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Deploying Exchange Server 2003 in a Cluster

 

Topic Last Modified: 2008-12-08

After planning the cluster deployment strategy, correct deployment of that cluster ensures high availability of your servers that run Microsoft Exchange Server 2003. Although deploying Exchange in a cluster resembles deploying Exchange in a non-clustered organization, there are important differences you must consider. Therefore, to fully understand how to deploy Exchange Server 2003 in a cluster, read this topic together with the previous topics in this guide.

Specifically, this topic provides the following information:

  • Cluster Requirements
    This section discusses the necessary requirements for installing Exchange Server 2003, including Microsoft Windows and Exchange version requirements, software requirements, and network configuration requirements.
  • Deployment Scenarios
    This section includes the following configuration and procedural information about how to deploy Exchange Server 2003 clusters:
    • Four-node cluster scenario
    • Deploying a new Exchange Server 2003 cluster
    • Upgrading an Exchange 2000 Server cluster to Exchange Server 2003
    • Migrating an Exchange Server 5.5 cluster to Exchange Server 2003
    • Upgrading mixed Exchange 2000 Server and Exchange Server 5.5 clusters

Before continuing with the deployment procedures listed in this topic, follow these steps:

  • Read the section "Using Server Clusters" in the guide Planning an Exchange Server 2003 Messaging System (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47584).
  • Create a Windows 2000 Server or Microsoft Windows Server™ 2003 cluster. To create a Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 cluster, see the following resources:

Before you deploy Exchange Server 2003 on a Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 cluster, make sure that your organization meets the requirements listed in this section.

Before you deploy the Exchange Server 2003 cluster, make sure that the following system-wide requirements are met:

  • Make sure that you are running Domain Name System (DNS) and Windows Internet Name Service (WINS). Ideally, the DNS server should accept dynamic updates. If the DNS server does not accept dynamic updates, you must create a DNS Host (A) record for each Network Name resource in the cluster. Otherwise, Exchange does not function correctly. For more about how to configure DNS for Exchange, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 322856, "HOW TO: Configure DNS for Use with Exchange Server" (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=3052&kbid=322856).
  • If the cluster nodes belong to a directory naming service zone that has a different name than the Microsoft Active Directory directory service domain name that the computer joined, the DNSHostName, by default, does not include the subdomain name. In this situation, you may have to change the DNSHostName property to make sure that some services, such as the File Replication Service (FRS), work correctly. For more information, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 240942, "Active Directory DNSHostName Property Does Not Include Subdomain" (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=3052&kbid=240942).
  • All cluster nodes must be member servers in the same domain. Exchange Server 2003 is not supported on nodes that are also Active Directory directory servers, or nodes that are members of different Active Directory domains.
  • You must have a sufficient number of static IP addresses available when you create the Exchange Virtual Servers. Specifically, an <n>-node cluster with <e> Exchange Virtual Servers requires 2*n + e + 1 IP address. The +1 in this equation represents the additional IP address for the default cluster group. Therefore, for a two-node cluster, the recommended number of static addresses is five plus the number of Exchange Virtual Servers. For a four-node cluster, the recommended number is nine plus the number of Exchange Virtual Servers. For more information about IP addresses, see the section "IP Addresses and Network Names" in the guide Planning an Exchange Server 2003 Messaging System (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47584).
    noteNote:
    Throughout this topic, "Exchange Virtual Server" refers to the Exchange Virtual Servers in the cluster and not to protocol virtual servers, such as HTTP virtual servers.
  • Make sure that the Cluster service is installed and running on all nodes before you install Exchange Server 2003. In Windows 2000, you must install and configure the Cluster service manually. In Windows Server 2003 Enterprise and Datacenter Editions, the Cluster service is installed by default. After the service is installed, you can use Cluster Administrator to configure the cluster. If the Cluster service is not installed and running on each node in a cluster before installation, Exchange Server 2003 Setup cannot install the cluster-aware version of Exchange Server 2003. When deployed in a multi-node cluster, Exchange Server 2003 requires one of the following quorum models:
    • Single quorum device (shared disk quorum)
    • Majority Node Set (MNS)
    • Majority Node Set with File Share Witness (MNS+FSW)
    noteNote:
    If you installed Exchange Server 2003 before building and configuring the cluster, you must uninstall Exchange Server 2003, build and configure the cluster, and then reinstall Exchange Server 2003.
  • Do not install Exchange Server 2003 on multiple nodes simultaneously.
  • An Exchange Server 2003 cluster server cannot be the first Exchange Server 2003 server to join an Exchange Server 5.5 site. This is because Site Replication Service (SRS) is not supported on an Exchange cluster. You must install a stand-alone (non-clustered) Exchange Server 2003 server into an Exchange Server 5.5 site before installing Exchange Server 2003 on the nodes of the cluster. (The first Exchange Server 2003 server installed in an Exchange Server 5.5 site runs SRS.) For more information about SRS, see Exchange Server 2003 Help.
  • Before you install Exchange Server 2003, make sure that the folder to which you will install all the Exchange shared data on the physical disk resource is empty.
  • You must install the same version of Exchange Server 2003 on all nodes in the cluster. In addition, the Exchange program files must be installed in the same location on all nodes in the cluster. In Exchange Server 2003, the Exchange binaries are installed on the local storage and not the cluster shared storage.
  • At a minimum, you must install Microsoft Exchange Messaging and Collaboration and Microsoft Exchange System Management Tools on all nodes of the cluster.
  • The Cluster service account must have local Administrator privileges on the cluster nodes and be a domain user account. You can establish those permissions by creating a domain user account and making this account a member of the local Administrators group on each node.
  • By default in Windows 2000 and later versions, any user account has the permission to join a computer to the domain. If this permission has been restricted in accordance with your organization's security policy, you must explicitly grant that permission. For information about how to verify that the Cluster Service account has the Add Workstations to a Domain User permission, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 307532, "How to Troubleshoot the Cluster Service Account When It Modifies Computer Objects" (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=3052&kbid=307532).
  • (Recommendation) Install Terminal Services so that administrators can use Remote Desktop to manage clusters. However, administrators can also use the Administrative Tools package (Adminpak.msi) from any Exchange Server 2003 server to remotely manage clusters.
    noteNote:
    By default, Terminal Services is installed on servers that run Windows Server 2003. Terminal Services is an optional component on servers that run Windows 2000.

Before you deploy the Exchange Server 2003 cluster, make sure that your servers meet the requirements described in this section.

The hardware requirements to deploy Exchange Server 2003 clusters depend on the operating system you are running.

  • Windows Server 2003 hardware requirements
    For Exchange Server 2003 cluster nodes running on Windows Server 2003, Enterprise or Datacenter Editions, you must select from hardware listed in the Windows Server Catalog (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=17219) under the Cluster Solutions category. Additionally, for geographically dispersed clusters, both the hardware and software configuration must be certified and listed in the Windows Server Catalog under the Geographically Dispersed Cluster Solution category.
  • Windows 2000 Server hardware requirements
    Exchange Server 2003 cluster nodes running on Windows 2000 Server must be running the Advanced Server or Datacenter Server editions. For information about the hardware requirements for these editions, see the section "Checklists for Cluster Server Installation" in the technical article Step-by-Step Guide to Installing Cluster Service (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83053).
noteNote:
To simplify configuration issues and possibly eliminate some compatibility problems, we recommend that the cluster configuration contain identical storage hardware on all cluster nodes.

Specific operating system versions and Exchange editions are required to create Exchange clusters. Table 1 lists the required Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 versions and Exchange Server 2003 editions, and the number of cluster nodes available for each.

importantImportant:
Exchange Server 2003, Standard Edition does not support clustering. Similarly, Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition do not support clustering.

Table 1   Operating system versions and Exchange edition requirements

Operating system version Exchange Server 2003 edition Cluster nodes available

Any server in the Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 families

Exchange Server 2003, Standard Edition

None

Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition

Exchange Server 2003, Standard Edition or Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition

None

Windows 2000 Advanced Server

Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition

Up to two

Windows 2000 Datacenter Server

Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition

Up to four

Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition

Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition

Up to eight

Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition

Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition

Up to eight

The following are the minimum shared disk requirements for installing Exchange Server 2003 on a Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 cluster:

  • Shared disks must be physically attached to a shared bus.
  • Disks must be accessible from all nodes in the cluster.
  • Disks must be configured as basic disks, and not dynamic disks.
  • All partitions on the shared disk must be formatted for NTFS file system.
  • Only physical disks can be used as a cluster resource. All partitions on a physical disk will be treated as one resource.
  • We recommend that you use Diskpart to align the shared storage disks at the storage level. Diskpart is part of the Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 tools. For more information, see "How to Align Exchange I/O with Storage Track Boundaries" in Optimizing Storage for Exchange Server 2003.

Make sure that the networks used for client and cluster communications are configured correctly. This section provides links to the procedures necessary to verify that your private and public network settings are configured correctly. In addition, you must make sure that the network connection order is configured correctly for the cluster.

For detailed steps about how to configure the private network in an Exchange cluster, see How to Configure the Private Network in an Exchange Cluster.

For detailed steps about how to configure the public network in an Exchange cluster, see How to Configure the Public Network in an Exchange Cluster.

For detailed steps about how to configure the network connection order in an Exchange cluster, see How to Configure the Network Connection Order in an Exchange Cluster.

Figure 1 illustrates a network configuration for a 4-node cluster.

d8bdeb51-6fde-4301-8b96-d61e139aafac

For more information about how to configure public and private networks on a cluster, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 258750, "Recommended Private 'Heartbeat' Configuration on a Cluster Server" (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=3052&kbid=258750).

The permissions that you need to create, delete, or modify an Exchange Virtual Server are modified in Exchange Server 2003. The best way to understand these modifications is to compare the Exchange 2000 Server permissions model with the new Exchange Server 2003 permissions model.

noteNote:
In the following sections, the term "cluster administrator" refers to the person who manages Exchange clusters for your organization.

For an Exchange 2000 Server cluster administrator to create, delete, or modify an Exchange Virtual Server, the cluster administrator's account and the Cluster Service account require the following permissions:

  • If the Exchange Virtual Server is the first Exchange Virtual Server in the Exchange organization, the cluster administrator's account and the Cluster Service account must each be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the organization level.
  • If the Exchange Virtual Server is not the first Exchange Virtual Server in the organization, the cluster administrator's account and the Cluster Service account must each be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the administrative group level.

In Exchange Server 2003, the permissions model has changed. The Windows Cluster Service account no longer requires Exchange-specific permissions. Specifically, the Windows Cluster Service account no longer requires that the Exchange Full Administrator role be applied to it, neither at the Exchange organization level nor at the administrative group level. Its default permissions in the forest are sufficient for it to function in Exchange Server 2003.

As with Exchange 2000 Server, the cluster administrator requires the following permissions:

  • If the Exchange Virtual Server is the first Exchange Virtual Server in the organization, the cluster administrator must be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the organization level.
  • If the Exchange Virtual Server is not the first Exchange Virtual Server in the organization, you must use an account that is a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the administrative group level.

However, depending on the mode in which the Exchange organization is running (native mode or mixed mode), and depending on your topology configuration, the cluster administrators must have the following additional permissions:

  • When the Exchange organization is in native mode, if the Exchange Virtual Server is in a routing group that spans multiple administrative groups, the cluster administrator must be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at all the administrative group levels that the routing group spans. For example, if the Exchange Virtual Server is in a routing group that spans the First Administrative Group and Second Administrative Group, the cluster administrator must use an account that is a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at First Administrative Group and must also be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at Second Administrative Group.
    noteNote:
    Routing groups in Exchange native-mode organizations can span multiple administrative groups. Routing groups in Exchange mixed-mode organizations cannot span multiple administrative groups.
  • In topologies such as parent/child domains where the cluster server is the first Exchange server in the child domain, the cluster administrator must be a member of a group that has the Exchange Administrator role or greater applied at the organization level to be able specify the server responsible for Recipient Update Service in the child domain.

After you ensure that the Exchange organization meets the clustering requirements listed in this topic, you are ready to deploy an Exchange Server 2003 cluster. This section provides links to the procedures necessary to deploy active/passive or active/active Exchange Server 2003 clusters on Windows Server 2003. Any procedural differences with regard to deploying Exchange Server 2003 clusters on Windows 2000 are explained.

The following deployment scenarios are included in this section:

  • Four-node cluster scenario
  • Deploying a new Exchange Server 2003 cluster
  • Upgrading an Exchange 2000 Server cluster to Exchange Server 2003
  • Migrating an Exchange Server 5.5 cluster to Exchange Server 2003
  • Upgrading mixed Exchange 2000 Server and Exchange Server 5.5 clusters

Although the deployment procedures listed in this section apply to any cluster configuration, it helps understand one of the more typical four-node cluster deployments.

The recommended configuration for a four-node Exchange Server 2003 cluster is one that contains three active nodes and one passive node, where each of the active nodes contains one Exchange Virtual Server. This configuration is helpful because it gives you the capacity of running three active Exchange servers, while maintaining the failover security provided by one passive server.

Figure 2 illustrates the four-node, active/passive Exchange Server 2003 cluster.

dffb0365-e309-4ecf-aebd-18180cd7410f

The following sections provide the recommended software, hardware, and storage requirements for an Exchange Server 2003 active/passive four-node cluster.

In this scenario, all four nodes in the cluster are running Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition and Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition. Additionally, each node is connected to a DNS server configured for dynamic updates.

In this scenario, the following hardware configurations are recommended.

  • Four 1 gigahertz (GHz), 1 megabyte (MB) or 2 MB L2 cache processors
  • 4 gigabytes (GB) of Error Correction Code (ECC) RAM
  • Two 100 megabits per second (Mbps) or 1000 Mbps network interface cards
  • RAID-1 array with two internal disks for the Windows Server 2003 and Exchange Server 2003 program files
  • Two redundant 64-bit fiber Host Bus Adapters (HBAs) to connect to the Storage Area Network
  • Two 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps network switches (full duplex)
  • Redundant fiber switches
  • 106 disk spindles (Ultra Wide SCSI) with spindle speeds of 10,000 RPM or greater
  • 256 MB or more read/write cache memory

In this scenario, the following storage configurations are recommended:

  • Three storage groups per Exchange Virtual Server
  • Five databases per storage group

Table 2 lists the recommended disk drive configuration. For more information about this and other disk drive configurations, see "Drive Letter Configurations" in the guide Planning an Exchange Server 2003 Messaging System (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47584)

Table 2   Disk drive configuration for a four-node active/passive cluster containing three Exchange Virtual Servers

Node 1 (EVS1 active) Node 2 (EVS2 active) Node 3 (EVS3 active) Node 4 (passive)

Disk 1: SMTP/MTA

Disk 8: SMTP

Disk 15: SMTP

Disk 22: Quorum

Disk 2: SG1 databases

Disk 9: SG1 databases

Disk 16: SG1 databases

 

Disk 3: SG1 logs

Disk 10: SG1 logs

Disk 17: SG1 logs

 

Disk 4: SG2 databases

Disk 11: SG2 databases

Disk 18: SG2 databases

 

Disk 5: SG2 logs

Disk 12: SG2 logs

Disk 19: SG2 logs

 

Disk 6: SG3 databases

Disk 13: SG3 databases

Disk 20: SG3 databases

 

Disk 7: SG3 logs

Disk 14: SG3 logs

Disk 21: SG3 logs

 

  • SMTP/MTA drives   RAID-(0+1) array consisting of four spindles. (3 EVSs × 4 disks = 12 disks.)
  • Storage group log drives   RAID-1 array consisting of two spindles. (3 EVSs × 3 storage groups × 2 disks = 18 disks.)
  • Database (.edb and .stm files) drives   RAID-(0+1) array consisting of eight spindles. (3 EVSs × 3 storage groups × 8 databases = 72 disks.)
  • Quorum disk resource drive   RAID-1 array consisting of two spindles (2 disks).

Total shared disk spindles is 104.

This section provides information about how to deploy a new Exchange Server 2003 cluster in your organization. The procedures referenced this section are applicable for any cluster configuration, from an active/passive cluster with two to eight nodes to a two-node active/active cluster with one or two nodes.

Specifically, this section will guide you through the following steps:

  1. Preparing Active Directory for Exchange Server 2003.
  2. Installing Exchange Server 2003 on each node.
  3. Creating the Exchange Virtual Servers.

Preparing Active Directory for a cluster installation resembles preparing Active Directory for non-clustered servers.

Step 1 includes the following tasks:

  1. Run ForestPrep.
  2. Run DomainPrep.

Before you install Exchange Server 2003 anywhere in the forest, you must extend the Windows Active Directory schema. To accomplish this task, you must run ForestPrep.

noteNote:
Running ForestPrep is required only if you are installing Exchange Server 2003 for the first time in your organization. If you already installed Exchange Server 2003 in your organization, you do not have to run ForestPrep.

For detailed steps about how to run ForestPrep, see How to Run Exchange Server 2003 ForestPrep.

noteNote:
During the ForestPrep process, you will enter the name of the user or group who is responsible for installing Exchange Server 2003. This account must be a domain account that includes local administrator privileges on the cluster nodes. The account you specify will also have permission to use the Exchange Delegation Wizard to create all levels of Exchange Server 2003 administrator accounts.

You must run DomainPrep for each Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 domain in which you want to install Exchange Server 2003. However, before you can run DomainPrep, ForestPrep must finish replicating the schema updates.

noteNote:
Running DomainPrep is required only if you are installing Exchange Server 2003 for the first time in your domain. If you already installed Exchange Server 2003 in your domain, you do not have to run DomainPrep.

For detailed steps about how to run DomainPrep, see How to Run Exchange Server 2003 DomainPrep.

After you extend the schema with ForestPrep and prepare the domain with DomainPrep, you are ready to install Exchange Server 2003 on the first cluster node.

Step 2 includes the following tasks:

  1. Make sure that the Cluster service is running on each node.
  2. Install and enable the required Windows services.
  3. Install Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC).
  4. Run Exchange Server 2003 Setup.

However, before you perform these tasks, familiarize yourself with the requirements necessary for installing Exchange Server 2003 on cluster servers (Table 3).

Table 3   Requirements for running Exchange Setup on a cluster server

Area Requirements

Permissions

Account must be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the organization level.

noteNote:
An account that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the administrative group level can run Exchange Setup on a cluster node if the cluster node is a member of the Exchange Domain Servers group on the domain to which the cluster node belongs.

When you install Exchange Server 2003 into an existing Exchange Server 5.5 organization, additional permissions are required. For information about the specific permissions that are required to install Exchange Server 2003 into an existing Exchange Server 5.5 organization, see "Permissions for Migrating from Exchange Server 5.5 to Exchange Server 2003" in Migrating from Exchange Server 5.5 to Exchange Server 2003.

File system

  • Installation drive cannot be the cluster shared drive.
  • Installation drive must be the same across all nodes.

Cluster resources

  • The MSDTC must be running on one of the nodes in the cluster. The clustered MSDTC resource should exist in the default cluster group.

Other

  • The fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the node cannot match the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) proxy domain of any recipient policy.
    noteNote:
    A cluster with three or more nodes is usually active/passive. In active/passive mode, there can be n – 1 or fewer Exchange Virtual Servers, where n is the number of nodes. For example, if, by installing Exchange on a node, the cluster becomes a three-node cluster, and the number of Exchange Virtual Servers is three or more, then Exchange Setup stops installation until you remove one of the Exchange Virtual Servers.
  • The Cluster service must be initialized and running.
  • If you have more than two nodes, the cluster must be active/passive. If you have fewer than two nodes, an active/active configuration is allowed.

If running Windows 2000

Windows 2000 Service Pack 4 (SP4) is required.

To successfully install Exchange Server 2003 on a server in a cluster, the Cluster service must be installed and running on a cluster node. The Cluster service is installed by default with Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition and Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition. However, the Cluster service is not installed by default with Windows 2000 Server.

For detailed steps about how to confirm that the Cluster service is running, see How to Verify that the Cluster Service is Running on Each Node.

Exchange Server 2003 Setup requires that the following components and services be installed and enabled on the server:

  • .NET Framework
  • ASP.NET
  • Internet Information Services (IIS)
  • World Wide Web Publishing Service
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) service
  • Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) service

If you are installing Exchange Server 2003 on a server running Windows 2000, Exchange Setup installs the Microsoft .NET Framework and ASP.NET automatically. You must manually install and start the World Wide Web Publishing service, the SMTP service, and the NNTP service before running Exchange Server 2003 Setup.

importantImportant:
When you install Exchange on a new server, only the required services are enabled. For example, the Post Office Protocol version3 (POP3) and Internet Message Access Protocol version4 (IMAP4) services are disabled by default on all of your Exchange Server 2003 servers. You should only enable services that are essential for performing Exchange Server 2003 tasks. The NNTP service should always remain disabled. Although NNTP is required in order to install Exchange, Exchange NNTP features are not supported and cannot be used on clustered Exchange servers.

For detailed steps about how to install and enable the IIS prerequisites for Exchange cluster running on Windows 2000, see How to Install IIS Prerequisites for Exchange Server 2003 on Windows 2000.

For detailed steps about how to install and enable the IIS prerequisites for an Exchange cluster running on Windows Server 2003, see How to Install IIS Prerequisites for Exchange Server 2003 on Windows Server 2003.

Before you install Exchange Server 2003 on servers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000, you must first install the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC) resource into the cluster.

It is an Exchange best practice to install the MSDTC resource into the default cluster group. However, the MSDTC resource is the only resource supported in the default cluster group. Exchange resources should not be added to the default cluster group, as that configuration is not supported.

For detailed steps about how to install the MSDTC in a Windows 2000 server cluster, see How to Install the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator in a Windows 2000 Server Cluster.

For detailed steps about how to install the MSDTC in a Windows Server 2003 server cluster, see How to Install the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator in a Windows Server 2003 Server Cluster.

noteNote:
For more information, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 312316, "XADM: Setup Does Not Install Exchange 2000 Server on a Cluster if the MSDTC Resource Is Not Running" (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=3052&kbid=312316).

For more information about adding the MSDTC resource in Windows Server 2003, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 301600, "How to Configure Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator on a Windows Server 2003 Cluster" (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=3052&kbid=301600).

noteNote:
Knowledge Base article 301600 includes a reference to article 817064, "How to enable network DTC access in Windows Server 2003" (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=3052&kbid=817064). It is an Exchange Server security best practice to not enable network DTC access for an Exchange cluster. If you are configuring the Distributed Transaction Coordinator resource for an Exchange cluster, do not enable network DTC access.

Installing Exchange Server 2003 on a cluster is similar to installing Exchange Server 2003 on non-clustered servers. For detailed steps about how to run Exchange Setup in a Windows server cluster, see How to Run Exchange Setup in a Windows Server Cluster.

noteNote:
Unattended Setup is not supported when installing Exchange Server 2003 on a Windows cluster.

Before installing Exchange Server 2003 on a node, it is recommended that you move all cluster resources owned by the node to another node.

importantImportant:
Install Exchange Server 2003 completely on one node before you install it on another node.

For important information about post-deployment steps, see Post-Installation Steps for Exchange Server 2003. That topic includes information about how to verify that your Exchange installation was successful. It also includes information about how to upgrade your cluster with the latest Exchange Server 2003 service packs and security patches.

The final step in configuring Exchange Server 2003 on a cluster is to create the Exchange Virtual Servers.

Step 3 includes the following tasks:

  1. Create the resource group to host the Exchange Virtual Server. A separate cluster group is required for each Exchange Virtual Server. Exchange cluster resources should not be added to the default cluster group, and adding an Exchange Virtual Server to the cluster group is not supported. For detailed steps, see How to Create a Resource Group for an Exchange Virtual Server in a Windows Server Cluster.
  2. Create an IP Address resource. For detailed steps, see How to Create an IP Address Resource for an Exchange Virtual Server in a Windows Server Cluster.
  3. Create a Network Name resource. For detailed steps, see How to Create a Network Name Resource for an Exchange Virtual Server in a Windows Server Cluster.
  4. Add a disk resource to the Exchange Virtual Server. For detailed steps, see How to Move an Existing Disk Resource into an Exchange Virtual Server in a Windows Server Cluster.
  5. Create an Exchange Server 2003 System Attendant resource. For detailed steps, see How to Create an Exchange System Attendant Resource for an Exchange Virtual Server in a Windows Server Cluster.
  6. Create any additional Exchange Virtual Servers. You need to repeat these tasks for each Exchange Virtual Server you want to add to your cluster. For example:
    • If you are configuring a two-node active/passive Exchange Server 2003 cluster, you create only one Exchange Virtual Server. Therefore, you would only perform these tasks once.
    • If you are configuring a four-node 3 active/1 passive Exchange Server 2003 cluster, you create three Exchange Virtual Servers. Therefore, you would perform these tasks three times.

Before performing these tasks, familiarize yourself with the requirements necessary for creating Exchange Virtual Servers (Table 4).

Table 4   Exchange Virtual Server requirements

Area Requirements

Permissions

  • If you are creating either the first Exchange server in the organization or the first Exchange server in the domain, the account must be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the organizational level.
  • If the server is not the first Exchange server in the organization and is not the first server in the domain, the account must be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the administrative group level.

File system

  • MDBDATA folder must be empty.

Cluster resources

  • Network Name resource must be online.
  • Physical disk resources must be online.

Other

  • The FQDN of the Exchange Virtual Server may not match SMTP proxy domain of any recipient policy.
  • Enforce Active/Active restrictions.
  • Exchange Virtual Server(s) are installed into their own cluster group(s).

You must add a disk resource for each disk that you want to associate with the Exchange Virtual Server. This section includes links to the following procedures:

noteNote:
To prevent possible damage to your hard disk, see "Checklist: Creating a server cluster" in Windows 2000 Help or "Planning and preparing for cluster installation" in Windows Server 2003 Help before connecting a disk to a shared bus.

After you successfully create the Exchange System Attendant resource, Exchange System Attendant creates the following additional resources for the Exchange Virtual Server automatically (Figure 3):

  • Exchange Information Store Instance
  • Exchange Message Transfer Agent Instance
  • Exchange Routing Service Instance
  • SMTP Virtual Server Instance
  • Exchange HTTP Virtual Server Instance
  • Exchange MS Search Instance

For improved security, the Windows IMAP4 and POP3 protocol services are no longer enabled by default on servers that are running Windows Server 2003. Similarly, the IMAP4 and POP3 protocol resources are no longer created by default upon creation of an Exchange Server 2003 Virtual Server.

For information about adding IMAP4 and POP3 resources, see "Managing Exchange Clusters," in the Exchange Server 2003 Administration Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47617).

noteNote:
The Message Transfer Agent Instance resource is created only in the first Exchange Virtual Server added to a cluster. All Exchange Virtual Servers in the cluster share the single Message Transfer Agent Instance resource.
359835c8-a277-4d50-9c98-572a9a1bd4d2

For each Exchange Virtual Server you want to create, repeat all the procedures in "Step 3: Creating the Exchange Virtual Servers." For example, if you are creating a four-node active/passive cluster with three Exchange Virtual Servers, repeat this step two more times. If you are creating a two-node active/active cluster, you would repeat this step one more time.

If you run Exchange Server 2003 in a front-end and back-end topology that includes multiple SMTP namespaces, you must create additional HTTP virtual servers in the Exchange Virtual Server for each domain namespace. For example, if contoso.com hosts Exchange Server 2003 for both tailspintoys.com and wingtiptoys.com, three virtual servers are necessary—the default virtual server, a virtual server for tailspintoys.com, and a virtual server for wingtiptoys.com. This configuration provides maximum flexibility in determining which resources are available to each hosted company.

For information about front-end and back-end server architecture, see "Upgrading Front-End and Back-End Servers" in Upgrading from Exchange 2000 Server to Exchange Server 2003. For information about planning a front-end server and for more conceptual information about configuring front-end and back-end servers running Exchange Server 2003, see the guide Planning an Exchange Server 2003 Messaging System (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47584)

To configure a clustered back-end server to support multiple SMTP domains, you must map each front-end server to the nodes of your cluster, so that any node can accept proxy requests from any front-end server in your organization.

For detailed steps, see How to Support Multiple SMTP Domains in a Front-End and Back-End Topology.

Figure 4 illustrates a front-end/back-end configuration that uses Exchange clustering.

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Upgrading an Exchange 2000 Server cluster to Exchange Server 2003 requires that you upgrade each of the cluster nodes and all Exchange Virtual Servers to Exchange Server 2003.

For detailed steps, see How to Upgrade an Exchange 2000 Cluster to Exchange Server 2003.

noteNote:
Before upgrading your Exchange 2000 cluster to Exchange Server 2003, you should familiarize yourself with the requirements necessary for upgrading a cluster node (Table 5) and upgrading an Exchange Virtual Server (Table 6).

Table 5   Requirements for upgrading a cluster node

Area Requirements

Permissions

  • Account must be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the administrative group level.

Cluster resources

  • No cluster resources can be running on the node you are upgrading, because Exchange Setup will need to recycle the Cluster service. One-node clusters are exempt.
  • The MSDTC resource must be running on one of the nodes in the cluster.

Other

  • Only servers running Exchange 2000 SP3 can be upgraded to Exchange Server 2003. If your servers are running previous versions of Exchange, you must first upgrade to Exchange 2000 SP3.
  • You must upgrade your cluster nodes one at a time.
  • The Cluster service must be initialized and running.
  • If there are more than two nodes, the cluster must be active/passive. If there are two nodes or fewer, active/active is allowed.

If running Windows 2000

Table 6   Requirements for upgrading an Exchange Virtual Server

Area Prerequisites

Permissions

  • If the Exchange Virtual Server is the first server to be upgraded in the organization or is the first server to be upgraded in the domain, the account must be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the organization level.
  • If the Exchange Virtual Server is not the first server to be upgraded in the organization or the first Exchange server to be upgraded in the domain, the account only needs to be a member of a group that has the Exchange Full Administrator role applied at the administrative group level.

Cluster resources

  • The Network Name resource must be online.
  • The Physical Disk resources must be online.
  • The System Attendant resource must be offline.

Other

  • The version of Exchange on the computer running Cluster Administrator must be the same version as the node that owns the Exchange Virtual Server.
  • You must upgrade your Exchange Virtual Servers one at a time.

The procedures for upgrading your cluster nodes from Exchange Server 5.5 to Exchange 2000 Server are outside the scope of this document. For information about how to upgrade Exchange Server 5.5 servers to Exchange 2000 Server, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 316886, "HOW TO: Migrate from Exchange Server 5.5 to Exchange 2000 Server" (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=3052&kbid=316886).

To upgrade Exchange clusters that contain both Exchange 2000 Server and Exchange Server 5.5 nodes, use the procedures in "Upgrading an Exchange 2000 Server Cluster to Exchange Server 2003" earlier in this topic, in conjunction with the procedures listed in Migrating from Exchange Server 5.5 to Exchange Server 2003.

For important information about upgrading your cluster to the latest version of Exchange Server 2003 service packs and security patches, see Post-Installation Steps for Exchange Server 2003.

For more information about building a Windows Server 2003-based cluster, see the Guide to Creating and Configuring a Server Cluster Under Windows Server 2003.

For more information about building clustered Exchange Server 2003 solutions, see the following resources in the Windows Server System Reference Architecture:

 
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