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Supporting Installations

Published: November 03, 2005

In addition to running Setup, you might need additional tools to aid your Microsoft Windows XP Professional deployment. The following discussion describes the setup process, optional Windows Support Tools, service pack and software update deployment, and troubleshooting tips for issues that you might encounter during setup.

For information on how to obtain the Windows XP Professional Resource Kit in its entirety, please see http://www.microsoft.com/mspress/books/6795.asp.

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On This Page

Related Information
The Setup Process
Support Tools
Installing Service Packs and Other Software Updates
Uninstalling a Service Pack or Other Software Update
Troubleshooting Windows XP Professional Setup
Additional Resources

Related Information

  • For more information about automating and customizing Windows XP Professional installations, see Chapter 2, “Automating and Customizing Installations.”

  • For more information about Plug and Play and ACPI, see Chapter 9, “Managing Devices.”

The Setup Process

Windows XP Professional includes Dynamic Update and Uninstall, two new Setup features. The following discussion describes these features and what occurs during a new installation before and after each restart. During a nonscripted installation, Setup restarts your computer three times.

New Setup Features

Windows XP Professional includes new features that enhance the setup process.

Dynamic Update

Using Dynamic Update, a process that occurs during setup, the computer connects to the Microsoft Windows Update Web site and searches for the following:

  • Updated Windows XP Professional installation files

  • Device driver files not included or updated on the Windows XP Professional operating system CD

Dynamic Update downloads the installation and device driver files to your computer and incorporates them into the setup process. To initiate Dynamic Update, the computer you are upgrading must have the following:

  • Internet connection capability

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0 or later installed

For more information about Dynamic Update, see Chapter 2, “Automating and Customizing Installations.”

Note If you install Windows XP Professional by using the CD-ROM boot method, Dynamic Update is not used.

Uninstall

If your hardware or software does not function as expected after installing Windows XP Professional, you can use Uninstall to restore your computer to its previous operating system with little interruption. Uninstall removes all setup files from your computer and restores your previous operating system. Uninstall is available if you upgrade to Windows XP Professional from any of the following operating systems:

  • Microsoft Windows 98

  • Microsoft Windows 98, Second Edition (SE)

  • Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me)

The following are factors to consider when using the Uninstall feature:

  • Setup requires about 300 megabytes (MB) of additional space to save the information it needs to be able to uninstall. Setup notifies you if your disk space is insufficient for saving the backup information.

  • Thirty days after you complete Setup, the Disk Cleanup Wizard asks whether you want to remove the Uninstall file from your computer.

  • Before removing Windows XP Professional from your computer, back up all your important data. For information about using Backup (NTBackup.exe), see Chapter 14, “Backing Up and Restoring Data.”

  • If you install an application on your computer after you have upgraded to Windows XP Professional and then decide to remove Windows XP Professional from your computer, you must reinstall the application after restoring the previous operating system.

    Warning If you convert a volume to NTFS or to dynamic disk, or if you create or delete any volume, you can no longer use the Uninstall feature.

Running Setup

During an upgrade to Windows XP Professional, the following processes occur before and after each of three restarts.

Before the first restart

As it begins the installation, Setup does the following:

  • Collects information about your computer, such as whether you want to accept your license agreement or enter your product key. You can also specify installation options, including whether you want to perform an upgrade or a clean installation.

  • Runs Dynamic Update.

  • Checks disk space, and builds a list of backup files to support Uninstall.

To cancel Setup at this point, click Cancel when prompted or close the Setup dialog box. Your computer’s previous operating system and settings return immediately.

After the first restart

Setup runs in Text mode and does the following:

  • Provides an option to repair your existing installation.

  • Provides an option to specify a partition in which to install Windows XP Professional. Setup can also format partitions.

  • Copies files to the installation folder on your hard disk.

To cancel Setup and uninstall Windows XP Professional at this point, restart your computer, and then choose Cancel Windows XP Professional Setup instead of Microsoft Windows XP Professional Setup on the menu that appears after your computer restarts.

Your computer’s previous operating system and settings are restored.

After the second restart

Setup runs in graphical user interface (GUI) mode and does the following:

  • Installs devices.

  • Sets system locale and customizes your keyboard.

  • Prompts you to specify your name, organization, computer name, and administrator password.

  • Installs networking components, including Client for Microsoft Networks, File and Print Sharing for Microsoft Networks, and the TCP/IP protocol with automatic addressing. Setup also determines whether your computer uses automatic IP addressing or a DHCP server to connect to the Internet, and then installs the appropriate components.

  • Prompts you to join a workgroup or domain.

  • Performs the basic operating system configuration.

  • Installs Start menu items.

  • Updates the backup file list and prepares the restore environment to support Uninstall.

  • Registers components and then saves and backs up the registry.

  • Removes temporary files used during setup.

To cancel Setup and uninstall Windows XP Professional at this point, choose Cancel Windows XP Professional Setup instead of Microsoft Windows XP Professional Setup on the menu that appears after your computer restarts.

Your computer’s previous operating system and settings are restored.

After the third restart

Setup has completed the installation process, and you can log on and start using Windows XP Professional. To remove Windows XP Professional after the setup process is complete, in Control Panel, double-click Add or Remove Programs, and then select Uninstall Windows XP Professional. Your computer’s previous operating system and settings are restored.

Warning If you convert a volume to NTFS or to a dynamic disk, or if you create or delete any volume, you can no longer use the Uninstall feature.

Support Tools

Windows Support Tools help you deploy Windows XP Professional, manage your network, and troubleshoot problems. You can find Windows Support Tools in the \Support\Tools folder on your operating system CD. The folder also includes two cabinet files, Deploy.cab and Support.cab, which contain numerous tools in compressed form. For information about installing Support Tools, including how to extract tools within Deploy.cab and Support.cab, see Readme.htm in the \Support\Tools folder.

Table 4-1 lists some of the key deployment tools that are in the \Support\Tools folder.

Table 4-1 Support Tools That Aid in Deployment

Name

File Name

Description

Application
Compatibility Toolkit

Act20.exe

The Application Compatibility Toolkit for Windows XP contains tools and documents to help you diagnose and resolve application compatibility issues. Some of the tools in the Toolkit include:

  • Compatibility Administration Tool, which provides an interface for working with compatibility data and features on Windows XP computers

  • Application Verifier Tool, which is designed to help developers identify compatibility and stability issues in their applications

  • QfixApp, which provides a quick way of testing applications that have any of the common compatibility fixes provided in the Windows XP operating system

  • PageHeap, which helps developers find heap-related bugs, corruptions, and leaks in applications

Setup Manager

Setupmgr.exe

A wizard-based tool that helps you create unattended answer files. Setup Manager also creates a network distribution share, required for unattended and Sysprep deployments.

System
Preparation Tool (Sysprep) 2.0

Sysprep.exe

A utility that prepares a system on a hard disk for duplication (cloning) and customization. It does not actually perform the duplication of the reference image onto destination computers (third-party utilities are required for this purpose), but ensures that the security identifiers (SIDs) are unique for each installation. In addition, Sysprep can help you customize duplicated images by adding computer-specific information such as user name, computer name, time zone, and domain membership.

Deploy.chm

Deploy.chm

A Help file that contains information about using Setup Manager, Sysprep, and command-line tools such as Winnt32.exe and Winnt.exe. Deploy.chm and Ref.chm together replace Unattend.doc, the answer file reference for previous Microsoft Windows NT–based operating systems. For more information about using answer files and automated installations, see Chapter 2, “Automating and Customizing Installations.”

Ref.chm

Ref.chm

A Help file that contains a complete reference to section headers and keys that can be used in answer files such as unattend.txt and sysprep.inf. Deploy.chm and Ref.chm together replace Unattend.doc, the answer file reference for previous Microsoft Windows NT–based operating systems. For more information about using answer files and automated installations, see Chapter 2, “Automating and Customizing Installations.”

Note Updated versions of the System Preparation Tool (sysprep.exe) and the Sysprep.inf file have been included in Windows XP Service Pack 2. In addition, the Help files in the Deploy.cab file have been updated to cover Service Pack 2. Finally, new versions of several of the Support Tools are included in Service Pack 2. Corporate administrators can download the updated Deployment Tools (Deploy.cab) by searching the Microsoft Download Center (http://www.microsoft.com/downloads) for “Windows XP Service Pack 2 Deployment Tools”, and they can download the updated Support Tools (Support.cab) by searching the Download Center for “Windows XP Service Pack Support Tools”. For more information, see articles 838079 and 838080 in the Knowledge Base at http://support.microsoft.com.

Installing Service Packs and Other Software Updates

A service pack is a collection of updates pertaining to an operating system. These updates might address operating system reliability, application compatibility, setup, and security issues. The term software update generally refers to any critical update, security update, hotfix, rollup, or service pack that can be applied to the operating system to improve or fix a software product released by Microsoft. The term update is used to describe a released fix for a specific problem; it refers to noncritical, nonsecurity-related updates. For a description of the terminology used to describe Microsoft software updates, see the Knowledge Base article 824684 at http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=824684.

Typically, Microsoft packages service packs and other software updates with a setup program that installs updates to your computer. The service pack or software update setup program copies files and updates settings automatically if your operating system configuration meets requirements specific to the service pack or software update. Typically, you restart your computer after installing a service pack or software update before the updates to your computer take effect.

Warning While critical updates and security updates should generally be applied immediately to all systems (after testing in a suitable environment), you should apply a software update only if directed to do so by a Microsoft Knowledge Base article that describes your problem exactly or under the direction of your support representative. For information about the Microsoft Knowledge Base, see the Microsoft Knowledge Base link on the Web Resources page at http://www.microsoft.com/windows/reskits/webresources.

Service Pack and Software Update Setup Programs

Check the documentation that comes with your service pack or software update for the specific name of the setup program. You can usually run service pack or update setup programs from the command prompt. In addition, you can customize your installation by using parameters.

Service Pack Setup Program Naming Convention

In this section, ServicePack.exe refers to generic service pack self-extracting packages used for performing network installations by corporate administrators. This generic ServicePack.exe file is a self-extracting cabinet file that can be obtained from the Microsoft Download Center (http://www.microsoft.com/downloads) or from Windows Update (http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com), and it contains all the files required to install the service pack on a http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com computer running Windows XP, including updated system files, other binary files, .inf files, .cab files, and the Update.exe setup program that starts the service pack installation process. The generic name ServicePack.exe is used because the actual naming convention used for service pack files can vary. For example, the U.S. English version of the Windows XP Service Pack 1a self-extracting package was named xpsp1a_en_x86.exe, while the package for Service Pack 2 is named WindowsXP-KB835935-SP2-ENU.exe, where KB 835935 is the Knowledge Base article containing the release notes for SP2.

Table 4-2 lists the different command-line switches available when running both ServicePack.exe and Update.exe from the command line (as far as Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2 is concerned). Before using these switches, check your service pack documentation for any changes if you are deploying a more recent service pack than SP2. For more information, see KB 262841, “Command-Line switches for Windows software update packages” (http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;262841). Note that you can prefix switches with either a dash (for example, -passive) or a slash (for example, /passive) when using them.

Table 4-2 Command-Line Switches for Service Pack Setup Programs

Command-Line Switch

Description

-u or -passive

Run an unattended installation of the service pack. No user interaction is required, but a progress bar is displayed during installation. If a critical error occurs during installation, the user will be prompted to respond.

-f or -forcerestart

Force other applications to close at shutdown. After installing the service pack files and before restarting the computer, this switch closes all applications. This option cannot be used with the -integrate, -l, -n or -z options.

-n

Do not back up files for Uninstall. In a typical service pack installation, files necessary for uninstalling the service pack are saved to your hard drive. If you use this switch, you cannot uninstall the service pack. This option cannot be used with the -integrate or -l options.

-o

Overwrite OEM-supplied files, such as device drivers, without prompting. If you use the -q or -u switches and have OEM-supplied miniport drivers or HAL, you must use the -o switch to ensure these files are properly updated.

-z or -norestart

Do not restart the computer when the installation completes. This option cannot be used with the -integrate or -l options.

-q or -quiet

Quiet mode—no user interaction required.

-l

Display installed Windows updates, critical updates, and security updates. This switch cannot be used with any other command-line switches.

-uninstall

Uninstalls the service pack.

-integrate:path

Integrated Installation mode—combines the service pack with the Windows XP installation files in a shared distribution folder so that you can perform an integrated installation.

-extract: path or
-x:path

Extracts the service pack files to the specified folder without running Update.exe. If you don’t specify a path, you are prompted to provide one. This option is available only for ServicePack.exe.

-d: path

Back up the files for removing the service pack into the folder specified.

For more information on installing service packs on Windows XP, see the “Guide for Installing and Deploying Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2” on Microsoft TechNet at http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/winxppro/deploy/spdeploy.mspx. If you are installing a more recent service pack, see the appropriate documentation on Microsoft TechNet.

Windows XP Software Update Setup Program Naming Convention

For the remainder of this section, SoftwareUpdate.exe generically refers to the setup program for any software update, including critical updates, security updates, rollups, and hotfixes. Since Windows XP Service Pack 2 was released, software update setup programs for Windows XP now follow this naming convention:

WindowsXP-KB######-ZZZ-LLL.exe

In the preceding naming convention, the variables have the following meanings:

  • ###### is the six-digit Microsoft Knowledge Base article number (for example, 123456) for the article in which the software update is described.

  • ZZZ is the hardware platform (either x86 or ia64).

  • LLL is the language (for example, ENU for U.S. English).

To find an article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base, click the Microsoft Knowledge Base link on the Web Resources page at http://www.microsoft.com/windows/reskits/webresources. Administrators can download critical updates, security updates, and other updates from the Windows Update Catalog on Windows Update (http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com), and they can contact Microsoft Product Support Services (PSS) to obtain hotfixes for specific problems identified in Microsoft Knowledge Base articles. Note that hotfixes released by Microsoft PSS might still follow the following older naming convention:

Q######_XXX_YYY_ZZZ_LLL.exe

In the preceding naming convention, the variables have the following meanings:

  • Q###### is the Microsoft Knowledge Base article number (for example, 123456).

  • XXX is the platform or operating system (WXP for Windows XP).

  • YYY is the service pack level (for example, SP2 for a hotfix that will be rolled into Service Pack 2).

  • ZZZ is the hardware platform (either x86 or ia64).

  • LLL is the language (for example, ENU for U.S. English).

Table 4-3 lists command-line switches that you can use with SoftwareUpdate.exe to customize your software update installation. Before using these switches, check the documentation for the software update in the appropriate Knowledge Base article for any changes. For more information on these switches, see KB 262841, “Command-Line switches for Windows software update packages” (http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;262841). Note that you can prefix switches with either a dash (for example, -q) or a slash (for example, /q) when using them. Note also that some updates might not support the longer, more descriptive swiches, such as -quiet instead of -q and so on.

Table 4-3 Command-Line Switches for Software Update Setup Programs

Command-Line Switch

Description

-f or -forcerestart

Force other applications to close at shutdown. After installing the software update files and before restarting the computer, this switch closes all applications.

-n

Do not back up files for Uninstall. In a typical software update installation, files necessary for uninstalling the software update are saved to your hard drive. If you use this switch, you cannot uninstall the software update.

-z or -norestart

Do not restart the computer when the installation completes.

-q or -quiet

Quiet mode—no user interaction required.

-u or -passive

Unattended mode. Use this switch to run an unattended installation of the software update.

-l

List installed software updates. This is useful to check for compatibility with the requirements of your software update.

-uninstall

Uninstall the software update (which can be used with -m or -q).

-integrate:path

Integrates the software update into the specified path where the Windows XP source files reside.

If your service pack version is newer than the software update you are installing, the installation stops and silently exits if you included the -m or -q parameters. If you did not use these switches, an error message appears, stating that the version is incorrect. In addition, if the language version of the software update does not match the operating system’s language, Setup is always interrupted. If no version conflict exists, Setup installs the software update without user intervention.

For more information on installing software updates on Windows XP, see “The Guide for Installing and Deploying Updates for Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2” (formerly known as “Hotfix Deployment and Installation Guide”) on Microsoft TechNet at http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/winxppro/deploy/hfdeploy.mspx. If you are installing a software update for a more recent service pack than SP2, see the appropriate documentation on Microsoft TechNet.

Planning the Deployment

To successfully deploy your service pack, prepare for the deployment. Assess the updates and enhancements contained in your service pack, and determine how they will affect your organization. Also, you might want to perform other steps when planning the deployment, including these important tasks:

  • Choose an installation method.

  • Choose deployment tools and files.

  • Check space requirements.

  • Test the deployment in your environment.

Choosing an installation method

Depending on a number of factors, including the homogeneity of operating systems your computers are running and your company’s security policies, you can choose one of the following methods to install your service pack:

  • The update installation is the standard method originally used to install Windows NT–based service packs. Using this method, you install your service pack on top of your existing operating system.

  • The integrated installation method was first introduced with Windows 2000 Service Pack 1. Using this method, you simultaneously install the operating system together with your service pack.

  • The combination installation was also first introduced in Windows 2000 Service Pack 1. Using this method, you install your service pack with software updates, other components, or third-party applications by using a combination of the update and integrated installation methods.

For more information about applying these installations and scenarios that might relate to your deployment, see “Update Installation,” “Integrated Installation,” and “Combination Installation” later in this chapter.

Choosing deployment tools and files

After you select your installation method and one of the associated scenarios for your installation, review the scenario to determine whether you might need one or more of the following deployment tools and files:

Systems Management Server

Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) provides a variety of tools to help you deploy service packs. Using the SMS version 2.0 or later software distribution feature, you can simultaneously upgrade all the SMS client computers in your site with your service pack. You can allow your users to run the service pack installation whenever they like, or you can schedule the service pack installation to run at a specific time. You can also schedule it to run on SMS client computers at a time when no users are logged on to the network.

Note SMS provides tools for upgrading your current computers, but not for the installation of new computers that do not have an operating system already installed.

Setup Manager

Setup Manager (Setupmgr.exe) is a wizard-based tool that can help you create or update the Unattend.txt answer file, the Cmdlines.txt file, and the network distribution share (a requirement if you want to include drivers or files from the network in your service pack installation). Setup Manager is available in the Deploy.cab file in the \Support\Tools folder on your Windows XP Professional operating system CD. For more information about Setup Manager, see “Support Tools” earlier in this chapter.

The Unattend.txt answer file identifies how Windows XP Professional Setup interacts with the distribution folders and files you create, and it supplies information about your pre-installation requirements. The answer file also supplies Setup with all the information that the end user is prompted to provide during a typical Windows XP Professional installation. For example, Unattend.txt contains a “FullName” entry in the [UserData] section, which prompts the user to provide a full name. You can create or modify the Unattend.txt answer file by using a text editor or Setup Manager. For a complete list of section headers and keys that you can use in your answer file, see Ref.chm in the \Support\Tools\Deploy.cab folder on your Windows XP Professional operating system CD.

The Cmdlines.txt file contains a list of the commands that run during Windows XP Professional GUI–mode setup. For example, these commands can run an application setup command or another executable file. You can create the Cmdlines.txt file by using a text editor or Setup Manager.

Additional Windows XP Professional deployment and pre-installation tools

For more information about tools to use when deploying a service pack or other software update, see “Support Tools” earlier in this chapter.

Checking space requirements

A service pack requires a certain amount of space on your computer’s hard drive for installation, storage, and to uninstall. Check your service pack documentation for space requirements, and then remember to reserve space for the Uninstall file if you want to remove the service pack later.

Testing the deployment in your environment

Testing a service pack in your environment can include the following steps:

  1. Use a cross section of the types of computers deployed in your environment that will receive the service pack. Test computers that have a typical sample of software and hardware devices used in your organization.

  2. Install your service pack on each of these computers in the same way that you expect to install it in your environment:

    • Update existing Windows XP Professional–based computers to the service pack.

    • Upgrade existing computers that are running Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition (SE), Windows Millennium Edition (Me), Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0, and Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional to Windows XP Professional integrated with the service pack.

    • Install Windows XP Professional integrated with the service pack on computers with no existing operating system (that is, a clean installation).

  3. Verify that the applications and hardware continue to work as expected for the various scenarios.

Update Installation

During an update installation, a service pack is applied to a computer that is already running Windows XP Professional. The ServicePack.exe program automatically installs the updated system files and makes the necessary registry changes. After the computer restarts, the installation is completed and the operating system is running with an updated file set.

A number of methods for creating the update installation are supported since the release of Windows 2000 Service Pack 1. These include manually running the ServicePack.exe program or running a script that starts the ServicePack.exe program. You can use a combination of installation parameters whether you run ServicePack.exe manually or by using a script. Or you can use SMS to install a service pack. Also supported are a variety of distribution media, including CD-ROM, network distribution share, Web download, and Microsoft Windows Installer. Table 4-4 lists the advantages and disadvantages of using ServicePack.exe versus using SMS.

Table 4-4 Comparison of Methods for Performing an Update Installation

Method

Advantages

Disadvantages

ServicePack.exe

Parameters are available to customize your installation.

Can be scripted to automate the installation.

You do not need to purchase additional software to install the service pack on your computers.

You cannot set the installation to start and end at a specific time.

SMS

Installation is automated.

Can be scheduled to start and stop the installation automatically (for example, at night when employees do not need their computers).

You must purchase SMS separately.

For more information about using Systems Management Server, see your SMS product documentation.

Tip Another method for deploying service packs and software updates is to use the Software Installation and Maintenance feature of Group Policy. By assigning service packs or software updates to a Group Policy Object (GPO) linked to an organizational unit (OU), you can automatically install the updates on computers in that OU at the next restart. For more information on this approach, see the “Guide for Installing and Deploying Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2” on Microsoft TechNet at http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/winxppro/deploy/spdeploy.mspx. If you are installing a more recent service pack, see the appropriate documentation on Microsoft TechNet.

Performing an Update Installation

The update installation scenarios described in this section include procedures you can use to meet your installation requirements. These scenarios focus on the network distribution share, the distribution media most commonly used by IT professionals. For the procedures in the following scenarios, drive E is a mapped network share or a local hard disk and drive D is the CD-ROM drive.

  • Scenario 1: Installing a service pack manually or by using a script

  • Scenario 2: Installing a service pack by using SMS

  • Scenario 3: Installing a software update

Scenario 1: Installing a service pack manually or by using a script

You can use a script or manually install a service pack on Windows XP Professional–based computers from a network distribution share.

To install a service pack manually
  1. Connect to the network or computer on which you want to create the distribution folder.

  2. On the network distribution share, create a distribution folder for the service pack. For example, to create a distribution folder named SP, type mkdir E:\SP.

  3. Copy the contents of your service pack onto the network distribution share.

  4. To install the service pack, connect to the network distribution share and run ServicePack.exe. For example, to install the service pack from a distribution folder named SP, type E:\SP\ServicePack.exe.

    Note When running ServicePack.exe by using a script or batch file, include the following in your script: ServicePack.exe -u -q. This installs the service pack in Unattended mode, with no user interaction. For more information about the switches you can use with ServicePack.exe, see Table 4-2 earlier in this chapter.

Scenario 2: Installing the service pack by using SMS

You can install a service pack on Windows XP Professional–based SMS client computers from a network distribution share by using SMS.

Warning SMS 2.0 Service Pack 4 or later or SMS 2003 is required to support Windows XP Professional Service Pack 2 installations.

To use SMS to install a service pack
  1. Create the SMS package by importing the package definition file for your service pack. In the package, provide the path to the service pack source files.

  2. Distribute the SMS package to the distribution points.

  3. Create the advertisement to notify SMS clients about the service pack.

To use SMS for an update installation, you must have an understanding of SMS as well as a working knowledge of software distribution. Also, your SMS infrastructure must be in place before you deploy the service pack. For more information about SMS, see your SMS product documentation.

Creating the SMS package

When using SMS to distribute software, first create the SMS package, which contains the files and instructions that direct the software distribution process. When you create the SMS package, you specify the location of the package source files (where SMS obtains the files) and the package definition file (.pdf) for distributing the service pack.

A package definition file is a specially formatted file that contains all the information necessary to create the SMS package. If you import this file, SMS immediately creates the package. After you use a package definition file to create a package, you can modify it the way you would any other SMS package.

Each predefined SMS package also contains SMS programs, which are command-line executables that run on each targeted computer to control the execution of the package. Each program is a different combination of options that you create for installing the package. For example, the package definition for the service pack includes programs that install the service pack with or without user input. These SMS programs must be compatible with the installation files for the package.

To create an SMS package
  1. Connect to the network or computer on which you want to place the source files.

  2. On the network or computer, create a source files directory for the service pack. For example, to create a source files directory named SP, type mkdir E:\SP.

  3. Copy the service pack executable files to the source files directory that you created in step 2. For example, to copy the service pack executable files from a service pack CD in the CD-ROM drive (D) to the source files directory named SP, type xcopy D:\ E:\SP /e.

  4. In the SMS Administrator console, select Packages.

  5. On the Action menu, point to New, and then click Package from Definition.

  6. On the Welcome page, click Next.

  7. Click Browse from the package definition list, and then navigate to the folder where the package definition file for the service pack was created. When you find the package definition file, click it to import the service pack package definition file, and then click Next.

  8. On the Source Files page, click Always obtain files from a source directory, and then click Next.

  9. In the Source directory box, enter the path to the package source files. (See step 3.)

  10. Click Next, and then click Finish.

  11. Select Programs.

  12. In the details pane, double-click the service pack program.

  13. In the Program Properties property sheet, on the General tab, verify that the predefined Command line is the correct setup command for your needs.

  14. Click the Requirements, Environment, and Advanced tabs to check and modify the options that control the execution of your program. For more information about the options on these tabs, see your SMS product documentation.

  15. Click OK.

Warning If you download your service pack from the Microsoft Windows Service Pack Web site, you must extract the compressed program file before you can copy it to the source files directory. Check the documentation included with your service pack for information about extracting the compressed program files.

Distributing the SMS package to the distribution points

After you create the SMS package for the service pack, you can distribute the package to your distribution points. Distribution points are shares on site systems where SMS copies the package source files for access by the client computers.

To distribute an SMS package to distribution points
  1. In the SMS Administrator console, select Packages, select the SMS package that you created for the service pack, and then select Distribution Points.

  2. On the Action menu, point to New, and then click Distribution Points.

  3. In the New Distribution Points Wizard, click Next, and then select the distribution points you want to use.

    All the distribution points for all sites are listed, so you can select all the distribution points now.

  4. Click Finish.

    The package is immediately distributed to the selected distribution points.

    Note Your distribution points must have sufficient disk space for the SMS package. For instructions about how to check the disk space for distribution points from the SMS Administrator console, see your SMS product documentation.

Creating the SMS advertisement

After you distribute the SMS package to the distribution points, you can create the advertisement that offers the package to the SMS clients.

To create an advertisement
  1. Create a collection of SMS clients to receive the installation program. You can base the collection on a query or direct membership rules. For more information about creating a collection, see your SMS product documentation.

  2. Right-click the collection that will receive the program, and then click All Tasks/Distribute Software.

  3. In the Distribute Software Wizard, click Next.

  4. Click Distribute an existing package, click the SMS package for the service pack, and then click Next.

  5. In the Distribution Points dialog box, make sure the desired distribution points are selected, and then click Next.

  6. In the Advertise a Program dialog box, click Yes. Advertise a program, click the program you want to advertise, and then click Next.

  7. In the Advertisement Target dialog box, confirm that the collection of clients selected in step 2 is listed, and then click Next. If this collection is not listed, click Browse to find the collection you want.

  8. In the Advertisement Name dialog box, fill in the advertisement name if appropriate, and then click Next.

  9. Specify any subgroups that should also receive this advertisement, and then click Next.

  10. Confirm or change the time the advertisement is offered and specify whether the advertisement should expire and when.

  11. On the Assign Program page, click Yes to assign the program.

  12. Click Next, and then click Finish.

SMS clients refresh the list of advertised programs on a configurable polling interval, set to 60 minutes by default. After the service pack advertisement is received on a client, it is either displayed for selection by users in the Advertised Program Wizard in Control Panel, or, if assigned (mandatory), runs according to the specified schedule.

Scenario 3: Installing a software update

You can install a software update on Windows 2000–based and Windows XP Professional–based computers from a network distribution share.

Running a software update setup program

The following procedure describes how to install a software update by running the WindowsXP-KB######-x86-LLL.exe program.

To install a software update
  1. Connect to the network or computer on which you want to create the distribution folder.

  2. On the network distribution share, create a distribution folder for the software update files. For example, to create a distribution folder named Updates, type:

    mkdir E:\Updates
  3. Copy the software update executable file to the distribution folder that you created in step 2. For example, to copy the software update executable file to the distribution folder named Updates, type:

    xcopy C:\WindowsXP-KB######-x86-LLL.exe E:\Updates
  4. To install the software update from the network distribution share, run the WindowsXP-KB######-x86-LLL.exe program. For example, to install the software update from the distribution folder named Hotfix, type:

    E:\Updates\WindowsXP-KB######-x86-LLL.exe

Integrated Installation

You can create an integrated installation of the Windows XP Professional operating system and your service pack on a network distribution share. When you run the ServicePack.exe program in Integrated mode, it applies the service pack directly to the Windows XP Professional installation files. Thereafter, you do not need to perform separate installations of the operating system and your service pack.

Warning You cannot uninstall a service pack that you install in Integrated mode.

After the ServicePack.exe program creates the integrated installation, you can run Windows XP Professional Setup (Winnt32.exe) to install the operating system integrated with the service pack.

Creating an Integrated Installation

The following integrated installation scenarios focus on the network distribution share, the distribution media most commonly used by IT professionals. Depending on your installation requirements, choose from two integrated installation scenarios, which are detailed in the following sections. For the procedures in the following scenarios, drive E is a mapped network share or a local hard disk and drive D is the CD-ROM drive.

  • Scenario 1: Installing Windows XP Professional integrated with the service pack from a network distribution share

  • Scenario 2: Installing Windows XP Professional integrated with the service pack by using Remote Installation Services (RIS)

Scenario 1: Installing Windows XP Professional integrated with a service pack

You can create an integrated installation of the Windows XP Professional operating system and a service pack on a network distribution share. During an integrated installation, the service pack and Windows XP Professional Setup are installed at the same time.

To create an integrated installation of Windows XP Professional and your service pack
  1. Connect to the network or computer on which you want to create the distribution folder.

  2. On the network distribution share, create a distribution folder for the Windows XP Professional installation files. For example, to create a distribution folder named \WinXP\i386 to mirror the location of the installation files on the operating system CD, type:

    mkdir E:\WinXP\i386
  3. Insert your Windows XP Professional operating system CD into the CD-ROM drive, and then copy the contents of the \i386 folder on the CD to the distribution folder that you created in step 2. For example, to copy the \i386 folder from the Windows XP Professional operating system CD to the distribution folder named WinXP, type:

    xcopy D:\i386 E:\WinXP\i386 /e
  4. From your service pack CD, run the ServicePack.exe program in Integrated mode by using ServicePack.exe -s. For example, to apply the service pack located in the CD-ROM drive to the Windows XP Professional installation files located in the distribution folder named WinXP\i386, type:

    D:\i386\ServicePack.exe -s:E:\WinXP\i386
  5. Customize Windows XP Professional Setup as needed.

    After ServicePack.exe creates the integrated installation, you can deploy Windows XP Professional to your users’ computers from the network distribution share in Attended or Unattended mode. During the integrated installation process, Windows XP Professional Setup (Winnt32.exe) installs the integrated operating system with the service pack already applied.

When you run the ServicePack.exe program in Integrated mode (ServicePack.exe -integrate:path), a Spslpsrm.log file is created in the %SystemRoot% folder on the computer that is running the ServicePack.exe program. If you plan to update more than one version of Windows XP Professional on this computer, you should rename the Spslpsrm.log file after you update each version. This ensures that you do not overwrite the current log file when you update additional versions of Windows XP Professional.

Scenario 2: Using RIS to install Windows XP Professional integrated with a service pack

This scenario describes your options using Remote Installation Services (RIS) to install Windows XP Professional integrated with your service pack.

Creating a RIS image

RIS supports two types of operating system images:

  • Remote Installation Setup (RISetup) images

  • Remote Installation Preparation (RIPrep) images

Installing Windows XP Professional from a RISetup image is similar to installing directly from the Windows XP Professional operating system CD, but in this case, the source files reside on the RIS server. You use RISetup.exe to create and install from the image.

A RIPrep image is an installation of Windows XP Professional that contains specific configuration settings made by the administrator. Typically, it also contains locally installed applications. In this scenario, you install your service pack to integrate it into the Windows XP Professional installation. You use RIPrep.exe to replicate the local (RIPrep) image to a RIS server, and then restore that image to a new computer on the network. RIPrep.exe can replicate single disk partitions only, and it requires that your image reside on drive C.

For more information about RIS, including creating and installing RISetup and RIPrep images, see Chapter 2, “Automating and Customizing Installations.”

Combination Installation

The combination installation uses both update and integrated installation processes to install your service pack with a variety of other components, such as the operating system, software updates, or additional Microsoft and third-party software that your installation might include.

Creating a Combination Installation

You can install Windows XP Professional and software updates, as well as additional applications, in Unattended mode.

Scenario: Installing Windows XP Professional, software updates, and additional applications in Unattended mode

Follow these steps to create a combination installation of the Windows XP Professional operating system together with software updates and third-party drivers or applications on a network distribution share. This process can be accomplished only in Unattended mode.

Step 1: Prepare for the installation

Before you run Setup to install the Windows XP Professional operating system combined with software updates, you must change the software update file names (from WindowsXP-KB######-x86-LLL.exe to KB######.exe and from Q######_XXX_YYY_ZZZ_LLL to Q######), because Windows XP Professional Setup requires the 8.3 naming convention for all files and folders in the distribution folder.

Step 2: Create a distribution folder

Follow these steps to create the distribution folder:

  1. Connect to the network or computer on which you want to create the distribution folder.

  2. On the network distribution share, create an \i386 distribution folder. For example, to create an \i386 distribution folder, type:

    mkdir E:\i386
  3. Within the \i386 folder created in step 2, create an \$OEM$ subfolder to contain any additional files, drivers, and folders you need for your installation. For example, to create an \$OEM$ subfolder within the \i386 folder, type:

    mkdir E:\i386\$OEM$
  4. To install additional files (for example, device driver, application, or component files) on users’ computers, within the \$OEM$ subfolder created in step 3, create a \$1 subfolder. For example, to create an \$1 subfolder within the \$OEM$ subfolder, type:

    mkdir E:\i386\$OEM$\$1

    The \$1 subfolder maps to the Windows XP Professional installation drive, for example, drive C.

    Note The \$OEM$ and distribution folders are deleted from users’ computers after Windows XP Professional Setup is completed.

Step 3: Create and customize the Unattend.txt answer file

Using Setup Manager or Notepad.exe, create an Unattend.txt file that contains the following section header, key, and value:

[Unattended] 
OemPreinstall = Yes

For information about using Setup Manager to customize an Unattend.txt answer file, see Chapter 2, “Automating and Customizing Installations.”

For a complete reference to answer file section headers and keys, see Ref.chm, which is in the Deploy.cab file in the \Support\Tools folder on your operating system CD.

Step 4: Customize the Cmdlines.txt file

To run Windows XP Professional software updates during Windows XP Professional setup, add the following section header and line to the Cmdlines.txt file for each software update:

[Commands] 
"KB###### -n -q -z"

###### is the Microsoft Knowledge Base article number (for example, 123456). For example, to install the KB123456.exe software update, add the following line to the [Commands] section header in the Cmdlines.txt file:

[Commands] 
"KB123456 -n -q -z"

For information about creating and using a Cmdlines.txt file, see Chapter 2, “Automating and Customizing Installations.”

Step 5: Copy the files necessary for the installation to the distribution folder

You must copy all the files needed for the installation to your distribution folder. The distribution folder contains the installation and executable files for the Windows XP Professional operating system and the Windows XP Professional software updates, as well as any device driver and other files that you want to install.

To copy the files necessary for the installation
  1. Copy the contents of \i386 and all its subdirectories on the Windows XP Professional operating system CD to the \i386 distribution folder on your network distribution share.

  2. Copy the following files to the \i386\$OEM$ subfolder on your network distribution share:

    • Software update executable files

    • Unattend.txt and Cmdlines.txt files

    For information about files contained in the \i386\$OEM$ subfolder, see Chapter 2, “Automating and Customizing Installations.”

  3. Copy any folders that contain additional device driver, application, or component files that you want to install on the system drive to the \i386\$OEM$\$1 subfolder on your network distribution share.

Step 6: Deploy the combination installation

You can deploy the installation of the Windows XP Professional operating system and the Windows XP Professional software updates to your users’ computers from the network distribution share. During the installation process, Windows XP Professional Setup (Winnt32.exe in Unattended mode) installs the operating system, applies the software updates, and installs the third-party drivers or other applications you specified.

To deploy the installation
  1. Verify that the installation and executable files for the Windows XP Professional operating system and the Windows XP Professional software updates exist in your distribution folder.

  2. Customize Windows XP Professional Setup as required.

  3. Run Windows XP Professional Setup (Winnt32.exe) in Unattended mode to install the Windows XP Professional operating system, software updates, and other applications from the network distribution share.

    Note You can also use Winnt.exe for unattended installations of the operating system, but Winnt.exe is a less versatile tool than Winnt32.exe. You cannot use Winnt.exe to perform an operation system upgrade, and you can use Winnt.exe only from within the MS-DOS preinstallation environment.

For more information about running Winnt32.exe in Unattended mode, see Chapter 2, “Automating and Customizing Installations.”

Warning If you are deploying only post-SP2 updates for Windows XP and are not deploying any third-party drivers or applications, instead of the preceding procedure you should follow the approach outlined in “The Guide for Installing and Deploying Updates for Windows XP Service Pack 2” (formerly known as the “Hotfix Deployment and Installation Guide”) on Microsoft TechNet at http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/winxppro/deploy/hfdeploy.mspx. You can also refer to Knowledge Base article 828930, “How to integrate software updates into your Windows installation source files” (http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=828930) for further instructions.

Uninstalling a Service Pack or Other Software Update

Windows XP Professional service packs and software updates support Uninstall, which is a feature that you can use to restore your computer to its previous state. When you run the ServicePack.exe program to install the service pack, a subfolder named $NtServicePackUninstall$ is created in your systemroot folder.

Uninstalling a Service Pack

You can uninstall the service pack by using Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel or by running the Uninstall program from the command prompt. Be aware of the following considerations when uninstalling a service pack:

  • You cannot uninstall a service pack that you installed in Integrated mode.

  • If you used the -n parameter when running ServicePack.exe, you cannot uninstall the service pack.

  • If you install any programs or services that require or have fixes contained in the service pack, uninstalling the service pack can adversely affect those programs.

  • You should not uninstall the service pack if you have installed any applications since the service pack was installed.

  • You should not uninstall the service pack if it contains system updates—such as file format, database format, and registry format changes—that Setup cannot uninstall.

To uninstall a service pack by using Add or Remove Programs
  1. In Control Panel, double-click Add or Remove Programs, click ServicePack.exe, and then click Change/Remove.

  2. Follow the instructions that appear.

To uninstall a service pack from the command prompt
  1. In the Run dialog box, type cmd, and then click OK.

  2. Change the folder to C:\$NtServicePackUninstall$\spuninst\, where C: is the root of your hard drive.

  3. Type Spuninst.exe, and then press Enter.

  4. To close the command prompt window, type Exit.

Uninstalling a Software Update

You can uninstall a software update by using Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel.

To uninstall a software update
  1. In Control Panel, double-click Add or Remove Programs.

  2. If your computer is running Windows XP Service Pack 2 or later, select the Show updates check box to display installed software updates.

  3. Click the name of the software update (such as Windows XP Hotfix KB######) you want to remove, and then click Remove.

  4. Follow the instructions that appear.

    Note If multiple software updates replace the same file and you want to successfully return your system to its original state, you must remove the most recently installed software update first and then all the others in the reverse order of installation.

Troubleshooting Windows XP Professional Setup

Windows XP Professional includes Recovery Console, which you can use to resolve problems that might occur during setup. This section also includes a discussion about common setup problems.

Recovery Console

Recovery Console is a command-line tool that you can start from Setup. Using Recovery Console, you can start and stop services, format drives, read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS), and perform many other administrative tasks. Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your computer by copying a system file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive, or if you need to reconfigure a service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. Because Recovery Console is quite powerful, only advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows XP Professional should use it. In addition, you must log on using the local Administrator account to use Recovery Console.

Recovery Console allows the local system administrator to access an NTFS volume without starting Windows XP Professional. When you are running Recovery Console, type help at the command prompt to get help for the available commands. For more information about installing and using Recovery Console and other Startup issues, see Chapter 29, “Troubleshooting the Startup Process,” and Appendix C, “Tools for Troubleshooting.”

Common setup errors

The following troubleshooting tips can help you resolve problems that might occur during setup.

Disk space errors

If you receive the error message “Not enough disk space for installation,” use the Setup program to create a partition by using the existing free space on the hard disk. If you do not have enough space, you might have to delete files on the original partition to make space for the installation. You can delete and create partitions as needed to obtain a partition that has enough disk space to install Windows XP Professional.

Windows does not start

If Windows XP Professional does not start, verify that all the installed hardware is detected. Check that all hardware is listed in the Windows Catalog at http://www.microsoft.com/windows/catalog. Only devices that are listed in the Windows Catalog have passed testing for compatibility with Windows XP Professional.

Stop messages

If you are installing Windows XP Professional and you encounter a Stop message, see the troubleshooting information for the Stop message in “Common Stop Messages for Troubleshooting” on the CD included with this book. Also, check the Windows Catalog to determine whether the computer and its components are supported by Windows XP Professional. Reduce the number of hardware components by removing nonessential devices.

Setup stops during Text mode

If possible, avoid legacy boot devices on ACPI systems because these settings cannot be reliably determined by the ACPI system. This can make the building of the device tree inaccurate, causing problems that are hard to track. For non-ACPI systems, verify that the Plug and Play operating system option is disabled in the BIOS. If it is not disabled, your operating system might read and write to the hardware registers.

Setup stops during GUI mode

If the computer stops responding during the GUI-mode phase of Setup, restart the computer and Setup will attempt to resume from where it stopped responding. You can usually isolate these failures to one of the following locations:

  • Device detection.

    At the beginning of the GUI-mode phase of Setup, Plug and Play detects all the devices on the system. This involves external code called class installers. These class installers check the hardware settings on the computer to determine which devices are present.

  • OC Manager.

    The Optional Component Manager (OCM or OC Manager) is a Setup component that allows the integration of external components into the setup process, such as Internet Information Service (IIS) and COM+, which have their own setup routines.

  • Computer configuration.

    This is one of the last phases of Setup and involves the registration of object linking and embedding (OLE) control dynamic-link libraries (DLLs).

Disk input/output and file copy errors

If you receive disk input/output (I/O) errors or file copy errors during setup, your hard disk might be defective or contain defective sectors. For more information about troubleshooting and repairing your hard disk and defective sectors, see Chapter 28, “Troubleshooting Disks and File Systems,” and Chapter 12, “Organizing Disks.”

File copy errors

If you receive file copy errors during setup, you might need to replace RAM, or you might have defective media. For more information about troubleshooting RAM and bad media, see “Common Stop Messages for Troubleshooting” on the CD included with this book.

More troubleshooting tips

For more information about troubleshooting Windows XP Professional, see Appendix C, “Tools for Troubleshooting”; and Chapter 29, “Troubleshooting the Startup Process.”

Additional Resources

These resources contain additional information and tools related to this chapter.

Related Information

  • Chapter 2, “Automating and Customizing Installations,” for more information about automating your installation of Windows XP Professional, including detailed information about methods and tools available

  • Chapter 9, “Managing Devices,” for more information about Plug and Play and ACPI

  • Readme.htm in the \Support\Tools folder on your Windows XP Professional operating system CD, for more information about installing and using Support Tools described in this chapter

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