, you need to install and configure RAS.

You must be logged on as a member of the Administrators group to install and configure RAS. It can be installed during Custom Setup of Windows NT or afterward. During Express Setup, if there is not a network adapter in a computer, you are given the option to install RAS.

RAS installation varies slightly depending on which network protocols are installed. If you use TCP/IP or IPX/SPX protocol with RAS, you should install the protocol before you install RAS, although selecting a protocol that is not installed causes that protocol to be installed at the conclusion of RAS Setup. For information about installing either protocol, see the Networking Supplement for Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0.

For information about installing RAS, see the Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource Kit (for Microsoft Windows NT version 4.0). 

Note Microsoft does not recommend granting guest accounts dial-in permission. If you do, be sure to assign a password to the guest account.

Connecting to a Novell NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 Server

Windows 98 Dial-Up Networking supports connecting to Novell NetWare resources in three ways:

  • Connecting directly to a Novell NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 server. 

  • Connecting directly to a Novell NetWare Connect 2.0 server. NetWare Connect 2.0 uses the PPP protocol, so you can connect to a NetWare Connect 2.0 server as you would to any other PPP server. 

  • Using a computer running Windows 98 or Windows NT 3.5 or later as a gateway into a network where NetWare servers are connected. 

NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 allows a Windows 98 client to dial in to a NetWare server running NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1

Note Windows 98 can act only as a client for connecting to a NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 server. NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 clients themselves cannot dial up a Windows 98 dial-up server.

The NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 connection type allows a Windows 98 client to connect directly to a NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 server and to connect to NetWare servers on the connected network.

To use Dial-Up Networking to connect to a NetWare Connect 1.0 server, you must specify NetWare Connect 1.0 as the server type in the properties for a Dial-Up Networking connection. You also need to use the Network option in Control Panel to make sure the following are enabled on a Windows 98 dial-up client or server:

  • Microsoft Client for NetWare Networks. 

  • The IPX/SPX-compatible protocol bound to the Microsoft Dial-Up adapter driver. 

If you use Dial-Up Networking to access NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 servers, you can access data remotely, but you cannot control a computer remotely as you can with the NetWare Connect 1.0 or 1.1 client software supplied by Novell.

Technical Notes for PPP-Compatible Servers

This section provides technical information about connecting to PPP-compatible servers. It covers the following topics:

  • PPP architecture 

  • PPP dial-up sequence 

  • PPP log file 

PPP Architecture

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard method for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links. PPP does so by establishing and configuring different link and network-layer protocols to carry traffic from point to point. Control and data flow modules make up the PPP control protocols as illustrated in Figure 19.5.

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Figure 19.5 Microsoft PPP control modules

Figure 19.5 shows Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), Challenge Handshake Authentication (CHAP), and Shiva Password Authentication Protocol (SPAP), which perform password authentication of PPP clients. Compression Control Protocol (CCP) is used to negotiate encryption with PPP clients. IPCP, IPXCP, NBFCP, and Other are the Internet Protocol (IP), NetWare IPX, NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI), and Other protocol modules, respectively, which control PPP client sessions. HDLC is the High-level Data Link Control protocol.

PPP Dial-Up Sequence

When a user dials in to a PPP-compatible server, four things happen:

  1. The Data Link Control Layer (HDLC) defines how data is encapsulated before transmission on the WAN. By providing a standard framing format, PPP ensures that various vendors' remote access solutions can communicate and distinguish data packets from each other. PPP uses HDLC framing for serial, ISDN, and X.25 data transfer. 

    The PPP Data Link Control layer is a slightly modified version of the HDLC layer. The HDLC format, extensively used by IBM and others for synchronous data transfer, was modified by adding a 16-bit protocol field that allows PPP to multiplex traffic for several Network Control Protocol (NCP) layers. This encapsulation frame has a 16-bit checksum, but the size of the protocol field and address can be compressed.

  2. Link Control Protocol (LCP) establishes, configures, and tests the integrity of the data-link connection. LCP also negotiates which authentication protocol (listed in step 3) will be used. When LCP negotiates authentication of protocols, it determines what level of security validation the remote access server can perform and what the server requires. LCP also determines whether Multilink will be used. 

    The authentication protocol negotiated by LCP is used. Any of the following authentication protocols can be used.

    • PAP uses a two-way handshake for the peer to establish its identity. This handshake occurs only when the link is initially established. With PAP, passwords are sent over the circuit in text format, which offers no protection from playback. 

    • SPAP offers encryption of PAP passwords and Novell NetWare bindery access for user account information. When Windows 98 is set up for user-level security using a NetWare server account list, this is the security type used for remote access clients. 

    • CHAP periodically verifies the identity of the peer, using a three-way handshake. The authenticator sends a challenge message to the peer. The peer returns the user name and an MD5 hash of the challenge, session ID, and client's password. The authenticator then checks this response and, if the values match, the authentication is acknowledged; otherwise, the connection is ended. CHAP provides protection against playback attack, because the challenge value changes with every message. Because the password is never sent unencrypted over the link, it is virtually impossible to learn it.

    • MS-CHAP is an encrypted authentication mechanism similar to but more secure than CHAP. As with CHAP, the authenticator sends a challenge to the peer. The peer must return the user name and an MD4 hash of the challenge string, the session ID, and the MD4-hashed password. This design, which manipulates a hash of the MD4 hash of the password, provides an additional level of security because it allows the authenticator to store hashed passwords instead of clear-text passwords. MS-CHAP also provides additional error codes, including a password expired code, and additional encrypted client-server messages that permit users to change their passwords. In Microsoft's implementation of MS-CHAP, both the peer and the authenticator independently generate an initial key for subsequent data encryption. During phase 2 of PPP link configuration, the authenticator collects the authentication data and then validates the data against its own user database or against a central authentication database server. 

    After authentication, the client and server begin negotiating NCPs. NCPs establish and configure different network protocol parameters. The type of NCP that PPP selects depends on which protocol (NetBEUI, TCP/IP, or IPX) is being used to establish the Dial-Up Networking connection. Windows 98 supports the following:

    • NetBIOS Frames Control Protocol (NBFCP) is used to configure, enable, and disable the NetBEUI protocol modules on both ends of the link. For information about NBFCP, see Request for Comments (RFC) 2097, "The PPP NetBIOS Frames Control Protocol."

    • Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP) is used to configure, enable, and disable IP protocol modules at both ends of the link. IPCP is defined in RFC 1332, "The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)" 

    • Internet Packet Exchange Control Protocol (IPXCP) is used to configure, enable, and disable IPX protocol modules on both ends of the link. IPXCP is widely implemented by PPP vendors. IPXCP is defined in RFC 1552, "The PPP Internetwork Packet Exchange Protocol (IPXCP)." 

PPP Log File

You can record how the PPP layers process a call by enabling the PPP log file. This file contains some of the basic layers and points of any Dial-Up Networking session, and is especially useful for monitoring PPP sessions. It is recorded and stored in the Windows directory.

Windows 98 improves over the PPP logging feature in Windows 95 in a few ways. It allows you to enable PPP logging per connection, rather than per adapter. Thus, you can enable PPP logging for only the connections you need, and you do not need to know which adapter is used for which connection. Also, you do not need to reboot for PPP logging to take effect. Moreover, PPP logging is more sophisticated in Windows 98 than in Windows 95. As the sample at the end of this section shows, with Windows 98, the PPP log shows the actual packets that are being passed.

To enable PPP logging for a connection
  1. In Dial-Up Networking, single-click a connection icon, and in the File menu, select Properties

  2. Click the Server Types tab. 

  3. Select the option named Record a log file for this connection

The following example is sample content of a ppplog.txt file. This is only a partial log of a connection; it stops before authentication. For information about the format of PPP packets, see RFC 1662, "PPP in HDLC-like Framing."

03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - Microsoft Dial Up Adapter log opened.
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - Server type is PPP (Point to Point Protocol).
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - FSA : Adding Control Protocol 80fd (CCP) to control protocol chain.
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - FSA : Protocol not bound - skipping control protocol 803f (NBFCP).
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - FSA : Adding Control Protocol 8021 (IPCP) to control protocol chain.
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - FSA : Protocol not bound - skipping control protocol 802b (IPXCP).
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - FSA : Adding Control Protocol c029 (CallbackCP) to control protocol chain.
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - FSA : Adding Control Protocol c027 (no description) to control protocol chain.
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - FSA : Encrypted Password required.
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - FSA : Adding Control Protocol c223 (CHAP) to control protocol chain.
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - FSA : Adding Control Protocol c021 (LCP) to control protocol chain.
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - LCP : Callback negotiation enabled.
03-19-1998 13:17:16.04 - LCP : Layer started.
03-19-1998 13:17:16.05 - PPP : Transmitting Control Packet of length: 25
03-19-1998 13:17:16.05 - Data 0000: c0 21 01 01 00 17 02 06 | .!..._..
03-19-1998 13:17:16.05 - Data 0008: 00 0a 00 00 05 06 00 02 | ........
03-19-1998 13:17:16.05 - Data 0010: 50 17 07 02 08 02 0d 03 | P_......
03-19-1998 13:17:16.05 - Data 0018: 06 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ........
03-19-1998 13:17:19.05 - PPP : Transmitting Control Packet of length: 25
03-19-1998 13:17:19.05 - Data 0000: c0 21 01 02 00 17 02 06 | .!..._..
03-19-1998 13:17:19.05 - Data 0008: 00 0a 00 00 05 06 00 02 | ........
03-19-1998 13:17:19.05 - Data 0010: 50 17 07 02 08 02 0d 03 | P_......
03-19-1998 13:17:19.05 - Data 0018: 06 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ........
03-19-1998 13:17:22.05 - PPP : Transmitting Control Packet of length: 25
03-19-1998 13:17:22.05 - Data 0000: c0 21 01 03 00 17 02 06 | .!..._..
03-19-1998 13:17:22.05 - Data 0008: 00 0a 00 00 05 06 00 02 | ........
03-19-1998 13:17:22.05 - Data 0010: 50 17 07 02 08 02 0d 03 | P_......
03-19-1998 13:17:22.05 - Data 0018: 06 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ........
03-19-1998 13:17:22.11 - PPP : Received Control Packet of length: 8
03-19-1998 13:17:22.11 - Data 0000: c0 21 04 03 00 06 08 02 | .!......
03-19-1998 13:17:22.11 - LCP : Received configure reject for address field compression option.
03-19-1998 13:17:22.11 - PPP : Transmitting Control Packet of length: 23
03-19-1998 13:17:22.11 - Data 0000: c0 21 01 04 00 15 02 06 | .!..._..
03-19-1998 13:17:22.11 - Data 0008: 00 0a 00 00 05 06 00 02 | ........
03-19-1998 13:17:22.11 - Data 0010: 50 17 07 02 0d 03 06 00 | P_......
03-19-1998 13:17:22.16 - PPP : Received Control Packet of length: 23
03-19-1998 13:17:22.16 - Data 0000: c0 21 02 04 00 15 02 06 | .!..._..
03-19-1998 13:17:22.16 - Data 0008: 00 0a 00 00 05 06 00 02 | ........
03-19-1998 13:17:22.16 - Data 0010: 50 17 07 02 0d 03 06 00 | P_......
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - PPP : Received Control Packet of length: 32
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - Data 0000: c0 21 01 00 00 1e 03 05 | .!...-..
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - Data 0008: c2 23 80 05 06 00 00 6e | .#.....n
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - Data 0010: 21 07 02 11 04 06 4e 13 | !.....N.
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - Data 0018: 09 03 00 80 5f e2 d8 a8 | ...._...
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - LCP : Received and accepted authentication protocol c223 (CHAP).
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - LCP : Received and accepted magic number 6e21.
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - LCP : Received and accepted protocol field compression option.
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - PPP : Transmitting Control Packet of length: 19
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - Data 0000: c0 21 04 00 00 11 11 04 | .!......
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - Data 0008: 06 4e 13 09 03 00 80 5f | .N....._
03-19-1998 13:17:23.27 - Data 0010: e2 d8 a8 00 00 00 00 00 | ........
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - PPP : Received Control Packet of length: 19
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - Data 0000: c0 21 01 01 00 11 03 05 | .!......
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - Data 0008: c2 23 80 05 06 00 00 6e | .#.....n
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - Data 0010: 21 07 02 00 00 00 00 00 | !.......
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - LCP : Received and accepted authentication protocol c223 (CHAP).
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - LCP : Received and accepted magic number 6e21.
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - LCP : Received and accepted protocol field compression option.
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - PPP : Transmitting Control Packet of length: 19
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - Data 0000: c0 21 02 01 00 11 03 05 | .!......
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - Data 0008: c2 23 80 05 06 00 00 6e | .#.....n
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - Data 0010: 21 07 02 00 00 00 00 00 | !.......
03-19-1998 13:17:23.30 - LCP : Layer up.

Implementing Virtual Private Networking

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Networking provides a way to connect a client computer to a server by means of a transmission medium such as a network wire or a dial-up connection. It contains three key elements: the client, the transmission media, and the server.

Similarly, virtual private networking (VPN) provides a way to connect a client computer to a server by means of a tunnel through an intermediary network. That is, it uses a network as a transmission medium. The virtual private network consists of the two computers (one at each end of the connection) and a route, or tunnel, over the public or private network.

For example, suppose you want to access the resources on your corporate LAN, but you have only an Internet connection. With virtual private networking, you can "tunnel through" the Internet to access resources on your corporate LAN.

In another example, suppose you are connected to your corporate LAN (LAN A), but you want to access the resources on a server on another LAN (LAN B). LAN A and LAN B are connected by means of a private TCP/IP network. With virtual private networking, you can tunnel through the private network to access the resources on the server on LAN A just as if you were directly connected to it.

In Windows 98, virtual private networking is implemented using the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). PPTP allows you to tunnel through TCP/IP-based data networks to securely access resources on remote servers. PPTP supports multiple network protocols (IP, IPX, and NetBEUI) and can be used for virtual private networking over public and private networks. You can use PPTP to provide secure, on-demand, virtual networks by using dial-up lines, LANs, WANs, or the Internet and other public, TCP/IP-based networks.

The networking technology of PPTP is an extension of the remote access PPP protocol defined in the IETF document "The Point-to-Point Protocol" (RFC 1661). PPTP is a network protocol that encapsulates PPP packets into IP datagrams for transmission over the Internet or other public TCP/IP-based networks. PPTP can also be used in private LAN-to-LAN networking.

For more information about virtual private networking, visit Microsoft's Web site at http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/technologies/communications/default.asp . You can also download the IETF Internet draft "Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol—PPTP" from http://www.ietf.org/ .

Planning for Virtual Private Networking

There are two common virtual private networking scenarios:

  • You can connect your workstation to a remote network by making a Dial-Up Networking connection to a network access server at an ISP facility, and then tunneling through the Internet to a VPN server that is attached to both the Internet and the remote network. Once you are connected to the VPN server, you can transparently gain access to any public or private network that is connected to it. 

  • If you have a permanent IP connection to a VPN tunnel server (such as a LAN connection), you can use that VPN server to tunnel to any public or private network that is connected to it. 

Some less common virtual private networking scenarios require a server provided by a third party. For instance, some VPN tunnel servers, called front end processors (FEPs), can be used for modem pooling. If your PC is on a network with a FEP that has modems available for dialing out, users can simply connect to that tunnel server, dial out, and establish a connection to a PPP access server on another network.

The following section describes the first scenario, in which you use the Internet as the network through which the client tunnels. However, keep in mind that you could use any TCP/IP network in place of the Internet. If so, you must have a permanent TCP/IP connection to a VPN server, and you do not need a dial-up connection to a network access server.

Typical Virtual Private Networking Deployment

A typical deployment of virtual private networking starts with a remote or mobile Windows 98 client that uses a local ISP to access the Internet. The client then tunnels through the Internet to a private enterprise LAN.

A Windows 98 client must make two connections to establish a VPN tunnel: one physical connection and one logical connection. Figure 19.6 shows these connections. The client first uses Dial-Up Networking and the remote access protocol, PPP, to connect to a network access server at an ISP's facility. Once connected, the client can send and receive packets over the Internet. The network access server uses the TCP/IP protocol for all traffic to the Internet.

Note Network access servers are also referred to as dial-in servers, or point-of-presence (POP) servers.

Cc768189.wrkaa11(en-us,TechNet.10).gif 

Figure 19.6 Creating a VPN tunnel 

The client then uses Dial-Up Networking to make a second logical connection over the existing PPP connection. Data sent using this second connection is in the form of IP datagrams that contain PPP packets, referred to as encapsulated PPP packets.

The second connection creates the VPN connection to a VPN server on the private enterprise LAN (a computer running Windows NT Server 4.0 and configured as a VPN server). This connection is referred to as a tunnel.

Tunneling is the process of sending packets to a computer on a private network by routing them over some other network, such as the Internet. The other network's routers cannot access computers on the private network. However, tunneling enables the routing network to transmit the packet to an intermediary computer, a VPN server that is connected to the both the routing network and the private network. Both the VPN client and the VPN server use tunneling to route packets securely to a computer on the private network by using routers that know only the address of the private network intermediary server.

When the VPN server receives the packet from the routing network, it sends it across the private network to the destination computer. The VPN server does this by processing the PPTP packet to obtain the private network computer name or address information in the encapsulated PPP packet. Note that the encapsulated PPP packet can contain multi-protocol data such as IP, IPX, or NetBEUI protocols. Because the VPN server is configured to communicate across the private network by using private network protocols, it is able to read multi-protocol packets.

Figure 19.7 illustrates the multi-protocol support built into virtual private networking. A packet sent from the VPN client to the VPN server passes through the VPN tunnel to a destination computer on the private network.

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Figure 19.7 Connecting a Dial-Up Networking VPN client to the private network 

PPTP encapsulates the encrypted and compressed PPP packets into IP datagrams for transmission over the Internet. The IP datagrams are created using a modified version of the Internet Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) protocol. (defined in RFCs 1701 and 1702).These IP datagrams are routed over the Internet until they reach the VPN server that is connected to both the Internet and the private network. The VPN server disassembles the IP datagram into a PPP packet and then decrypts the PPP packet. It then sends the de-encapsulated IP, IPX, or NetBEUI packet on the private network.

Using Network Protocols with Virtual Private Networking

Virtual private networking allows you to create a tunnel over a public TCP/IP network but retain existing network protocols, network node addresses, and naming schemes on the private enterprise network. Thus, no changes to existing network configurations or network-based applications are required when using virtual private networking to tunnel across the Internet or other TCP/IP-based public networks. For example, IPX or NetBEUI clients can continue to run applications on the private network that require these protocols.

Name resolution methods used on the private network—such as Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) for NetBIOS computers, Domain Name System (DNS) for TCP/IP host names, and Service Advertisement Protocol (SAP) for IPX networking—do not need to be changed.

Note The address and name resolution schemes on the private enterprise network must be correctly configured. If they are not, VPN clients are unable to communicate with computers on the private network.

Virtual Private Networking Issues

Consider the following issues when using virtual private networking:

  • A VPN server can be placed behind a firewall on the private enterprise network to ensure that traffic in and out of the private network over the VPN server is secured by the firewall computer. (For more information, visit http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/technologies/communications/default.asp and download "Understanding PPTP.") 

  • Using the Internet to establish a connection between a VPN client and a VPN server means that the VPN server must have a globally unique IP address that is valid for the global Internet. However, the encapsulated IPX, NetBEUI, or TCP/IP packets sent between the VPN client and the VPN server can be addressed to computers on the private enterprise network using private network addressing or naming schemes. The VPN server disassembles the PPTP packet from the VPN client and forwards the packet to the correct computer on the private network. For more information about private network addressing, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols." 

Configuring Virtual Private Networking

Depending on how you will be using virtual private networking, you will need to configure different types of connections.

If you have a permanent TCP/IP connection (such as a LAN connection) to a VPN tunnel server, and you want to connect to a remote network that is connected to your VPN server, you need only configure the connection to that VPN tunnel server.

If you want to connect your workstation to a remote server by tunneling through the Internet, you must configure two connections: a connection to the Internet through your ISP and a tunnel connection to the VPN server on the target network.

To configure the connection to your ISP or your VPN tunnel server, follow the procedures outlined in "Defining a Dial-Up Networking Connection" and "Configuring and Using Dial-Up Networking Clients" earlier in this chapter.

Using Virtual Private Networking

This section describes how to use the two common VPN configurations.

Note If you are using PPP or PPTP to connect to another IPX network, you will lose IPX connectivity to your local network. Thus, after you make a dial-up or virtual private networking connection, you will no longer be able to see NetWare servers on the local network.

Using Virtual Private Networking over the LAN to Connect to a Tunnel Server

VPN clients with a permanent IP connection to a VPN tunnel server can use VPN tunneling over that IP connection. For example, suppose that you are in a networked office environment and your network has a VPN tunnel server. You can then use that VPN server to tunnel to any private network that is connected to that VPN server, such as the personnel department's private network. Thus, you can create a virtual private network by using your direct LAN connection. Data sent from your VPN client to another computer on the LAN is encrypted and secure because you are using a VPN server to connect to the remote computer.

In the following scenario, the VPN client uses Dial-Up Networking over a LAN connection instead of a telephone line. Only one connection to the VPN server is required.

To connect to a VPN server over a LAN connection
  1. Double-click My Computer, and then double-click Dial-up Networking. 

  2. Click the icon that you have created for your VPN server.

  3. Enter the user name and password required for the target network. 

  4. Click Connect

  5. You now have a connection to your VPN server.

    Note The connection speed displayed is only an estimate. If you see a connection speed that seems too high or too low it will not impact performance and should not be cause for concern. 

After you successfully connect to a VPN server, all traffic from your computer is first routed to your VPN server, which then forwards your data across the LAN to the remote computer. Your computer behaves as if it were physically connected to the remote network. While the tunnel is open, you continue to see computers and servers on your immediate LAN subnet. However, you might not be able to see hosts and servers on other subnets on your LAN. Contact your network administrator for more information.

Dialing an ISP to Connect to a Virtual Private Networking Server

With virtual private networking, you can connect your workstation to a remote network by tunneling through the Internet to a VPN server on that network. To do so, you must make two connections. First, you must connect to the Internet through an ISP. Next, you must create a tunnel to the target network. This section explains how to make these connections.

To connect to the Internet
  1. In My Computer, double-click Dial-Up Networking. 

  2. Double-click the connection icon that was created for your ISP. 

  3. In the Connect To dialog box that appears, enter the user name and password required by your ISP, and then click Connect.

To connect to the target network using a tunnel to the VPN server
  1. After connecting to your ISP, click the icon that was created for your VPN server.

  2. Enter the user name and password required for the target network. 

  3. In the Connect To window, click Connect

You now have two connections, as seen in the two following similar boxes.

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Cc768189.wrkaa53(en-us,TechNet.10).gif 

After you connect successfully to the VPN server on the remote network, the ISP routes all traffic sent from your workstation over the Internet to the VPN server. The VPN server then routes the traffic to the correct computer on the remote network. Consequently, you see only computers and servers on the remote network. You no longer see the Internet unless the remote network itself provides access to the Internet.

Virtual Private Networking Security

This section describes VPN security and discusses how to use virtual private networking with firewalls.

Authentication

When you dial an ISP network access server (NAS), the NAS requires require initial dial-in authentication. This authentication is required only to log on to the NAS; it is not related to Windows NT-based authentication. Check with your ISP for their authentication requirements.

When you dial a VPN tunnel server to connect to a private network, the VPN server requires a standard Windows NT-based logon. Therefore, remote access logon using a computer running Windows 98 is as secure as logging on from a Windows-based computer connected to the local LAN.

Authentication of remote VPN clients is performed using the same PPP authentication methods used for any Dial-up Networking client dialing directly to a RAS server. Microsoft's implementation of Dial-up Networking supports the CHAP, MS-CHAP, and PAP authentication schemes.

Access Control

After authentication, all access to a private LAN continues to use the Windows NT-based security model. Access to resources on NTFS drives or to other network resources requires the proper permissions.

For more information about using security on NTFS drives or other network resources, see your product documentation or the Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource Kit (for Microsoft Windows NT version 4.0).

Data Encryption

For data encryption, virtual private networking uses the RAS "shared-secret" encryption process. Both the client and the server share a secret, the user's password. Both the client and the server uses the secret to generate an initial 40-bit encryption key, then uses the key to encrypt and decrypt all data that it passes over the Internet. When you are connecting to a Windows NT 4 RAS Server with Service Pack 4 or later, the key changes on every packet. For earlier versions of Windows NT 4, the key changes every 256 packets.

Note The process by which the client and server generate the initial key occurs only when MS-CHAP is used.

Users in the United States and Canada can obtain a 128-bit session key through a cryptography pack for use inside the US. Contact your Microsoft reseller for more information. When 128-bit encryption is used, the initial key is based on the password and a unique MS-CHAP challenge.

PPTP Packet Filtering

To protect the VPN server from malicious attacks, you can enable PPTP filtering on the VPN server. With PPTP filtering, the VPN server on the private network accepts and routes only authorized, encrypted PPTP packets from authenticated users.

PPTP filtering is enabled on the VPN server. For step-by-step instruction on enabling PPTP filtering, see the white paper "Installing, Configuring, and Using PPTP with Microsoft Clients and Servers" at http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/technologies/communications/default.asp .

Virtual Private Networking with Firewalls and Routers

PPTP traffic uses TCP port 1723, and IP protocol uses ID 47, as assigned by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Virtual private networking can be used with most firewalls and routers by enabling traffic destined for TCP port 1723 and protocol 47 to be routed through the firewall or router.

Firewalls ensure corporate network security by strictly regulating data that comes into the private network from the Internet. An organization can deploy a VPN server running Windows NT Server 4.0 behind its firewall. The VPN server accepts PPTP packets passed to the private network from the firewall and extracts the PPP packet from the IP datagram, decrypts the packet, and forwards the packet to the computer on the private network.

Technical Notes on Dial-Up and Virtual Private Networking

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In Windows 98, computers can be multihomed, or configured with multiple IP addresses. This enables them to connect to multiple networks that are physically separate, such as a corporate network and the Internet, with certain limitations. This section describes those limitations as they apply to Dial-Up Networking. For general information about multihoming, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols."

If you are connected to a LAN and you make a PPP dial-up connection or a VPN connection, you might lose connectivity to some of the servers on your LAN. Likewise, if you connect to the Internet, then make a VPN connection to another network, you might lose connectivity to the Internet itself.

This is because of the default routing changes that Dial-up Networking makes when setting up a connection. Clients on TCP/IP networks can send packets directly to hosts on their immediate network segment. However, to reach other network segments and other networks, they send their packets to a default gateway instead. That gateway then determines where to send the packets. Thus, clients can send packets to servers anywhere in a very large, complex network without having to know how to reach each server. Figure 19.8 shows how TCP/IP clients use default gateways.

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Figure 19.8 Default gateway for a TCP/IP client

You can find out what your default gateway is by looking at the route table for your computer. The route table shows all the routes your computer uses to reach other computers on the network.

For more information about the route table and to see the complete route table for the network shown in Figure 19.8, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols."

To view the route table

  • At the command prompt, type route print

Table 19.2 shows a partial route table for the network shown in Figure 19.8.

Table 19.2 Partial route table for TCP/IP client 

Network address

Netmask

Gateway address

Interface

Metric

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

172.16.34.1

172.16.34.232

1

Notice that the first line of the route table shows the address for the default gateway, and that it has a metric of 1. The metric indicates which gateway will be used and what the gateways that will be used if the first is removed from the route table. TCP/IP clients always use the default gateway with the smallest metric.

TCP/IP clients can be configured with several different default gateways. If one default gateway fails, the clients automatically switch to another. However, because TCP/IP clients always use the default gateway with the smallest metric, they cannot use more than one default gateway at a time.

Figure 19.9 shows what happens when you make a PPP dial-up connection to the Internet. Dial-Up Networking assigns a new default gateway, that of the PPP server. Because the client can use only one default gateway, it sends all network traffic through that gateway. You can no longer gain access to some of the servers on your LAN.

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Figure 19.9 New default gateway for PPP client 

The partial route table displayed in Table 19.3 shows what happens to the default gateway.

Table 19.3 New partial route table for PPP client 

Network address

Netmask

Gateway address

Interface

Metric

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

172.16.34.232

172.16.34.232

1

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

172.16.34.1

172.16.34.232

2

The first line now shows the new default gateway for the PPP server, and the second line shows the old default gateway on your LAN. Because the old default gateway has a metric of 2, the TCP/IP stack does not use it.

If you need to reach servers on your network while connected to the Internet, you can manually add host routes to those servers. Use the route command to add a route manually to the gateway, IP subnet, or IP network you want to reach. For more information about adding routes, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols." See also the Windows NT Server Networking Guide for Windows NT version 4.0.

Finally, Figure 19.10 shows what happens when you make a VPN tunnel connection over the PPP connection. (For more information about PPP, see "Implementing Virtual Private Networking" earlier in this chapter.) Dial-Up Networking assigns a third default gateway to the VPN server, invalidating the first two default gateways. You lose access not only to servers on your LAN but to hosts on the Internet.

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Figure 19.10 New default gateway for PPTP client 

The partial route table displayed in Table 19.4 shows the default gateways.

Table 19.4 New partial route table for VPN client 

Network address

Netmask

Gateway address

Interface

Metric

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

192.168.68.10

192.168.68.10

1

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

172.16.34.232

172.16.34.232

2

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

172.20.232.1

172.20.234.232

2

If you want to regain lost connectivity to servers on your local network or to the Internet, you have the following options:

  • You can manually add host routes to servers on your network, as described in Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols." 

  • For VPN connections, you can disable the default gateway to the VPN tunnel server. You must then add routes to the virtual private network. 

The following procedure describes how to disable the default gateway to the VPN tunnel server. After you disable the default gateway, you might need to configure routes to servers on the remote network. However, you do not need to configure a route to the VPN tunnel server, because Dial-Up Networking automatically assigns a host route to that server.

To disable the default gateway to the VPN tunnel server

  1. In the Dial-Up Networking folder, right-click the VPN server connection icon, and then click Properties

  2. Click the Server Types tab. 

  3. Click TCP/IP Settings

  4. Clear the Use default gateway on remote networks check box. 

Dial-up Networking automatically creates a host route to the VPN tunnel server, so you can still reach it.

Using Windows 98 Mobile Computing Features

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You can be productive away from the office by using the following Windows 98 mobile computing tools:

Windows 98 Briefcase Briefcase allows you to update documents on a portable computer with source documents on a desktop computer or network, thus minimizing the task of keeping track of the relationships between files on a portable computer and on a desktop computer. With Briefcase, you can simultaneously update related files.

Direct Cable Connection Direct Cable Connection (DCC) allows you to establish a connection between two computers quickly and easily by using a parallel cable, a null-modem serial cable, or an infrared connection. After the connection is established, Direct Cable Connection facilitates the transfer of files from the host computer to the guest computer. The host can act as a gateway to an IPX/SPX or NetBEUI network for the guest.

Infrared Windows 98 supports infrared devices, so you can wirelessly connect a laptop or a computer to infrared cameras, other computers, or printers. Infrared works with file sharing tools such as Direct Cable Connection, so you can quickly and easily take a laptop with you wherever you go and then update files on a standalone computer or the network.

Deferred printing Windows 98 supports deferred printing, which allows you to generate print jobs when you are not connected physically to a printer. The print jobs are stored until a printer becomes available. Windows 98 detects the printer connection and automatically spools the print jobs in the background. For information, see Chapter 11, "Printing, Imaging, and Fonts."

Internet Mail and News With Outlook Express, you can dial into your internet service provider and download your e-mail from an IMAP4 or POP3 server. You can also download news from your newsgroups located on an NNTP server. For information, see Chapter 22, "Electronic Mail with Outlook Express."

Other mobile computing tools, such as the following, help you manage a portable computer's limited battery power and disk space:

  • With Advanced Power Management, you can use the battery indicator on the taskbar and a Suspend command on the Start menu to save power without turning off your computer. For more information, see Chapter 30, "Hardware Management." 

  • With DriveSpace, you can free space on their portable computer's hard disk drive and floppy disks by compressing them. For more information, see Chapter 10, "Disks and File Systems." 

  • With Outlook Express, you can view the headers of mail messages before deciding whether to download, preventing unnecessary messages from taking up disk space. 

  • With Quick View, you can view the contents of a file in Windows Explorer by right-clicking a file icon. For information, see Chapter 25, "Application Support." 

Using Direct Cable Connection

With Direct Cable Connection, you can establish a direct serial connection, parallel cable connection, or infrared connection between two computers in order to share the resources of the computer designated as the host. If the host is connected to a network, the guest computer can also access the network.

For example, if you have a portable computer, you can use a cable to connect it to your work computer and network. To establish a local connection between two computers, you must connect a compatible serial or null-modem parallel cable to both computers, or both computers must be equipped with infrared devices. For information about using Direct Cable Connection with infrared devices, see the section "Using Infrared" later in this chapter.

Before you can transfer files from the host to the guest computer, the files must be in a shared directory, and File and Printer Sharing services for either Microsoft or NetWare networks must be enabled in the Network option in Control Panel. You can also apply share-level security to the shared files. For information, see Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing," and Chapter 9, "Security."

Before you install and configure Direct Cable Connection, you need to decide:

  • What remote access and network protocols do you need to install on the guest and host computers? They must both be running at least one common network protocol in order to connect. A broadcast protocol such as NetBEUI is simplest. 

  • Do you want the host computer to act as a gateway to a TCP/IP network? If so, you must install NetBEUI.

  • What kind of cable or infrared device do you need? 

  • Do you want to assign a password to the host computer? If you assign a password on the host, all users connecting from the guest computer will be prompted for it. After connecting, the guest can access resources on the host computer according to the type of security applied to it, that is, user-level or share-level security.

Note You cannot use Direct Cable Connection and Dial-Up Networking at the same time. Both applications use the same network interface (Pppmac.vxd). Before using Direct Cable Connection, make sure to shut down any active Dial-Up Networking connections.

Installing and Configuring Direct Cable Connection

To install Direct Cable Connection during Windows 98 Setup, you must run Setup from the DOS prompt and choose Custom or Portable as the setup type. You can also install Direct Cable Connection after installing Windows 98.

To install Direct Cable Connection after Windows 98 Setup
  1. In Control Panel, click Add/Remove Programs, and then click the Windows Setup tab. 

  2. In the Components list, click Communications, and then click Details. 

  3. In the Components dialog box, click Direct Cable Connection, and then click OK

Windows 98 provides a Direct Cable Connection Wizard for establishing the connection between two computers. The wizard runs when you open Direct Cable Connection the first time. It allows you to designate one computer as the guest and the other as a host. Before you run the wizard, you must install Direct Cable Connection on each computer and connect them with a null-modem serial or parallel cable, or with an infrared device.

For more information about setting up and using Direct Cable Connection, see Help, or the Networks troubleshooter section on "I am unable to connect my Windows 95 computer to my Windows 98 computer."

Cables Compatible with Direct Cable Connection

Windows 98 supports a serial null-modem standard (RS-232) cable and the following parallel cables:

  • Standard or Basic 4-bit cable, including LapLink and InterLink cables available before 1992. 

  • Extended Capabilities Port (ECP) cable. This type of cable works on a computer with ECP-enabled parallel ports, which must be enabled in BIOS. This kind of parallel cable allows data to be transferred more quickly than a standard cable. 

  • Universal Cable Module (UCM) cable. This cable supports connecting different types of parallel ports. Using this cable between two ECP-enabled ports allows the fastest possible data transfer between two computers.

Parallel cables transmit data simultaneously over multiple lines, whereas serial cables transmit data sequentially over one pair of wires. Thus, parallel cables are faster than serial cables.

You can also use Direct Cable Connection over an infrared link. For more information, see "Using Infrared" later in this chapter.

Using Briefcase to Synchronize Files

If you can use a portable computer and a desktop computer, or you are connected to a network, you must constantly work to keep the files synchronized. Windows 98 Briefcase minimizes this task by keeping track of the relationships between files on two or more computers.

With Briefcase, you can do the following:

  • Create a Briefcase folder. 

  • Add files to Briefcase. 

  • Check the status of files in Briefcase and their related files. 

  • Update related files, either individually or all at once. 

  • Split related files to maintain them separately. 

Windows 98 provides a set of OLE interfaces that allow applications to bind reconciliation handlers to it, track the contents of Briefcase, and define the outcome of any reconciliation on a class-by-class basis. For example, when both the file in Briefcase and its synchronized copy outside have changed, Windows 98 calls the appropriate reconciliation handler to merge the two files. This could be handy when several users are simultaneously updating one large document.

Caution Do not place one Briefcase inside another Briefcase. You cannot drag a file into a Briefcase that is in another Briefcase.

Creating and Configuring a Briefcase

To install Briefcase during Windows 98 Setup, you must run Setup from the DOS prompt and choose Custom or Portable as the setup type. You can also install Briefcase after installing Windows 98.

To install Briefcase after Windows 98 installation
  1. In Control Panel, double-click Add/Remove Programs. 

  2. Click the Windows Setup tab, in the Components list click Accessories, and then click Details

  3. In the Accessories dialog box, click Briefcase, and then click OK

If you install Briefcase, it appears as an icon on your Windows 98 desktop. To run Briefcase, double-click its icon.

To uninstall Briefcase
  • Drag the Briefcase icon to the Recycle bin. 

Tip You can use Briefcase to synchronize files between a portable computer running Windows 98 and a desktop computer running Windows NT Server 3.5 or later.

Updating Files with Briefcase

When you update files by using Briefcase, Windows 98 automatically replaces unmodified files with modified files. If both files have changed, Windows 98 calls the appropriate application (if available) to merge the disparate files. The host and guest can be connected in the following ways:

  • You can copy files from your desktop to Briefcase and then load Briefcase onto your portable computer. If you are using a Plug and Play BIOS docking station, Briefcase automatically updates files when you later dock your portable computer.

  • You can update files using Briefcase and a floppy disk. For information, see Windows 98 Help. 

  • You can synchronize files between a portable computer and a network if the portable computer has a network connection.

  • You can use Direct Cable Connection to connect two computers running Windows 98, and then use Briefcase to synchronize their files. For more information about Direct Cable Connection, see "Using Direct Cable Connection" earlier in this chapter. 

For more information about Briefcase, and for instructions for using Briefcase to update two connected computers, see Help.

Tip To find the copy of a file that is outside Briefcase, click Find Original in the Update Status dialog box.

Using Infrared

Windows 98 includes Microsoft Infrared version 3.0, which allows you to use infrared devices to connect to computers, printers, or other devices such as infrared cameras. Microsoft Infrared 3.0 supports the Infrared Data Association (IrDA) standards IrDA 1.0, for Serial Infrared Devices (SIR); and IrDA 1.1, for Fast Infrared Devices (FIR). Because of its low cost and simple implementation, infrared is the first widely used wireless transmission technology. It can be used for the following purposes:

  • Exchanging files wirelessly between two computers. 

  • Printing wirelessly on infrared-capable printers. 

  • Connecting to the network wirelessly instead of using cabling, through a computer connected by Direct Cable Connect. 

The Windows 98 implementation of Infrared provides the following benefits:

  • Device drivers for SIR devices capable of sending and receiving at speeds up to 115.2 kbps. 

  • Support for FIR devices capable of sending and receiving data at 4 Mbps. 

Windows 98 also includes Microsoft Infrared Transfer, an application that enables a suitably enabled computer to quickly send files using their infrared device.

Installing an Infrared Device

This section describes how to install infrared devices.

Note If you change the infrared adapter model that is connected to the computer, you should reinstall it.

The procedure for installing an infrared device varies depending on whether it is a Plug and Play device. All Fast Infrared devices are Plug and Play–compatible.

To install a Plug and Play device
  1. If it is an external device, attach it. The Infrared 3.0 software loads automatically. 

  2. Double-click the Infrared icon in Control Panel to activate the infrared device. If there is no Infrared icon in Control Panel, press F5 to make the icon appear. 

To install a non-Plug and Play infrared device
  1. If it is an external device, attach it. 

    In Control Panel, double-click the Add New Hardware wizard. Follow the instructions on the screen, making the following choices:

    • If asked whether the device you want is in the list, click No

    • When asked whether you want Windows to search for your new hardware, click No

    • When the Hardware Types box appears, click Infrared devices

    • When asked to select a device, accept the default selection Generic Infrared Serial Port or dongle. (The other devices listed are Plug and Play devices.) 

    • When asked for such information as the communications port that the infrared device is physically connected to, if you are not sure, accept the defaults. 

Using the Infrared Monitor

You can use the Infrared Monitor to keep track of your computer's infrared activity. You can activate Infrared Monitor once your infrared device is installed by double-clicking the Infrared icon in Control Panel or by clicking the animated Infrared icon in the system tray on the Taskbar. The Infrared Monitor contains the tabs and options shown in Table 19.5.

Table 19.5 Infrared Monitor tabs 

Tab name

Tab option

Description

Status

 

Tells you whether infrared is working properly and displays information about the infrared connections.

Options

Enable infrared communication

Enables and disables infrared services on the physical serial port.

 

Search for and provide status for devices in range

Starts and stops the infrared device's ability to detect other devices that are in range.

 

Enable software install for Plug and Play devices in range

Enables and disables Microsoft Infrared Support software from automatically configuring a device across the infrared communication link when the computer comes into range of a new Plug and Play device.

 

Limit connection speed

Configures the maximum speed for the infrared. Limiting this speed may improve communication.

 

Restore defaults

Restores settings to defaults.

Preferences

Display the infrared icon in the taskbar

Determines whether the infrared icon displays in the system tray.

 

Open Infrared Monitor for interrupted communication

Specifies whether to open the Infrared Monitor when infrared communication is interrupted.

 

Play sounds for devices in range and interrupted communication

Specifies whether sounds will be played for various infrared events.

Identification

Computer name

Contains the name assigned to the computer. This is the same name used to identify your computer on the network. If no name appears here, enter one.

 

Computer description

Contains a description of the computer. This is the same description used to identify your computer on the network. If no description appears here, enter one.

To verify your connection using Infrared Monitor
  1. On one of the computers, in the system tray on the Taskbar, double-click the animated infrared icon. Infrared Monitor appears. 

  2. Click the Status tab. It shows all devices visible to the computer. 

  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for the other computer. 

Transferring Files Using Infrared Transfer

Windows 98 includes Infrared Transfer, a new application for transferring files through an infrared connection.

When an infrared device has been installed, an icon called Infrared Recipient is added to My Computer, and a shortcut to it is added to the \Windows\Send To folder. This shortcut adds an item to the Send To menu option that appears when you right-click a file or folder.

The first time Infrared Transfer is used to send a file or folder, a folder called My Received Files is created, and all sent files or folders will be copied to this folder. If a file or folder is sent that already exists in the My Received Files folder, a copy of the file or folder is made.

You can transfer files using one of several different methods. Before attempting to transfer files, make sure the infrared communications driver is properly installed and the infrared devices are enabled by carrying out the procedures in "Installing an Infrared Device" and "Using the Infrared Monitor" earlier in this chapter.

To transfer files or folders using Infrared Recipient
  1. In My Computer, double-click Infrared Recipient. 

  2. Select an available infrared device. 

  3. Click Send Files

  4. Select the files to send. 

  5. Click Open

To transfer files or folders using Send To
  1. Select the files you want to send. 

  2. Right-click the selected files, and then point to Send To

  3. Click Infrared Recipient

To transfer files or folders using Drag and Drop
  1. In My Computer, open Infrared Recipient. 

  2. If there is more than one infrared device in range, select an available infrared device. 

  3. In Windows Explorer, select files you want to send. 

  4. If there is only a single infrared device in range, drag and drop files onto the Infrared Recipient icon in my computer. 

    -Or- 

  5. If there is more than one infrared device in range, drag and then drop files onto the computer selected in Available devices within range. 

Transferring Files using Direct Cable Connection and Infrared

You can use Direct Cable Connection over an infrared link to connect a host and guest computer. This section describes how to transfer files over an infrared link, using Direct Cable Connection. Before transferring files, you must install Direct Cable Connection on both computers by following the procedure outlined in "Using Direct Cable Connection" earlier in this chapter. Both computers must also use a common network protocol; a broadcast protocol such as NetBEUI is easiest to configure.

Additionally, the files must be in a shared directory, and File and Printer Sharing services for either Microsoft or NetWare networks must be enabled in the Network option in Control Panel. You can also apply share-level security to the shared files. For information about File and Printer Sharing, see Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing." For more information about share-level security, see Chapter 9, "Security."

To transfer files using Direct Cable Connection
  1. Make sure the infrared communications driver is properly installed and the infrared devices are enabled by carrying out the procedures in "Installing an Infrared Device" and "Using the Infrared Monitor" earlier in this chapter. 

  2. On one of the computers, open the Infrared Monitor and click the Options tab. It lists the virtual COM port the infrared device uses. Note this information. 

  3. On the host computer, click Start, point to Accessories, and then click Direct Cable Connection

  4. Follow the steps in the Direct Cable Connection Wizard to set up the host computer. 

    When the wizard prompts you for it, select the Host option. When the wizard prompts you to choose a port, use the same virtual port you found in Step 2.

    The wizard also offers password protection. It is not necessary to establish password protection on the host computer for this test of the infrared link. When you have finished the wizard, click Finish. Direct Cable Connection starts running on the infrared link and displays the following message: "Status: Waiting to connect via Serial cable on Comx," where Comx is the name of the virtual port the infrared link is using. 

  5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the guest computer, except select the Guest option instead of the Host option. When you have finished the wizard, click Finish

The connection is automatically made over the infrared link, and all the shared folders on the host computer are displayed on the guest computer's screen.

When you run Direct Cable Connection to establish the connection between the host and guest computers, the guest computer might display the message "Direct Cable Connection was unable to display shared folders of the host computer" and prompt you to enter the computer name of the host computer. If this happens, check the Status tab of the Infrared Monitor interface screen.

If you are working on the guest computer, and you want to copy a shared folder from the host computer to the guest computer, select the folder's icon in the window that displays all the shared folders that are on the host computer, and drag the icon to the desktop.

To work on a shared folder on the host computer without copying it to the guest computer, double-click the folder in the display on the guest computer. Note that if the host computer is connected to a network, the guest computer can reach shared resources on the network through the connection to the host.

Printing with Infrared Transfer

Before attempting to print, make sure the infrared communications driver is properly installed and the infrared devices are enabled by carrying out the procedures in "Installing an Infrared Device" and "Using the Infrared Monitor" earlier in this chapter.

To print to an Infrared-Capable Printer
  1. Make sure the infrared communications driver is installed on the computer. 

  2. Bring an infrared-enabled printer within range. 

  3. Your computer might automatically detect and install the printer. If not, make sure the printer driver for the infrared-capable printer is installed on the computer.

  4. Try the Print option in a program. 

You can make printers without built-in infrared ports infrared-capable by connecting an infrared adapter made for printers into the printer's parallel port. An example of an infrared adapter for printers is the Extended Systems JetEye Infrared Printer Port ESI-9580. If a parallel cable is also used to connect the computer to the infrared printer adapter, you can use either the infrared link or the parallel cable to print. The infrared link is used when you select the virtual parallel port; the cable is used when you select the physical parallel port.

To validate the infrared link to the printer, make sure the correct printer driver is installed for the infrared-capable printer. (Most printers with built-in infrared ports are Plug and Play devices, which are installed automatically.) Then use a program to print over the infrared link.

If the program prints on an infrared-capable printer, the infrared driver installation is validated. If there is trouble printing, see "Troubleshooting Infrared" later in this chapter for more information.

Troubleshooting Remote Networking and Mobile Computing

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This section describes problems you may encounter in using Dial-Up Networking, virtual private networking, and Mobile Computing.

Troubleshooting Dial-Up Networking

This section describes problems that you may encounter in using Dial-Up Networking and how to resolve them. Windows 98 provides a troubleshooting aid for Dial-Up Networking in Help. Try using the troubleshooting aid before taking the troubleshooting steps included in this section.

You can monitor any Dial-Up Networking session for possible problems by enabling the Record a Log File option. This produces a Ppplog.txt file in the Windows directory, which you can reference to find out the cause of a problem. For more information, see Knowledge Base Article 156435, "How to Interpret the Ppplog.txt File."

Dial-Up Networking does not install properly. 

If you cancel Setup while Dial-Up Networking is copying files and then restart the computer, you will see an error message stating that the following files are missing:

  • Vnetsup.vxd 

  • Nwlink.vxd 

  • Nwredir.vxd 

  • Nscl.vxd 

  • Vredir.vxd 

  • Ndis.vxd 

  • Ndis2sup.vxd 

  • Vnetbios.vxd 

If these files are missing, Dial-Up Networking will not function correctly. You must remove and reinstall Dial-Up Networking.

To remove Dial-Up Networking
  1. In Control Panel, click Add/Remove Programs. 

  2. Remove all Dial-Up Networking components. 

  3. Restart your computer. 

To reinstall Dial-Up Networking, follow the procedures outlined in "Installing Dial-Up Networking" earlier in this chapter.

Caution Never remove Dial-Up Networking components using Network in Control Panel.

Dial-Up Networking cannot find modem. 

If you see an error message stating that Dial-Up Networking cannot find the specified modem, check the following:

  • Check that the modem is properly installed and configured. 

  • In Modems in Control Panel, check the General tab to make sure it lists your modem. 

  • Check the connection to make sure the modem you have specified is the modem connected to your computer. 

The remote server does not respond. 

If you receive an error message that the computer you are connecting to has not responded, check the following items:

  • Check your connection to make sure it is configured to use the network protocols used on the remote server. 

  • If you are using TCP/IP, check your connection to make sure that the network protocols are configured correctly. 

  • In Control Panel, check the Network option to make sure it lists all the network protocols used on the remote server. 

  • Check your connection to make sure it is configured to access the correct server type. 

  • Check that the server is configured correctly. 

  • If a terminal logon is required, check that you have configured the Options tab in your connection to bring up a terminal window before dialing. 

You cannot access the Dial-Up Networking server because a user name is not valid. 

In the properties for the Windows 95 or Windows 98 dial-up server, verify that the user name is in the list of users that are allowed access.

To set Dial-Up Networking Server to allow caller access options
  1. In Dial-Up Networking, click the Connections menu, and then click Dial-Up Server

  2. In the Dial-Up Server properties, click Allow Caller Access, if this is not already selected, and then view the User name list to ensure the user's name appears. 

    The User name list appears only if you have chosen user-level security for the dial-up server. The type of security is selected in the Network option in Control Panel. 

If the dial-up client is also running File and Printer Services for NetWare Networks, the File and Printer Sharing service automatically becomes the default server, but it cannot receive the information needed to find the remote servers.

You cannot access remote NetWare servers when making a dial-up connection. 

Disable File and Printer Sharing Service for NetWare Networks when you make the dial-up connection.

Software compression does not work. 

Check the settings for the dial-up server type and software compression.

To verify dial-up server and compression options in Dial-Up Networking
  1. In the Connections menu, click Dial-Up Server

  2. Click Server Type and verify that the correct type of dial-up server is selected. 

  3. Check that Enable software compression is selected. Compression will occur only if the dial-up client and server have enabled it.

The modem is dialing but not connecting. 

  • Check the modem configuration; change the configuration if necessary.

  • Verify all parameters, such as access codes, area code, country code, and dialing properties. 

  • Try choosing the driver for Generic Modem Drivers

  • If you are using an external modem, check the cable and verify that it is connected correctly. 

  • Check the COM port configuration in Device Manager.

For more information, see the troubleshooting section in Chapter 21, "Modems and Communications Tools."

Dial-Up Networking Server is not answering incoming calls. 

  • If you are using an external modem, check the cable and verify that it is connected correctly. 

  • If you are using an internal modem with a nonstandard IRQ selection, use Device Manager to check the IRQ setting for the COM port and change it if necessary. 

  • Disable Allow Caller Access and shut down the computer. Turn off the computer to reset the COM port. If the modem is external, turn off the modem. Turn the computer back on and reconfigure the Dial-Up Networking server, and then try again. 

  • If these steps fail, disable Allow Caller Access and see if any modem software can manually answer the incoming call. 

  • Try choosing the Generic Modem Drivers on the dial-up server.

The password for the Dial-Up Networking server is stored in the Rna.pwl file. However, simply deleting this file or removing and reinstalling Dial-Up Networking may not remove the password. If you set the Dial-Up Networking server to monitor for calls and then delete the Rna.pwl file, the password is not removed, because it is stored in memory. If you shut down Windows 98 at this point, the Rna.pwl file is re-created with the password in memory.

To replace a forgotten password in a Dial-Up Networking server
  1. Disable Allow Caller Access, and then shut down and restart Windows 98. 

  2. Delete the Rna.pwl file, and then restart Dial-Up Networking. 

Note When you first connect to the Dial-Up Networking server, an error message states that the password file is missing or corrupt for every modem device you have installed. If you have any null modem devices installed (for example, when you run Direct Cable Connection it installs a modem device for every COM and LPT port you have), this error message also appears.

You lose connectivity to servers on your network or to the Internet. 

If you are connected to a LAN and you make a PPP or VPN connection, you might lose connectivity to some of the servers on your LAN. Likewise, if you connect to the Internet, then make a VPN connection to another network, you might lose connectivity to the Internet itself. For information about the cause of this problem and its solution, see "Technical Notes on Dial-Up and Virtual Private Networking," earlier in this chapter.

Multilink does not provide additional bandwidth. 

  • Check that the server you are connecting to supports Multilink. 

  • Check that you have two modems or a dual-channel ISDN card. If you do not have two modems or a dual-channel ISDN card, you cannot use Multilink. 

  • Check that your modems are exactly the same speed. Performance degrades if the modems connect at different speeds. 

  • Check that your modems or ISDN card are configured correctly. For more information about the correct configuration, see Chapter 21, "Modems and Communications Tools." 

TAPI codes do not work properly. 

If you entered TAPI codes, an area code, or a country code in one connection, but Dial-Up Networking does not use those codes when you use the connection, make sure that all your connections use the TAPI codes.

To verify that all your connections use the TAPI codes
  1. Right-click each connection icon, and then select Properties from the context menu. 

  2. In the General tab for each connection, check that Use area code and Dialing Properties is selected. 

Troubleshooting Your Virtual Private Networking Connection

This section describes common virtual private networking problems and explains how to correct them.

Two Dial-Up networking adapters appear in Network in Control Panel. 

This is by design. Do not attempt to remove Dial-Up Networking components using Network in Control Panel. If you need to remove virtual private networking, do so using Add/Remove Programs in Control Panel.

You cannot connect to a VPN server. 

If you cannot connect to a VPN server, you can begin to diagnose the problem by looking at the status messages that appear when you attempt to make a connection. If the connection is successful, you will see the following messages:

  • a message stating that your computer is dialing a server. 

  • a message that says the server is verifying your name and password. 

  • a message that says the client is logging on to the network. 

If the connection fails before you see the "Verifying name and password" message, you might have a problem with DNS name resolution, or the VPN server might not be responding. If the connection fails before you see the "Verifying name and password" message and gives you the error message that the other computer is not responding, a computer along the way might be filtering out Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) packets, which are required for VPN to work.

However, if you do see the message "verifying name and password," your PPP connection succeeded and PPTP is working, and you probably have a problem with your user name and password.

You can also check the following items.

Verify that you are properly connected to the Internet. Make sure that your Internet connection is working properly.

To check that your connection to the Internet is working properly:
  1. Ping a host that you can normally reach using ping

    If ping succeeds, your Internet connection is working properly. 

  2. If ping does not reach that host, type its IP address. 

    If ping succeeds, you are properly connected to the Internet, but you are not properly connected to your DNS server. You should be able to connect to your VPN server by typing its IP address instead of its host name. 

    – Or – 

    If ping fails, you might not be connected to the Internet. Contact your ISP. 

Ping the VPN server. Ping the host name or IP address of the VPN server.

If you receive a response, you are properly connected to the VPN server, and you might have entered an incorrect user name or password.

If you do not receive a response, the administrator of the VPN server might have turned on PPTP filtering. This prevents you from pinging the VPN server. Contact the administrator of that server.

Check for a firewall. Firewalls sometimes filter out PPTP packets. Contact your ISP and the administrator of your corporate server and ask if they are using a firewall. If they are, request that they pass TCP port 1723 and IP protocol 47 (the GRE protocol).

Because PPTP is a secure protocol, adding TCP port 1723 and IP protocol 47 will not affect the security of the firewall.

Make sure your ISP is not filtering out PPTP. Contact your ISP and ask if it filters out GRE packets. If so, request that it pass GRE protocol 47.

Check for a proxy server. It is not possible to create a VPN tunnel that passes through a proxy server such as a computer running Microsoft Proxy Server. Therefore, if your internal network's proxy server handles all Internet traffic, including PPTP traffic, you will not be able to create a VPN tunnel to access resources on the internal network.

You cannot log on to the target network. 

If you can connect to the VPN tunnel server, but you cannot perform a domain logon to the target network, verify that you have configured the connection to your VPN server to allow you to perform a domain logon to the target network.

To verify your VPN configuration
  1. In the Dial-Up Networking folder, right-click the icon for your VPN server connection. 

  2. Click Properties.

  3. Click the Server Types tab. 

  4. In the Advanced options dialog box, make sure the Log on to the network check box is selected. 

Your VPN connection is slow. 

If your VPN connection is slow, follow the procedures outlined below.

  • Check your ISP connection. 

    You might be able to improve your performance by changing settings in your ISP connection. Specifically, you can improve performance by deselecting the option Log on to network and by deselecting all network protocols you are not using. To do so, follow the steps outlined in the procedure in the "Configuring Options for the Server to Which You Are Connecting" section earlier in this chapter. For information about other issues you should consider when setting up a connection to the Internet, see "Configuring a Connection to the Internet" earlier in this chapter. 

  • Check the connection to other Internet sites. 

    To check the speed of your Internet connection, ping Internet sites you can normally ping. If ping shows a response time of more than five seconds, you have a slow Internet connection. Contact your ISP. 

  • Check the connection to your VPN server. 

    If you do not have problems with your Internet connection, but the connection to your VPN server is still slow, the VPN server might be overloaded. Contact the administrator of the VPN server. 

You cannot connect after disconnecting from a LAN. 

If you have a mobile computer that has a directly attached network adapter card that you use to access resources on your corporate network, you might have trouble connecting to some of your network's hosts after disconnecting a mobile computer such as a laptop from your corporate network and then making a VPN connection to your corporate network. This happens because your computer is still forwarding all its network traffic to the network adapter instead of over the VPN connection. To force your computer to forward its network traffic over the VPN connection, disable your network adapter using the following procedure.

To disable your network adapter
  1. In Control Panel, double-click System. 

  2. Click the Device Manager tab. 

  3. Double-click Network adapters

  4. Select your network adapter. 

  5. Click Properties

  6. In the Device usage box, select the Disable in this hardware profile check box. 

If this procedure does not work, but you are using DHCP to automatically assign IP addresses, you can try using winipcfg to release your IP address. For more information, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols."

To release your IP address
  1. Click Start, click Run, type winipcfg, and then press the ENTER key. 

  2. In the IP Configuration dialog box, click Release All

Troubleshooting Direct Cable Connection

This section presents problems that might occur when you are using Direct Cable Connection.

As general troubleshooting steps, verify the following:

  • Verify that your cable is properly connected.

  • Make sure that you are using a compatible cable, listed in "Using Direct Cable Connection" earlier in this chapter. Make sure that you are not using such devices as gender-benders or devices that convert 25-pin cables to 9-pin cables. 

  • Check Device Manager to make sure that you do not have an IRQ port conflict. 

  • Verify that both computers have the same network protocol installed. A broadcast protocol such as NetBEUI is simplest. 

You cannot find the host computer. 

If you cannot find the host computer using Direct Cable Connection, follow the procedures in "Using Direct Cable Connection" earlier in this chapter to make sure Direct Cable Connection has been installed correctly on the host computer and is working.

If Direct Cable Connection is working properly but you still cannot find the host computer, make sure you have Client for Microsoft Networks is installed. For more information, see Chapter 16, "Windows 98 on Microsoft Networks."

You can connect to the host computer but you cannot use it as a gateway to the network. 

The host computer and guest computer can communicate using the TCP/IP protocol, which is generally installed by default. However, if you want the host computer to act as a gateway to a TCP/IP network, you should make sure that NetBEUI is installed as well. For more information, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols."

You cannot use Direct Cable Connection with Dial-Up Networking. 

Both Dial-Up Networking and Direct Cable Connection use the same network interface (Pppmac.vxd). You cannot have more than one instance of Pppmac.vxd running at one time, so you cannot use both Direct Cable Connection and Dial-Up Networking at the same time. You must close either Direct Cable Connection or Dial-Up Networking.

Troubleshooting Infrared

Following are several factors to check as you begin to troubleshoot your infrared connection:

  • Check distance between infrared adapters. 

    Try moving the devices closer together or farther apart. The devices must be no more than three feet apart, and some devices work best if kept at least six inches apart. Make sure that there are no obstructions between the devices. 

  • Check alignment between infrared adapters. 

    Infrared devices produce an "arc" of infrared light. This arc is usually between 15 and 30 degrees. Try realigning the devices so that they fall within this arc. 

  • Check for interference with infrared transmission. 

    Direct sunlight contains infrared light and can cause degradation of the infrared signal between devices. If this occurs, try blocking the sunlight or moving the devices closer together. 

  • Experiment with connection speed. 

    Use the Limit Connection Speed To option in the Infrared Monitor Options tab to limit the connection speed to 19.2 kbps. If this is successful, you can experiment with establishing a connection at a higher speed. This is especially important if an infrared adapter is attached to a COM port that is using an 8250 UART instead of a 16550 UART or if the adapter is connected to a relatively slow computer. 

  • Ensure that application is set to use virtual infrared port. 

    Ensure that the application you are using is configured for the virtual port, not the physical port that the infrared device is attached to. Keep in mind that, as with all communications and printer ports, only one application can use the virtual port at one time. 

  • Verify infrared adapter settings. 

    Open the Infrared Monitor and verify that all settings are correct. 

  • Verify the physical COM port. 

    If you select the wrong physical COM port during installation of the infrared communications driver, the infrared device will be unable to discover another infrared device within range. If this happens, put an actively searching infrared device close to the computer's infrared device and reinstall infrared on a different COM port until the infrared device on the computer discovers the nearby infrared device. 

  • Verify that the infrared adapter has power. 

    You might need to change the batteries in an infrared adapter or plug the AC power into an infrared adapter.

Troubleshooting General Infrared Problems

This section discusses general problems that might occur when using infrared. For information about specific infrared hardware, see the next section.

Communication over a virtual COM port link is unreliable with printer's infrared adapter in range. 

Communication over a virtual COM port link between two computers might not be reliable if a printer's infrared adapter is also within range. You should move the adapter out of range.

Zmodem fails over infrared. 

You might experience problems transferring files over an infrared link. If the Zmodem protocol fails with a link speed of 115.2 kbps, use the Infrared Monitor Limit Connection Speed To tab to limit the link speed to 19.2 kbps and then retry the Zmodem file transfer.

Troubleshooting Specific Infrared Hardware

This section discusses common problems you might experience with specific infrared hardware. For information about general problems you might encounter, see the previous section.

The Texas Instruments TravelMate 5000 might communicate over an infrared link only at very low speeds (9600 bps). The Sharp PC 3050 might communicate over an infrared link only at speeds between 9600 bps and 19.2 kbps.

For the Hewlett Packard Omnibook 4000C or the Hewlett Packard Omnibook 600CT, which have built-in infrared ports, you must install a special echo-canceling serial driver in addition to the components that make up the infrared communications driver. The echo-canceling driver, and instructions on how to install it, are available from Hewlett-Packard.

Serial port does not provide sufficient power for Adaptec AIRport 2000. 

The Adaptec AIRport 2000 infrared adapter can be powered in three ways: by the serial port, by installed AA batteries, or by an external power supply. In some cases the serial port might not provide sufficient power for the operation of the adapter. This can cause reduced operating range and/or a failure to find another infrared device that is nearby and aligned correctly. If you suspect this problem, connect an AC adapter or add four AA batteries to the battery compartment in the infrared adapter. This will assure sufficient power. In some instances, you might also need to separate the adapter by at least six inches from the other infrared device.

Cannot print from ActiSys 220L infrared adapter. 

If an ActiSys 220L infrared adapter is attached to a computer and used to print to a printer that is using an Extended Systems ESI-9580 printer infrared adapter, or a Hewlett Packard DeskJet 340, you must use the Options tab in the Infrared Monitor properties to limit the connection speed to 19.2 kbps in order to print successfully. If the infrared devices are allowed to negotiate the connection speed automatically without setting this limit, they will negotiate a higher connection speed, and a program will be unable to print.

Additional Resources 

For more information about

See this resource

Internet drafts and RFCs

http://www.ietf.org/ .

Virtual private networking

http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/technologies/communications/default.asp .

Windows NT remote access servers

Windows NT Server Networking Guide for Windows NT Server version 4.0 and the Networking Supplement for the Windows NT Server 4.0.

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