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Glossary

[This is pre-release documentation and subject to change in future releases. This topic's current status is: Writing.]

Applies to: Exchange Server 2010 Topic Last Modified: 2008-12-09

This glossary helps explain the core concepts and technologies associated with Microsoft Exchange Server 2007.

Term Definition

A/V Authentication Service

A service that is found in Office Communications Server 2007 that enables voice media to be passed through devices that use Network Address Translation (NAT) or firewalls.

accepted domain

Any SMTP namespace for which an Exchange organization sends and receives e-mail. Accepted domains include those domains for which the Exchange organization is authoritative. An Exchange organization is authoritative when it handles mail delivery for recipients in the accepted domain. Accepted domains also include domains for which the Exchange organization receives mail and then relays to an e-mail server that is outside the Active Directory forest for delivery to the recipient.

access control

A security mechanism that determines which operations a user, group, service, or computer is authorized to perform on a computer or on a particular object, such as a file, printer, registry subkey, or directory service object.

access control entry (ACE)

An entry in either a securable object's discretionary access control list (DACL) or an object's system access control list (SACL). In a DACL, the entry grants or denies permissions to a user or group. In a SACL, the entry specifies which security events to audit for a particular user or group or controls the Windows Integrity Level for the object.

access control list (ACL)

A list of security protections that apply to an entire object, a set of the object's properties, or an individual property of an object. There are two types of access control lists: discretionary and system.

ACE

See other term: access control entry (ACE)

ACL

See other term: access control list (ACL)

Active Directory

The Windows-based directory service. Active Directory stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to users and network administrators. Active Directory gives network users access to permitted resources anywhere on the network using a single logon process. It provides network administrators with an intuitive, hierarchical view of the network and a single point of administration for all network objects.

Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM)

A stand-alone directory service that is designed specifically for use with directory-enabled applications. Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM) does not require or depend on Active Directory forests or domains. ADAM stores and replicates only application-related information. ADAM does not store or replicate network operating system (NOS)-related information.

Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI)

A directory service model and a set of Component Object Model (COM) interfaces. ADSI enables Windows applications and Active Directory clients to access several network directory services, including Active Directory. ADSI is supplied as a software development kit (SDK).

address rewriting

Functionality available on Receive connectors and Send connectors on the Exchange Server 2007 Edge Transport server that lets e-mail administrators modify the SMTP addresses of senders and recipients on messages that enter and leave an Exchange organization. Address rewriting lets an organization present a consistent appearance to external recipients of messages from the organization.

Address Rewriting agent

An agent on the Receive connector and Send connector on a computer that has the Edge Transport server role installed, which lets e-mail administrators modify the addresses of senders and recipients on messages that enter and leave an Exchange Server 2007 organization.

Address Rewriting Inbound agent

Address Rewriting agent for messages that enter an Exchange Server 2007 organization. See Address Rewriting agent.

Address Rewriting Outbound agent

Address Rewriting agent for messages that leave an Exchange Server 2007 organization. See Address Rewriting agent.

administrator role

In Exchange 2007, an administrator role is a predefined security group that provides specific permissions to allow role members to manage Exchange configuration data. Exchange 2007 provides the following four administrator roles: Exchange Recipient Administrators, Exchange Organization Administrators, Exchange Server Administrators, and Exchange View-Only Administrators.

ADSI

See other term: Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI)

agent

A managed software component that performs a task in response to an application event.

Allow phrase

A custom word or phrase that the administrator sets for the Content Filter agent to enable the processing of e-mail messages to Exchange Server 2007 mailbox users that contain specific words or phrases.

anti-spam stamping

Functionality in Exchange Server 2007 that helps the messaging administrator diagnose spam-related problems by applying diagnostic metadata, or "stamps," such as sender-specific information, puzzle validation results, and content filtering results, to messages as they pass through the anti-spam features that filter inbound messages from the Internet.

antivirus software (AV)

A computer program designed to detect and respond to malicious software, such as viruses and worms. Responses may include blocking user access to infected files, cleaning infected files or systems, or informing the user that an infected program was detected.

antivirus stamping

A mechanism that helps reduce the volume of antivirus scanning that is required across an organization by stamping messages that have been scanned for viruses with metadata that indicates the version of the antivirus software that performed the scan and the result of that scan. This metadata, or "stamp," travels securely with the message as it is routed through different e-mail servers within the organization and is used to determine whether subsequent additional virus scanning on the message can be bypassed.

Audio Codec

The digital encoding used to represent audio data.

authentication

The process for verifying that an entity or object is who or what it claims to be. Examples include confirming the source and integrity of information, such as verifying a digital signature or verifying the identity of a user or computer.

Auto Attendant

A feature that supplies a caller with information and performs an action without the intervention of a human operator. It automatically routes calls based on selections made by the caller.

Autodiscover

A feature available in Outlook 2007 and some mobile devices that automatically configures the clients for access to Exchange Server 2007. The client sends the user name and password information to the Exchange 2007 server. The Autodiscover Web service that is running on the Exchange Client Access server returns an XML file that contains configuration information, which is interpreted by the client. If the user is moved to a different server later, the client will automatically query the Autodiscover Web service again to update the client configuration.

Autodiscover service

A service that returns server configuration information for a mobile device or other client using only the user's SMTP e-mail address and password.

Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR)

A technology that enables a computer to interpret human speech.

Availability service

The Availability service improves information workers' free/busy data by providing secure, consistent, and up-to-date free/busy information to computers that are running Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. By default, this service is installed with Exchange 2007.

back pressure

A system resource monitoring feature on Exchange 2007 transport servers. When a monitored system resource, such as hard disk drive utilization or memory utilization, exceeds the specified threshold, the Exchange transport server stops accepting new connections and messages, and concentrates on delivering existing messages. When the utilization of the monitored system resources returns to normal utilization levels, the Exchange transport server is allowed to accept new connections and messages.

backoff

In Exchange Server 2007, a mechanism used to deliver messages at an interim hop along the least cost routing path when direct relay fails for any reason, such as network issues or servers going offline. The routing component tries to deliver messages as close to the destination as possible by backing off, hop by hop, along the least cost routing path until a connection is made.

Basic authentication

A widely used industry-standard method for collecting user name and password information. Basic authentication is supported by most browsers. This authentication method prompts the user for a user name and a password, also called credentials, which are sent unencrypted over the network. Basic authentication is also known as plaintext authentication.

bifurcation

A split in the delivery path of an e-mail message, which is sent to multiple recipients, so that the different recipients receive different copies of the same message.

Block phrase

A custom word or phrase that the administrator sets for the Content Filter agent to prevent e-mail messages that contain specific words or phrases from being delivered to Exchange Server 2007 mailbox users.

bounce message

A non-delivery receipt that is sent to an e-mail sender when a message cannot be delivered to the intended recipient temporarily or permanently.

bound

The upper or lower limit in a permitted range of values.

Broken

One of four health states of a storage group copy. Broken indicates that the system has detected a condition that prevents replication and replay.

CA

See other term: certification authority (CA)

Cached Exchange Mode

A feature that lets a Microsoft Outlook user who has a Microsoft Exchange e-mail account work offline, either by choice or due to a connection problem. A copy of the user's mailbox is stored on their computer and is frequently updated from the mail server. Any changes that are made while a connection to the server is not available are synchronized automatically when a connection becomes available.

Calendar Attendant

An Exchange Server feature that automatically places meetings marked Tentative on the recipient’s calendar without requiring the intervention of any client software such as Outlook.

Calendar Concierge

A set of calendar enhancements that enable users to schedule people and resources quickly, efficiently, and reliably. The enhancements include the Calendar Attendant, the Resource Booking Attendant, and the Scheduling Assistant.

call answering

A voice mail application that answers a call so that a message can be left.

categorizer

A component of Exchange transport that processes all incoming messages and determines what to do with the messages based on information about the intended recipients. In Exchange Server 2007, the Edge Transport server uses the categorizer to route the message to the appropriate destination. The Hub Transport server uses the categorizer to expand distribution lists and identify alternate recipients and forwarding addresses. After the categorizer retrieves full information about recipients, it uses that information to apply policies, route the message, and perform content conversion.

CCR

See other term: cluster continuous replication (CCR)

certificate

A digital document that is commonly used for authentication and to secure information on open networks. A certificate securely binds a public key to the entity that holds the corresponding private key. Certificates are digitally signed by the issuing certification authority (CA), and they can be issued for a user, a computer, or a service.

certification authority (CA)

An entity responsible for establishing and vouching for the authenticity of public keys belonging to subjects (usually users or computers) or other certification authorities. Activities of a certification authority can include binding public keys to distinguished names through signed certificates, managing certificate serial numbers, and certificate revocation.

checksum

A computed value that depends on the contents of a file. It is stored with data to detect file corruption. The system checks this value to ensure that the data is not corrupted.

CIDR

See other term: Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)

Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)

An IP address and routing management method that allocates IP addresses in a way that reduces the number of routes stored on any individual router, while also increasing the number of available IP addresses. CIDR replaces class-based IP address allocation.

Client Access server role

A set of components and services that enable users to access their Exchange mailboxes through the application Outlook Web Access and the protocols Exchange ActiveSync, Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3), and Internet Message Access Protocol 4rev1 (IMAP4). The Client Access server role also includes Web services that are used by other Exchange 2007 server roles.

cloned configuration

The practice of deploying new Edge Transport servers based on the configuration information of a previously configured source server. The configuration information of the previously configured source server is copied and exported to an XML file, which is then imported to the target server.

cluster continuous replication (CCR)

Cluster continuous replication (CCR) combines the asynchronous log shipping and replay features built into Exchange 2007 with the failover and management features provided by a failover cluster that is created with the Microsoft Windows Cluster service.

cluster-aware

The classification of an application or service that runs on a server cluster node, is managed as a cluster resource, and is designed to be aware of and interact with the server cluster environment. Cluster-aware applications use the Cluster API to receive status and notification information from the server cluster.

clustered mailbox server

In Exchange Server 2007, a mailbox server that is installed in a Windows failover cluster. A clustered mailbox server is used in both cluster continuous replication (CCR) and single copy cluster (SCC) configurations. A clustered mailbox server was called an Exchange Virtual Server in previous versions of Exchange Server.

cmdlet

A single-feature command-line tool that is used to manipulate objects in Windows PowerShell.

coexist

See other term: coexistence.

coexistence

In Exchange Server documentation, this is the scenario in which multiple versions of Microsoft Exchange are deployed as a single Exchange organization. These multiple versions of Exchange are able to communicate with each other and share data resources, recipient information, and configuration information. For example, in Exchange Server 2007, computers running Exchange Server 2007 can coexist with computers running Exchange 2000 Server or Exchange Server 2003.

connector

A software component that represents a logical path between a source and a destination.

console tree

In Exchange 2007, this is left pane of the Exchange Management Console.

content conversion

The process of transforming e-mail messages from one format to another for the purpose of mail flow or storage, such as MAPI to MIME, or uuencode to Base64 encoded, or for appropriate rendering that is specific to an e-mail client, such as HTML to RTF to plain text.

Copy Suspend

One of four health states of a storage group copy. Copy Suspend indicates that an administrator has temporarily halted log copying.

custom phrase

A word or phrase that the administrator sets for the Content Filter agent to evaluate the content of an e-mail message and apply appropriate filter processing.

DACL

See other term: discretionary access control list (DACL)

defense in depth

The use of security technologies at multiple points in the network to reduce the overall probability that attacks can penetrate business-critical resources. In e-mail environments, defense in depth helps administrators ensure that malicious code or activities can be stopped at multiple "check points" in the e-mail infrastructure, decreasing the likelihood that a single threat can slip through.

delayed fan-out

Functionality on the Exchange Server 2007 Hub Transport server role where the server uses site link information to optimize the routing of messages that are sent to multiple recipients. The Hub Transport server delays the splitting of a message until it reaches a fork in the routing topology.

Delivery queue

A queue that is used to hold messages that being delivered to a Mailbox server or remote location. A delivery queue is created for each unique message destination.

delivery status notification (DSN)

Notification that reports the result of an attempt to deliver an e-mail message. DSNs are designed so they can be read by humans or computers. A DSN is made up of the DSN code and the DSN message. The DSN code is a three-digit string of numbers, such as 5.1.2., that indicates the status of the message. The DSN message is the text that explains the status and may recommend user action.

denial of service attack (DoS)

An attempt by a malicious (or unwitting) user, process, or system to prevent legitimate users from accessing a resource (usually a network service) by exploiting a weakness or design limitation in an information system. Examples of DoS attacks include flooding network connections, filling disk storage, disabling ports, or removing power.

device password

A passcode that a user enters on a mobile device that supports the Exchange ActiveSync protocol. The device password unlocks the device and allows access to the data stored on the device.

Dial by Name

A feature that enables a caller to enter a person’s name using the keys on a telephone.

dial plan

A grouping of telephony users with some specific properties, such as unique telephone extension numbers, that allow the Private Branch eXchange (PBX) to determine what action to take with dialed digits.

dictionary attack

A method of guessing a user's password or PIN by trying every word in the dictionary until successful.

Digest authentication

An authentication method that prompts the user for a user name and a password, also called credentials, which are hashed with other data before being transmitted over the network. Digest authentication is available only on domains that have domain controllers that are running Microsoft Windows Server operating systems.

Direct Push

A technology that ensures that a mobile device automatically retrieves new e-mail from the Microsoft Exchange server. Direct Push uses a longstanding HTTPS connection that is maintained by the mobile device to push new e-mail messages, Calendar, Contacts, and Tasks notifications from the server to the device.

direct trust

In Exchange Server 2007, authentication functionality for which the presence of the certificate in the Active Directory directory service or Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM) directory service validates the certificate. Active Directory is considered a trusted storage mechanism.

directory harvest attack

An attempt to collect valid e-mail addresses from a particular organization so that the e-mail addresses can be added to a spam database.

disclaimer

Text that is added to e-mail messages in transport to provide information that supports the sending organization's compliance policies, warnings about unknown or unverified e-mail senders, or other information as determined by the sending organization. Exchange Server 2007 allows the administrator to use transport rules to target disclaimers based on specific criteria.

discretionary access control list (DACL)

The part of an object's security descriptor that grants or denies specific users and groups permission to access the object. Only the owner of an object can change permissions granted or denied in a DACL; thus, access to the object is at the owner's discretion.

distribution group

A mail-enabled Active Directory group object. In Exchange 2007, a distribution group refers to all mail-enabled groups, whether they are an Active Directory security group or an Active Directory distribution group. When an e-mail message is sent to a distribution group, all members of that list receive a copy of the message.

DNS

See definition for: Domain Name System

Domain Name System (DNS)

A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of DNS domain names to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.

DoS

See other term: denial of service attack (DoS)

Drop directory

In Exchange Server 2007, a directory used by each Foreign connector to send messages to an internal foreign gateway server that does not use the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to transmit messages. Messages that are sent to recipients that exist in the address space that is defined on the Foreign connector are copied into the specified Drop directory. The foreign gateway server must be configured to retrieve messages from the specified Drop directory.

DSN

See other term: delivery status notification (DSN)

dynamic distribution group

A distribution group that uses recipient filters and conditions to derive its membership at the time the message is sent. For example, a dynamic distribution group might specify a recipient filter such as "users with external e-mail addresses and contacts with external e-mail addresses", and a condition such as "Recipient is in a company". When someone sends a message to this dynamic distribution group, Exchange queries Active Directory for all recipients that match the filter and conditions specified. Then Exchange returns a list of all external recipients that work for the company specified and sends the e-mail message to that list of recipients.

Edge Rules agent

An agent that enables organizations to apply anti-spam-based transport rules to e-mail messages that are sent between an Exchange Server 2007 organization and the Internet. The Edge Rules agent runs on computers that have the Edge Transport server role installed.

Edge Subscription

The record of an Edge Transport server that has been subscribed to an Exchange organization and to which the Microsoft Exchange EdgeSync service propagates recipient and configuration data. The Microsoft Exchange EdgeSync service relies on Edge Subscriptions. Also, Edge Subscription is the process that is required to establish an Edge Subscription for a given Edge Transport server.

Edge Subscription file

The XML file that is exported on the Edge Transport server and imported on the Hub Transport server to establish an Edge Subscription.

Edge Transport server role

An Exchange Server 2007 server role that provides anti-spam and antivirus protection and applies messaging security policies to messages in transport between organizations by using a series of agents that act on messages as they are processed by the message transport components. This server role is deployed in the perimeter network outside the Active Directory directory service forest. Computers that have the Edge Transport server role installed handle all Internet-facing mail flow and provide Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) relay and smart host services for the Exchange organization.

EdgeSync

A collection of processes that are run on the Exchange Server 2007 Hub Transport server role to establish one-way replication of recipient and configuration information from the Active Directory directory service to the Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM) instance on a computer that has the Edge Transport server role installed. EdgeSync copies only the information that is required for the Edge Transport server to perform anti-spam and message security configuration tasks, and information about the Send connector configuration that is required to enable mail flow from the Exchange 2007 organization's Hub Transport servers to the Internet through one or more Edge Transport servers. EdgeSync performs scheduled updates so that the information in ADAM remains current.

EdgeSync synchronization

The task or process that the Microsoft Exchange EdgeSync service performs to propagate data from the Active Directory directory service to the subscribed Edge Transport server. Configuration data is synchronized once each hour. Recipient data is synchronized once every four hours. See also: Edge Subscription

Enhanced Document Availability

A set of Microsoft Exchange features that offers increased access to documents even when the documents are located on an internal network or the software required to view the documents is not installed on the client computer.

equipment mailbox

An equipment mailbox is a type of resource mailbox that is assigned to a non-location-specific resource such as a laptop projector, microphone, or company car. Equipment mailboxes can be included as resources in meeting requests, providing a simple and efficient way to utilize resources for an organization.

ethical wall

A zone of non-communication between distinct departments of a business or organization to prevent conflicts of interest that might result in the inappropriate release of sensitive information.

European Union Data Protection Directive (EUDPD)

This directive standardizes the protection of data privacy for citizens throughout the European Union (EU) by providing baseline requirements that all member states must achieve through national implementing legislation.

EXCH50 binary large object

A set of properties, generated and managed by Exchange Server, which is stored with each message and contains metadata about a given message. Often referred to as EXCH50 BLOB.

Exchange ActiveSync

A protocol that makes it possible for users to sync their e-mail, calendar, and contact data over the air from Exchange Server 2003 or later to mobile devices that support the Exchange ActiveSync protocol.

Exchange Management Console

The Exchange 2007 graphical user interface (GUI) from which administrators can perform tasks to configure and manage Exchange servers. The Exchange Management Console is based on Windows Microsoft Management Console (MMC) 3.0.

Exchange Management Shell

A command-line interface and associated command-line plug-ins for Exchange Server that enable automation of administrative tasks. The Exchange Management Shell is built on Windows PowerShell technology, formerly codenamed “Monad”.

Exchange Organization Administrators role

One of four Exchange 2007 administrator roles. Members of the Exchange Organization Administrators role have full access to all Exchange properties and objects in the Exchange organization.

Exchange Recipient Administrators role

One of four Exchange 2007 administrator roles. Members of the Exchange Recipient Administrators role have permissions to modify any Exchange property on an Active Directory user, contact, group, dynamic distribution group, or public folder object.

Exchange Server 2007 Setup wizard

The wizard for installing Exchange Server 2007. This wizard has a graphical user interface (GUI) that guides an administrator through the installation of Exchange Server 2007.

Exchange Server Administrators role

One of four Exchange 2007 administrator roles. Members of the Exchange Server Administrators role have access to only local server Exchange configuration data, either in Active Directory or on the physical computer on which Active Directory is installed.

Exchange View-Only Administrators role

One of four Exchange 2007 administrator roles. Members of the Exchange View-Only Administrators role have read-only access to the entire Exchange organization tree in the Active Directory configuration container, and read-only access to all Windows domain containers that have Exchange recipients.

Exchange Web Services

A set of features that provides a programming interface for accessing Microsoft Exchange data through the Client Access server role by using Web services.

Extensible Storage Engine (ESE)

A method that defines a low-level API to the underlying database structures in Exchange Server. Extensible Storage Engine is also used by other databases, such as the Active Directory directory service database. Formerly known as JET.

failover

A failover cluster provides high availability by making application software and data available on several servers linked together in a cluster configuration. If one server stops functioning, a process called failover automatically shifts the workload of the failed server to another server in the cluster. The failover process is designed to ensure continuous availability of critical applications and data.

fallback action

The action that an Exchange Server 2007 transport rule takes if a disclaimer cannot be applied to an e-mail message as, for example, when a message is encrypted.

false positive

A positive test or filter result in a subject or body of data that does not possess the attribute for which the filter or test is being conducted.

fan-out

The process of splitting a message to deliver e-mail messages to individual recipients.

fan-out thread

A thread that creates multiple message copies and places them in the appropriate link queues. The dispatcher then triggers XFER OUT threads to process the fan-out message copies.

File Replication Service (FRS)

A multimaster replication service that is used replicate files and folders between servers.

file share witness

A new type of Majority Node Set (MNS) quorum in Windows Server 2003. In Exchange Server 2007, cluster continuous replication (CCR) uses the MNS quorum with file share witness instead of the traditional voter node.

Financial Institution Privacy Protection Act of 2001

Amends the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act to provide enhanced protection of nonpublic personal information.

Financial Institution Privacy Protection Act of 2003

Amends the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act to provide enhanced protection of nonpublic personal information.

Foreign connector

An Exchange Server 2007 connector that uses a Drop directory on a Hub Transport server to send messages to a local messaging server that doesn't use the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) as its primary transport mechanism. These messaging servers are known as foreign gateway servers. Third-party fax gateway servers are examples of foreign gateway servers. The address spaces that are assigned to a Foreign connector can be SMTP or non-SMTP.

foreign gateway connection handler

In Exchange Server 2007, a component of the Microsoft Exchange Transport service that manages delivery of messages to Drop directories that are configured for use by foreign connectors.

forms-based authentication

Forms-based authentication provides a Web logon screen for users to authenticate to gain access to their mailboxes when using Microsoft Outlook Web Access. When you use forms-based authentication, your logon credentials are stored in a temporary cookie. Storing these credentials in a cookie provides a more secure mechanism for ensuring session logout and automatic timeout. The initial user's name and password is still transmitted in clear text, similar to basic authentication. This is why SSL encryption must be used with forms-based authentication.

FQDN

See other term: fully qualified domain name (FQDN)

full mesh topology

A network architecture in which each network segment can reach any other network segment directly through a point-to-point physical or logical connection.

fully qualified domain name (FQDN)

A DNS name that has been stated to indicate its absolute location in the domain namespace tree. In contrast to relative names, an FQDN has a trailing period (.) to qualify its position to the root of the namespace (host.example.microsoft.com.).

global address list (GAL)

A directory that contains entries for every group, user, and contact within an organization's implementation of Exchange Server.

globally unique identifier (GUID)

A 16-byte value generated from the unique identifier on a device, the current date and time, and a sequence number. A GUID is used to identify a particular device or component. In Active Directory, GUIDs are automatically generated for every object (for example, user, group, computer, and so on), and that value is guaranteed to never change. Also referred to as a Universally Unique Identifier (UUI).

Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (Financial Modernization Act)

A U.S. federal law that protect consumers’ personal financial information held by financial institutions.

handoff

A process by which an administrator can manually move a clustered mailbox server between nodes in a cluster. A handoff should only be performed by using the Move-ClusteredMailboxServer cmdlet in the Exchange Management Shell.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

A US federal law that provides rights and protections for participants and beneficiaries in group health plans.

Healthy

One of four health states of a storage group copy. Healthy indicates that the passive copy of a storage group can be advanced by log replay.

heartbeat interval

The amount of time that can elapse before the Exchange server asks a mobile device running Exchange ActiveSync to connect again.

HIPAA

See other term: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

HIPAA Privacy Rule

A rule issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to implement the privacy requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), a federal law that provides rights and protections for participants and beneficiaries in group health plans. The rule establishes national standards for the protection of certain health information, including standards addressing the use and disclosure of individuals’ health information and standards for individuals' privacy rights to understand and control how their health information is used.

Hub Transport server role

An Exchange Server 2007 server role that provides routing within a single organizational network by using the Active Directory directory service site. Deployed inside the Active Directory forest, computers that have the Hub Transport server role installed handle all mail flow inside the organization, apply transport rules, apply journal rules, and deliver messages to recipients' mailboxes. Messages that are sent to the Internet are relayed by the Hub Transport server to the Edge Transport server role that is deployed in the perimeter network. Messages that are received from the Internet are processed by the Edge Transport server before they are relayed to the Hub Transport server. The Hub Transport server role stores all its configuration information in Active Directory. This information includes transport rules settings, journal rule settings, and connector configurations.

hunt group

A set of extensions that are organized into a group, over which the Private Branch eXchange (PBX) “hunts” to find an available extension. A hunt group is used to direct calls to identically-capable endpoints or to an application, such as voice mail.

IETF

See other term: Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

impersonation

The ability of a thread to run in the security context of a security principal different from the security principal that started the process. This is usually so that a process can gain access to resources on behalf of a user.

In-Country/Region Number Format

The string that is used to define how to create an in-country/region number to use when making calls from a dial plan.

informational announcement

An audio message that is played when a user first dials in to a Unified Messaging system that describes some temporary condition of interest to all users.

in-place upgrade

In Exchange Server documentation, this is the scenario in which you upgrade to a newer version of Microsoft Exchange software on a single computer. In an in-place upgrade, you do not have to move data to a different computer. For example, when upgrading from Exchange 2000 Server to Exchange Server 2003, you can perform an in-place upgrade.

Integrated Windows authentication

An authentication method in which the user name and password, also called credentials, are hashed before they are sent over the network. When Integrated Windows authentication is enabled, the client browser proves its knowledge of the password through a cryptographic exchange with the Web server. If the Active Directory directory service is installed on a domain controller that is running Microsoft Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003, and the client browser supports the Kerberos v5 authentication protocol, Kerberos v5 authentication is used. Otherwise, NTLM authentication is used. Integrated Windows authentication was formerly named NTLM, and is also known as Windows NT Challenge/Response authentication.

Intelligent Message Filter

The underlying technology of the Exchange Server content filter that evaluates inbound mail and assesses the probability that an inbound e-mail message is either a legitimate message or spam.

International Access Code

The prefix that is used to direct a call internationally. The International Access Code is 011 in the United States and 00 in much of the rest of the world.

International Number Format

The string that is used to define how to dial someone from outside of their country/region.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

An open community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. Technical work is performed by working groups organized by topic areas (such as routing, transport, and security) and through mailing lists. Internet standards are developed in IETF Requests for Comments (RFCs), which are a series of notes that discuss many aspects of computing and computer communication, focusing on networking protocols, programs, and concepts.

interoperability

In Exchange Server documentation, the ability of a program or system to share data and resources or to communicate with different programs and systems. Exchange Server 2007 can interoperate with non-Exchange messaging systems. In some cases, Exchange shares directory information and mailbox information with the other programs and systems. For example, with Exchange 2003 and the Lotus Notes connectors, you can send calendar information and free/busy data between Lotus Notes and Exchange.

interoperate

See other term: interoperability

IP Allow list

A filtering list that is used by the Connection Filter agent in Exchange Server 2007. IP addresses on the IP Allow list are considered "safe" and are exempted from processing by other anti-spam agents.

IP Block list

A filtering list that is used by the Connection Filter agent in Exchange Server 2007. IP addresses on the IP Block list are considered spam. Messages originating from an IP address that is on the IP Block list are stopped from entering the Exchange organization.

IP gateway

A third-party hardware device or product that connects a legacy PBX to a LAN. An IP gateway translates or converts TDM or telephony circuit-switched protocols to packet-switched protocols that can be used on a VoIP-based network.

Japan's Personal Information Protection Act

A law promulgated by the Japanese government to regulate the collection, use, and transfer of personal information. The Personal Information Protection Act applies to government or private entities that collect, handle, or use personal information of 5,000 or more individuals.

journaling

The ability to record all communications, including e-mail communications, in an organization for use in the organization's e-mail retention or archival strategy.

Journaling agent

A compliance-focused agent that is configured to journal e-mail messages that are sent or received by departments or individuals in an Exchange Server 2007 organization, to and from recipients outside the organization, or both for use in the organization's e-mail retention or archival strategy.

junk e-mail

Unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE). Also known as spam.

LCR

See other term: local continuous replication (LCR)

LinkAccess

A feature that allows access to SharePoint documents and sites and documents on shares inside of a corporate network through Outlook Web Access when it is used remotely.

linked connector

In Exchange Server 2007, a Receive connector that is linked to a Send connector. All messages that are received by the Receive connector are forwarded to the Send connector to which the Receive connector is linked. The Send connector must be configured to send messages to a smart host. All incoming messages that are accepted by the Receive connector are immediately forwarded to the destination smart host by the Send connector. A Receive connector can only be linked to one Send connector.

local continuous replication (LCR)

Local continuous replication (LCR) is a single-server solution that uses built-in technology to create and maintain a copy of a storage group on a second set of disks that are connected to the same server as the production storage group. LCR provides asynchronous log shipping, log replay, and a quick manual switch to a copy of the data.

mail contact

A mail-enabled Active Directory contact that contains information about people or organizations that exist outside an Exchange Server organization. Each mail contact has an external e-mail address.

mail user

A mail-enabled Active Directory user that represents a user outside the Exchange organization. Each mail user has an external e-mail address. A mail user is similar to a mail contact, except that a mail user has Active Directory logon credentials and can access resources.

mailbox

The combination of an Active Directory user object that has mailbox attributes and the associated mailbox data that is stored in the mailbox database.

Mailbox Assistants

See other term: Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Assistants

mailbox database

A database for storing mailboxes in Exchange Server. The mailbox database manages the data in mailboxes, tracks deleted messages and mailbox sizes, and assists in message transfers. A mailbox database is stored as an Exchange database (.edb) file.

mailbox delivery queue

A group of temporary queues that hold messages that are being delivered to a Mailbox server by using encrypted Exchange RPC. Mailbox delivery queues exist on Hub Transport servers only. A different mailbox delivery queue exists for each Mailbox server destination. The destination Mailbox server must exist in the same Active Directory directory service site as the Hub Transport server. Mailbox delivery queues are dynamically created as needed and are automatically removed.

Mailbox server role

An Exchange Server 2007 server role that provides e-mail storage and advanced scheduling services for Microsoft Office Outlook users. The Mailbox server role also includes public folders, which provide a foundation for workflow, document sharing, and other forms of collaboration.

mailbox user

A mail-enabled Active Directory user object that has mailbox attributes.

mail-enabled universal distribution group

A group of recipients that are created to expedite the mass e-mailing of messages and other information. When e-mail is sent to a mail-enabled universal distribution group, all members of that list receive a copy of the message. Mail-enabled universal distribution groups cannot be used to assign permissions.

mail-enabled universal security group (USG)

A group of recipients that are created to expedite the mass e-mailing of messages and other information. Unlike a mail-enabled universal distribution group, a mail-enabled USG can also be used to assign permissions. When e-mail is sent to a mail-enabled USG, all members of that group receive a copy of the message.

Majority Node Set (MNS)

A type of cluster quorum model in Windows Server 2003. Exchange Server 2007 uses a new type of MNS quorum with file share witness to support failover clusters in different physical locations.

malware

See other term: malicious code

managed content settings

Settings that are applied to the managed folders in users' mailboxes to control the retention and journaling of messages for messaging records management (MRM). Managed content settings define when messages that are no longer needed are to be removed or journaled (copied) to a separate storage location outside the mailbox.

managed custom folder

A type of managed folder that is created by an Exchange administrator and placed in a user’s mailbox for messaging records management (MRM) purposes. The retention and journaling of messages in managed custom folders are controlled by managed content settings that are applied to the folder.

managed default folder

A mailbox folder (such as the Inbox folder) that appears in Office Outlook by default and to which messaging records management (MRM) has been applied. The retention and journaling of messages in managed default folders are controlled by managed content settings that are applied to the folder.

managed folder

A folder in a user’s mailbox to which messaging records management (MRM) has been applied. There are two types of managed folders: “managed default folders” (such as the Inbox) appear, by default, in a user’s Office Outlook mailbox; “managed custom folders” are created by Exchange administrators specifically for MRM. The retention and journaling of messages in managed folders are controlled by managed content settings that are applied to the folder.

managed folder assistant

A Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Assistant that creates managed folders in users' mailboxes and applies managed content settings to them for messaging records management (MRM).

managed folder mailbox policy

A logical grouping of managed folders. When a managed folder mailbox policy is applied to a user’s mailbox, all the managed folders that are linked to the policy are deployed in a single operation, thereby making the deployment of messaging records management (MRM) easier.

matched name selection method

The mechanism used to help a caller differentiate between users with names that match the touch-tone or speech input.

message dehydration

In Exchange Server 2007, the removal of unnecessary elements, such as MIME content, from queued messages that are cached in memory. This helps reduce memory use.

message envelope

The information contained in an e-mail message that is required to send and deliver a message between messaging servers by using SMTP protocol commands. Defined in RFC 2821, the message envelope contains the sender e-mail address and the recipient e-mail address information used in MAIL FROM: and RCPT TO: as the message is routed from server to server for delivery. Recipients never see the message envelope, because it is not part of the message content, and it is discarded when the message reaches its destination. The X.400 messaging standard equivalent to the message envelope is called the "P1 header." The message envelope is often referred to as the "P1 header."

message header

A term used to collectively describe all the header fields in an e-mail message. Header fields are part of the message content. Some header fields are required, while others are optional. Some header fields are created by user input, such as To:, Cc:, and Subject:. Other header fields are added by messaging servers that are involved in the routing of the message, such as Message-ID: and Received:. Still other header fields may be added by messaging applications, such as anti-spam and antivirus applications. The X.400 messaging standard equivalent to the message header is called the "P2 header." Defined in RFC 2822, the message header is often referred to as the "P2 header."

message tracking

The tracking of events from the time a message enters an Edge Transport server or Hub Transport server to the time it leaves the any of the Edge Transport servers or Hub Transport servers in a single organization. Message tracking logs capture data from all stages of a message’s journey through a server. Message tracking logs can be used for message forensics, mail flow analysis, reporting, and troubleshooting. By default, message tracking is enabled on each Exchange Server 2007 computer that has the Hub Transport server role, the Mailbox server role, or the Edge Transport server role installed. Message tracking can only be enabled on Exchange 2007 servers that have these server roles installed, because these servers participate in message routing and delivery.

Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI)

A messaging architecture that enables multiple applications to interact with different messaging systems across a variety of hardware platforms. MAPI is built on the Component Object Model (COM) architecture.

messaging records management (MRM)

Records management technology in Exchange 2007 that helps organizations to reduce the legal risks that are associated with e-mail and other communications. MRM makes it easier to keep messages that are needed to comply with company policy, government regulations, or legal needs, and to remove content that has no legal or business value.

Microsoft Exchange Hosted Services

A set of four distinct hosted services: Hosted Filtering, which helps organizations protect themselves from e-mail-borne malware; Hosted Archive, which helps them satisfy retention requirements for compliance; Hosted Encryption, which helps them encrypt data to preserve confidentiality; and Hosted Continuity, which helps them preserve access to e-mail during and after emergency situations. These services integrate with any on-premise Exchange servers that are managed in-house or Hosted Exchange e-mail services that are offered through service providers.

Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Assistants

The process that runs on a Mailbox server and performs background processing of mailboxes in the Exchange store.

Microsoft Exchange Troubleshooting Assistant

A Microsoft Exchange tool that is used to automatically determine what set of data is required to troubleshoot symptoms that are identified. It can also be used to collect configuration data, performance counters, event logs, and live tracing information from an Exchange Server 2007 Unified Messaging server and Exchange 2007 servers in the organization that are running other Exchange 2007 server roles.

Microsoft Exchange Unified Messaging service

A service that implements Unified Messaging (UM) capabilities for UM-enabled users.

migrate

See other term: migration

migration

In Exchange Server documentation, this is the scenario in which you upgrade to Exchange Server 2007 by migrating data from a non-Exchange messaging system to Exchange Server 2007 or from an existing Microsoft Exchange organization to a completely new Exchange organization, without retaining any of the Exchange configuration data in the first organization. Example: When merging with another company, you can perform a migration. In this scenario, you move mailboxes and data to the other company's Exchange organization, without retaining any of the configuration data from your existing Exchange organization. Example: When upgrading from Lotus Notes to Exchange Server 2007, you perform a migration. In this scenario, you must move mailboxes and data to the new Exchange Server 2007 organization, without retaining any of the data from the Lotus Notes organization.

missed call notification

An e-mail message that is sent to a Unified Messaging subscriber that indicates that someone called but did not leave a message.

MNS

See other term: Majority Node Set (MNS)

Monad

The code name for the Windows command-line shell technology and scripting language that provides a task automation solution for the Windows platform.

move

The task of moving an object from one location to another, such as moving a mailbox from one server to another. For example, you can move a mailbox from one Exchange organization to another.

multifactor authentication

An authentication method that requires two or more authentication methods, which may include something the user provides, such as certificates; something the user knows, such as user names, passwords, or pass phrases; physical attributes, such as a thumbprint; and personal attributes, such as a personal signature.

National Association of Securities Dealers 3010 & 3110 (NASD 3010 & 3110)

The National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) requires that member firms establish and maintain a system to "supervise" the activities of each registered representative, including transactions and correspondence with the public. In addition, NASD 3110 requires that member firms implement a retention program for all correspondence involving registered representatives. Effects primarily broker-dealers, registered representatives, and those individuals that trade securities or act as brokers for traders are subject to the regulations.

NDR

See other term: non-delivery report (NDR)

non-delivery report (NDR)

Notification that an e-mail message was not delivered to the recipient.

OABGen

When the Microsoft Exchange System Attendant generates the offline address book (OAB), it calls Oabgen.dll (referred to as OABGen). OABGen is a MAPI application that reads from Active Directory. On a server running Exchange Server 2003 SP2, the first time an OAB is created, OABGen creates the OAB version 2, OAB version 3a, and OAB version 4 folders. You can specify the versions of OABs that are generated.

offline address book (OAB)

A copy of an address book that has been downloaded so that an Outlook user can access the information it contains while disconnected from the server. Exchange administrators can choose which address books are made available to users who work offline, and they can also configure the method by which the address books are distributed.

offline address book (OAB) distribution

The method by which the OAB can be accessed by users when they are working remotely or over a dial-up connection. To distribute the OAB, administrators can use Web-based distribution, public folder distribution, or both. Public folder distribution is required for Outlook 2003 or earlier clients.

offline address book (OAB) distribution point

The HTTP Web address or public folder where client computers can download an offline address book. Public folder distribution is required for Outlook 2003 or earlier clients.

offline address book (OAB) generation

The process by which Exchange Server creates and updates the OAB. Administrators can define when the OAB generation process will run.

offline address book (OAB) version 4

The OAB version that was introduced with Exchange Server 2003 Service Pack 2 (SP2). OAB version 4.0 is required for Web-based distribution.

open proxy

A proxy server that accepts connection requests from anyone anywhere and forwards the traffic as if it has originated from the local hosts.

outdialing

A process in which Unified Messaging (UM) dials or transfers calls. Unified Messaging generally receives calls, but sometimes dials calls. For example, outdialing occurs when Unified Messaging transfers a call to an auto attendant or when a UM subscriber uses Play-on-Phone from Outlook.

Outlook Anywhere

A feature that makes it possible for a user to access their Exchange Server mailbox from any workstation using the full Outlook client, regardless of the network they are currently logged on to.

Outlook E-Mail Postmark

A computational proof that Outlook applies to outgoing messages to help recipient messaging systems distinguish legitimate e-mail from junk e-mail.

Outlook features for Exchange Unified Messaging

Software that is supplied with Outlook 2007 to render Exchange Server 2007 Unified Messaging (UM) voice messages. Users can also change their Unified Messaging options.

Outlook Voice Access

A feature that allows a Unified Messaging-enabled user to access their Microsoft Exchange Server mailbox over the telephone. Users can navigate through their mailboxes by using telephone-key or Speech input.

Outlook Web Access Light

A lightweight version of Outlook Web Access optimized for accessibility and compatibility with the widest array of browsers and operating systems.

Outlook Web Access Web Part

A piece of the user interface (UI) in Outlook Web Access that can be hosted in iframes as part of other Web applications such as SharePoint Portal Server portals. Outlook Web Access exposes a set of Outlook Web Access Web Part URLs that allow other applications to request certain portions of the Outlook Web Access UI. For example, another application can load the Outlook Web Access Web Part URL for the Inbox, Calendar, or Contact folder into an iframe hosted in that application.

Outside Line Access Code

The prefix that is used to access an outside line. This prefix is typically 9.

P1 header

See other term: message envelope

P2 header

See other term: message header

Patriot Act

See other term: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001

PBX

See other term: Private Branch eXchange (PBX)

perimeter network

An Internet Protocol (IP) network segment that contains resources, such as Web servers and virtual private network (VPN) servers, that are available to Internet users. Also known as screened subnet.

phishing

A technique used to trick computer users into revealing personal or financial information. A common online phishing scam starts with an e-mail message that appears to come from a trusted source but actually directs recipients to provide information to a fraudulent Web site.

phishing confidence level

A property of each e-mail message that the Office Outlook 2003 Junk E-mail Filter stamps as a property on the message when it is processed in the Outlook 2003 Junk E-mail folder.

Pickup directory

A directory that receives RFC-822 compliant files from the file system for the purpose of creating message objects that can be passed to the Submission queue.

pilot identifier

The string that is received with a new call that is used to associate the call with a dial plan.

pilot number

A telephone number that points to a hunt group and is the access number for calls that are routed to Unified Messaging servers. Also known as a UM access telephone number.

PIN

A passcode that a user enters on the telephone to access their Exchange Server mailbox.

pipe

(noun) A portion of memory that can be used by one process to pass information along to another. Essentially, a pipe works like its namesake: it connects two processes so that the output of one can be used as the input to the other. (verb) To use the output of one Exchange Management Shell command as the input for the next. In code, this is represented by the vertical bar ("|") character. For example, to pipe the output of the Get-Mailbox cmdlet to the input of the Format-List command so as to see the detailed output, type Get-Mailbox | Format-List.

pipelining

In the Exchange Management Shell, one or more chained commands that are separated by the pipeline operator. The output of each command in a pipeline is the input to the next command.

PKI

See other term: public key infrastructure (PKI)

Play on Phone

A Unified Messaging feature that users can use to play their voice messages or play and record personalized voice mail greetings, over a telephone.

poison message queue

A persistent queue that isolates messages that are detected as potentially fatal to an Exchange Server 2007 server. This queue is typically empty. If no such messages exist in the poison message queue, the queue does not appear in the queue viewing interfaces.

predicate

In Exchange Server 2007, a function that is used as a condition or exception on a transport rule to determine whether an action should be applied to an e-mail message.

priority queuing

A feature of Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 1 (SP1) that enables the sender-defined priority of a message to influence the processing of the message by an Exchange server that has the Hub Transport server role installed.

Private Branch eXchange (PBX)

A private telephone network in an organization. Individual telephone numbers or extension numbers are supported, and calls are automatically routed to them. Users can call each other using extensions, even across distributed locations.

prompt

An audio message played over the telephone to explain valid options to users.

property set

A property set is a grouping of Active Directory attributes. You can control access to this grouping of Active Directory attributes by setting one access control entry (ACE) instead of setting an ACE on each property.

Protocol Analysis agent

The underlying agent that is used by the Sender Reputation feature in Exchange Server 2007. The Protocol Analysis agent performs reverses DNS lookups on the sender IP address, performs Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) HELO analysis, and may perform open proxy tests on the sender IP address. The Protocol Analysis agent uses this data and input from the Content Filter agent to compute a sender reputation level (SRL) for senders.

public folder

A folder that coworkers can use to share a wide range of information, such as project and work information, discussions about a general subject, and classified ads. Access permissions determine who can view and use the folder. Public folders are stored on computers running Exchange.

public folder database

A database that stores public folders, indexes their contents, and assists in the replication of the folders with other Exchange servers. A public folder database is stored as an Exchange database (.edb) file.

public folder distribution

The distribution method by which Outlook 2003 or earlier clients that are working offline or through a dial-up connection access the offline address book (OAB).

public key

The nonsecret half of a cryptographic key pair that is used with a public key algorithm. Public keys are typically used when encrypting a session key, verifying a digital signature, or encrypting data that can be decrypted with the corresponding private key.

public key infrastructure (PKI)

The laws, policies, standards, and software that regulate or manipulate certificates and public and private keys. In practice, it is a system of digital certificates, certification authorities, and other registration authorities that verify and authenticate the validity of each party involved in an electronic transaction. Standards for PKI are still evolving, even though they are being widely implemented as a necessary element of electronic commerce.

queue

A temporary holding location for messages that are waiting to enter the next stage of processing. Each queue represents a logical set of messages that a transport server processes in a specific order.

Queue Viewer

A tool in the Exchange Management Console that helps administrators monitor and manage messaging queues and the messages that are contained in those queues. Implemented as a Microsoft Management Console snap-in.

quota message

An e-mail message that is automatically sent by Microsoft Exchange to the owners of a mailbox or a public folder when a size limit, which is called a storage quota, for the mailbox or public folder has been exceeded or is at risk of being exceeded.

RBL

See other term: real-time block list (RBL)

real-time block list (RBL)

A dynamic list that is maintained inside an organization or by a remote third-party organization that contains a list of known unsolicited e-mail or spam sources. The receiving mail server may refuse connections from addresses that are on a RBL.

Receive connector

A connector that is used to receive mail from remote mail systems based on administrator-defined address spaces. Receive connectors apply a customized set of limits and other configuration options that apply only to messages received from remote mail systems that match the address space that is configured on the send connector.

recipient

A mail-enabled object in Active Directory to which Exchange can deliver messages. In Exchange 2007, recipients include mailbox users, mail users, resource mailboxes, mail contacts, distribution groups, and dynamic distribution groups. All recipients have Exchange attributes, but they may or may not have Exchange mailboxes.

Recipient Block list

An administrator-defined list of recipients for which mail coming in from the Internet should never be accepted.

remote delivery queue

A group of temporary queues that hold messages that are being delivered to a remote destination by using SMTP. Each remote destination has its own remote delivery queue. These remote destinations include external domains, smart hosts, or remote Active Directory directory service sites. Remote delivery queues are dynamically created as needed and are automatically removed.

remote device wipe

A technology that enables the Exchange server to set a mobile device to erase all data the next time the device connects to the Exchange server.

Replay Suspend

One of four health states of a storage group copy. Replay Suspend indicates that an administrator has temporarily halted log replay.

replica seeder

Also known as seeder, the replica seeder is an internal component that is responsible for seeding the passive copy for storage groups that are enabled for continuous replication.

Request for Comments (RFC)

An official document of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that specifies the details for protocols included in the TCP/IP family.

Resource Booking Attendant

A calendaring feature that automatically manages resources. Resource requests are automatically accepted or denied depending on availability and policies.

resource mailbox

A resource mailbox is a mailbox that represents conference rooms and company equipment. Resource mailboxes can be included as resources in meeting requests, providing a simple and efficient way to utilize resources for an organization. The user account that is associated with a resource mailbox is disabled.

RFC

See other term: Request for Comments (RFC)

room mailbox

A room mailbox is a type of resource mailbox that is assigned to a meeting location such as a conference room, auditorium, or training room. Room mailboxes can be included as resources in meeting requests, providing a simple and efficient way of organizing meetings for an organization.

round robin

A simple mechanism used by DNS servers to share and distribute loads for network resources. Round robin is used to rotate the order of resource records (RRs) returned in a response to a query when multiple RRs of the same type exist for a queried DNS domain name.

routing group

In Exchange Server 2003 and Exchange 2000 Server, a logical grouping of well-connected Exchange servers between which no connector is required for message transfer. In Exchange Server 2007, all Exchange servers reside in a single routing group, regardless of their location. The Exchange 2007 routing group only exists when Exchange 2007 is installed in an existing Exchange organization and is created to allow Exchange 2007 to coexist with earlier versions of Exchange Server.

routing group connector

An SMTP connector that is required for mail to flow between Exchange routing groups. When Exchange Server 2007 is installed in an existing Exchange Server 2003 and Exchange 2000 Server organization, the required routing group connector is created during setup.

RTAudio

An advanced speech codec that is designed for real-time two-way Voice over IP (VoIP) applications such as gaming, audio conferencing, and wireless applications over IP. RTAudio is the preferred Microsoft audio codec and is the default codec for Microsoft Unified Communications platforms.

rule

A concept that implements a single function point of a messaging policy. The rule contains some general settings, the condition as to when to trigger this rule, and an ordered set of actions as to what to do if the rule is triggered. Additionally, each rule may have exceptions that specify what to exclude from the condition. Exceptions typically identify a subset of criteria identified in the condition.

rule collection

An ordered set of rules for the purpose of implementing a messaging policy. The number of rule collections is set at design time.

safe list collection

The combined data from an Office Outlook user's Safe Senders List, Safe Recipients List, Blocked Senders List, and external contacts, that is stored in Outlook and in the Exchange mailbox.

Safe Recipients List

A list that includes the e-mail addresses of mailing lists for which you want to be a recipient. Messages sent to such a mailing list and received by you will not be treated as junk e-mail.

Safe Senders List

A list of domain names and e-mail addresses that you want to receive messages from. E-mail addresses in Contacts and in the Global Address Book are included in this list by default. People you sent messages to will be added to the list.

safelist aggregation

A set of anti-spam functionality that is shared across Microsoft Office Outlook and Exchange Server 2007. This functionality collects data from the anti-spam safe lists and contact data that Outlook users configure and makes this data available to the anti-spam agents on the computer that has the Exchange Server 2007 Edge Transport server role installed. Safelist aggregation can help reduce the instances of false-positives in anti-spam filtering that is performed by the Edge Transport server.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX)

A U.S. federal law that requires the preservation of records by certain exchange members, brokers, and dealers.

SCC

See other term: single copy cluster (SCC)

Scheduling Assistant

An Outlook and Outlook Web Access feature that automatically suggests the best meeting times for a given a group of attendees, allowing users to schedule people and resources quickly and efficiently.

SCL

See other term: spam confidence level (SCL)

SCW

See other term: Security Configuration Wizard (SCW)

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

A proposed open standard for establishing a secure communications channel to prevent the interception of critical information, such as credit card numbers. Primarily, it enables secure electronic financial transactions on the World Wide Web, although it is designed to work on other Internet services as well.

Security Configuration Wizard (SCW)

A tool that automates security best practices to reduce the attack surface for a server. The SCW was introduced with Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1.

Security Exchange Commission Rule 17a-4 (SEC Rule 17 A-4)

A U.S. Security and Exchange Commission rule that provides rules regarding the retention of electronic correspondence and records.

seeding

Seeding is the process in which a database, either a blank database or a copy of the production database, is added to the storage group copy. This becomes the baseline database for the passive copy of the storage group.

Send connector

A connector used to send mail to remote mail systems based on administrator-defined address spaces. Send connectors apply a customized set of limits and other configuration options that apply only to messages destined for remote mail systems that match the address space configured on the Send connector.

sender policy framework (SPF)

An extension of the SMTP protocol that prevents spammers from forging the From: fields in e-mail messages by verifying that the IP address in the SMTP Received: header is authorized to send e-mail for the sender's domain.

sender reputation

Anti-spam functionality that is enabled on computers that have the Edge Transport server role installed to block messages according to characteristics of the sender. The Protocol Analysis agent, the underlying agent for sender reputation, continuously monitors senders and their past SMTP interactions, such as the amount of spam and messages that are not spam that a sender has sent, and relies on persisted data about the sender to determine what action, if any, to take on an inbound message.

server role

In Exchange 2007, a server role is a logical grouping of features and services that allow you to complete a specific set of tasks. Instead of one generic installation, Exchange 2007 allows you to choose from the following five server roles: Mailbox, Client Access, Unified Messaging, Hub Transport, and Edge Transport.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that governs the exchange of electronic mail between message transfer agents.

single copy cluster (SCC)

A single copy cluster is a clustered mailbox server that uses shared storage to allow multiple servers to manage a single copy of the storage groups. To create a single copy cluster for Exchange Server 2007, you must use the Microsoft Windows Cluster service.

smart host

A designated server through which Exchange routes all outgoing messages. The smart host then makes the remote connection. If a smart host is designated, the Exchange server only needs to transmit to the smart host, instead of repeatedly contacting the domain until a connection is made. Also known as a relay host.

SMTP

See other term: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

SMTP connector

A software component that represents a logical path between a source and a destination for the purpose of transmitting Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) messages. A SMTP connector can be configured as a Send connector or as a Receive connector.

spam

Unsolicited commercial e-mail. Also known as junk e-mail.

spam confidence level (SCL)

The normalized value that is assigned to an e-mail message. This value indicates, based on the characteristics of the message, such as the content, message header, and so forth, the likelihood that the message is spam. This value is persisted with the message when the message is sent to other Exchange servers.

SPF

See other term: sender policy framework (SPF)

split brain syndrome

Split brain syndrome occurs when all networks designated to carry internal cluster communications fail, and nodes cannot receive heartbeat signals from each other.

spoofed mail

An e-mail message whose sending address has been modified to appear as though it originates from a sender other than the actual sender of the message.

spoofing

The impersonation of an e-mail sender, IP connection, or a domain that causes an e-mail message to appear as though it originates from a sender other than the actual sender of the message.

SSL

See other term: Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

storage quota

A storage size limit for messages in a user mailbox or a public folder, based on the total size of the messages. You can configure Exchange to take various actions when a storage quota is reached, including notifying the owner of the mailbox or public folder, stopping the sending of messages, or stopping both sending and receiving of messages.

store driver

A software component of the Hub Transport Server that delivers inbound messages to Exchange stores, the databases that contain public folder and mailbox stores. The store driver is also responsible for retrieving messages from a user's outbox and submitting it for delivery.

store override

In Exchange Server 2007, a mechanism used by the store driver to indicate an alternative delivery destination for messages being routed to public folders if the destination message database can't accept the message and stamps an alternative delivery destination on the recipient properties. The store driver sets the store override property and the message is routed to the alternative delivery destination.

Submission queue

A persistent queue that is used by the categorizer in Exchange Server 2007 to gather all messages that have to be resolved, routed, and processed by transport agents. After categorization, the message is moved to a delivery queue or to the Unreachable queue. Users cannot take actions on the Submission queue.

Subscribed Edge Transport server

An Edge Transport server that has been subscribed to the Exchange Server 2007 organization. An administrator has completed the Edge Subscription process and an Edge Subscription has been established for that specific Edge Transport server. The Microsoft Exchange EdgeSync service periodically synchronizes configuration data between the Hub Transport servers and the Edge Transport servers.

subscriber access number

A number that is configured in a Private Branch eXchange (PBX) that allows a subscriber to access their Microsoft Exchange mailbox over the telephone.

system prompt

A short audio recording, installed on the Exchange Unified Messaging server, that is played to callers by the server. System prompts may be used to welcome callers, to inform them of their options when they use the system, and to make them aware of important information and of events and errors that have occurred.

tarpitting

The practice of artificially delaying server responses for specific SMTP communication patterns that indicate high volumes of spam or other unwelcome e-mail messages. The intent is to slow down the communication process for such e-mail traffic so that the cost of sending spam increases for the person or organization who is sending the e-mail.

tarpitting interval

The interval that is used to delay a response in a tarpitting scenario.

Telephone User Interface (TUI)

An interface that is used to navigate the menus of a Unified Messaging (UM) system using DTMF or touch-tone inputs.

Text-to-Speech (TTS)

Technologies for translating or converting typewritten text into speech.

three-factor authentication

An authentication method that requires three authentication methods, which may include something the user provides, such as certificates; something the user knows, such as user names, passwords, or pass phrases; physical attributes, such as a thumbprint; and personal attributes, such as a personal signature.

TLS

See other term: Transport Layer Security (TLS)

transaction log file

A file that contains a record of the changes that were made to an Exchange database. All changes to the database are recorded in the transaction log files before they are written into the database files. If a database shuts down unexpectedly, unfinished transactions can be restored by replaying the transaction log files into the database.

transition

The scenario in which you upgrade an existing Microsoft Exchange organization to Exchange Server 2007. To perform the transition, you must move data from the existing Exchange servers to new Exchange 2007 servers. For example, when upgrading from an Exchange 2000 Server or Exchange Server 2003 organization to an Exchange Server 2007 organization, you perform a transition.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

A protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets to be sent by IP (Internet Protocol) and the reassembly and verification of the complete messages from packets received by IP. A connection-oriented, reliable protocol (reliable in the sense of ensuring error-free delivery), TCP corresponds to the transport layer in the International Standard Organization's Open System Interconnect (ISO/OSI) reference model.

transport dumpster

In Exchange Server 2007, a feature of the Hub Transport server role that is only enabled for cluster continuous replication (CCR). The transport dumpster provides an administrator with the option to configure CCR so that the clustered mailbox server will automatically come online on another node, with limited amount of data loss. When this happens, the system automatically redelivers all the recent e-mail messages sent to users on this server by taking advantage of the transport dumpster where these e-mail messages are still stored.

Transport Layer Security (TLS)

A protocol that provides communications privacy and security between two applications communicating over a network. TLS encrypts communications and enables clients to authenticate servers and, optionally, servers to authenticate clients. TLS is a more secure version of the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol.

transport rule

A concept that implements a single function point of a transport messaging policy. A transport rule contains conditions as to when to trigger this rule and an ordered set of actions as to what to do if the rule is triggered. Additionally, each transport rule can have exceptions that specify what to exclude from the condition. Exceptions typically identify a subset of criteria identified in the condition.

Transport Rules agent

An Exchange Server 2007 agent that enables organizations to apply compliance and policy based transport rules to e-mail messages that are sent to or received from recipients or senders inside or outside of an Exchange 2007 organization. Compliance and policy-based transport rules help an Exchange organization to comply with regulatory or legal requirements applied on messages send or received by an Exchange organization. The Transport Rules agent runs on computers that have the Hub Transport server role installed.

Trojan horse

A program that appears to be useful or harmless but that contains hidden code designed to exploit or damage the system on which it is run. Trojan horse programs are most commonly delivered to users through e-mail messages that misrepresent the program's purpose and function. Also called Trojan code.

two-factor authentication

An authentication method that requires two authentication methods, which may include something the user provides, such as certificates; something the user knows, such as user names, passwords, or pass phrases; physical attributes, such as a thumbprint; and personal attributes, such as a personal signature.

UM access telephone number

A telephone number that points to a hunt group and is the access number for calls that are routed to Unified Messaging servers. Also known as a pilot number.

Unified Messaging

An application that consolidates a user's voice mail, fax, and e-mail into one mailbox, so that the user only needs to check a single location for messages, regardless of type. The e-mail server is used as the platform for all types of messages, making it unnecessary to maintain separate voice mail and e-mail infrastructures.

Unified Messaging server role

A set of components and services that enable voice, fax, and e-mail messages to be stored in a user's single mailbox. Users can also access their Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 mailbox from a telephone or a computer.

Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001

A U.S. federal law that expands the authority of U.S. law enforcement for the stated purpose of fighting terrorist acts in the United States and abroad. Also known as the Patriot Act.

Unreachable queue

A persistent queue that contains messages that cannot be routed to their destinations. Regardless of destination, all messages that have unreachable recipients reside in this queue.

upgrade

In Exchange Server documentation, "upgrade" is used in general references to describe an upgrade to a newer version of Microsoft Exchange software, including an in-place upgrade, a transition, or a migration.

user datagram protocol (UDP)

A connectionless protocol within TCP/IP that corresponds to the transport layer in the International Standard Organization's Open System Interconnect (ISO/OSI) reference model. UDP converts data messages generated by an application into packets to be sent through IP, but it is unreliable because it does not establish a path between sender and receiver before transmitting and does not verify that messages have been delivered correctly. UDP is more efficient than TCP, so it is used for various purposes, including Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The reliability depends on the application that generates the message.

virtual private network (VPN)

A network that connects one or more computers to a large network, such as a business network, using the Internet. A VPN is encrypted, so only authorized people have access to it.

virus

A malicious computer program designed specifically to replicate itself and spread from computer to computer. A virus may damage hardware, software, or data.

Virus Scanning API (VSAPI)

A virus-scanning API that is used by third-party antivirus service providers to protect computers that have the Exchange Server 2007 Mailbox server role installed from viruses.

voice mail

A system that records and stores telephone messages in a user mailbox.

voice message

An electronic message with a primary content of digitized audio.

Voice over IP (VoIP)

The practice of using an IP data network to transmit voice calls.

Voice User Interface (VUI)

An interface that is used to navigate the menus of a Unified Messaging (UM) system using speech inputs.

VoIP gateway

A computer device that converts between circuit switch telephony protocols and VoIP protocols.

VPN

See other term: virtual private network (VPN)

VSAPI

See other term: Virus Scanning API (VSAPI)

Web-based distribution

The distribution method by which Outlook 2007 or later clients that are working offline or through a dial-up connection access the offline address book (OAB).

WebReady Document Viewing

A technology that allows documents to be converted to HTML and displayed in a Web browser when a viewing application is not available.

Windows Firewall

Firewall software that is a component of Microsoft Windows XP SP2 and later. The previous version of this software was called Internet Connection Firewall (ICF).

X-header

User-defined, unofficial header field that exists in the message header. X-headers are not specifically mentioned in RFC 2822, but the use of an undefined header field starting with "X-" has become an accepted way to add unofficial header fields to a message. Messaging applications, such as anti-spam, antivirus, and messaging server applications may add their own X-headers to a message. X-header fields are usually preserved but ignored by messaging servers and clients that don't use them.

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