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Enumerable.GroupBy<TSource, TKey, TElement> Method (IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource, TKey>, Func<TSource, TElement>)

Groups the elements of a sequence according to a specified key selector function and projects the elements for each group by using a specified function.

Namespace:  System.Linq
Assembly:  System.Core (in System.Core.dll)

public static IEnumerable<IGrouping<TKey, TElement>> GroupBy<TSource, TKey, TElement>(
	this IEnumerable<TSource> source,
	Func<TSource, TKey> keySelector,
	Func<TSource, TElement> elementSelector
)

Type Parameters

TSource

The type of the elements of source.

TKey

The type of the key returned by keySelector.

TElement

The type of the elements in the IGrouping<TKey, TElement>.

Parameters

source
Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource>

An IEnumerable<T> whose elements to group.

keySelector
Type: System.Func<TSource, TKey>

A function to extract the key for each element.

elementSelector
Type: System.Func<TSource, TElement>

A function to map each source element to an element in the IGrouping<TKey, TElement>.

Return Value

Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<IGrouping<TKey, TElement>>
An IEnumerable<IGrouping<TKey, TElement>> in C# or IEnumerable(Of IGrouping(Of TKey, TElement)) in Visual Basic where each IGrouping<TKey, TElement> object contains a collection of objects of type TElement and a key.

Usage Note

In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type IEnumerable<TSource>. When you use instance method syntax to call this method, omit the first parameter. For more information, see Extension Methods (Visual Basic) or Extension Methods (C# Programming Guide).

ExceptionCondition
ArgumentNullException

source or keySelector or elementSelector is null.

This method is implemented by using deferred execution. The immediate return value is an object that stores all the information that is required to perform the action. The query represented by this method is not executed until the object is enumerated either by calling its GetEnumerator method directly or by using foreach in Visual C# or For Each in Visual Basic.

The GroupBy<TSource, TKey, TElement>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource, TKey>, Func<TSource, TElement>) method returns a collection of IGrouping<TKey, TElement> objects, one for each distinct key that was encountered. An IGrouping<TKey, TElement> is an IEnumerable<T> that also has a key associated with its elements.

The IGrouping<TKey, TElement> objects are yielded in an order based on the order of the elements in source that produced the first key of each IGrouping<TKey, TElement>. Elements in a grouping are yielded in the order that the elements that produced them appear in source.

The default equality comparer Default is used to compare keys.

The following code example demonstrates how to use GroupBy<TSource, TKey, TElement>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource, TKey>, Func<TSource, TElement>) to group the elements of a sequence.

            class Pet
            {
                public string Name { get; set; }
                public int Age { get; set; }
            }

            // Uses method-based query syntax. 
            public static void GroupByEx1()
            {
                // Create a list of pets.
                List<Pet> pets =
                    new List<Pet>{ new Pet { Name="Barley", Age=8 },
                                   new Pet { Name="Boots", Age=4 },
                                   new Pet { Name="Whiskers", Age=1 },
                                   new Pet { Name="Daisy", Age=4 } };

                // Group the pets using Age as the key value  
                // and selecting only the pet's Name for each value.
                IEnumerable<IGrouping<int, string>> query =
                    pets.GroupBy(pet => pet.Age, pet => pet.Name);

                // Iterate over each IGrouping in the collection. 
                foreach (IGrouping<int, string> petGroup in query)
                {
                    // Print the key value of the IGrouping.
                    Console.WriteLine(petGroup.Key);
                    // Iterate over each value in the  
                    // IGrouping and print the value. 
                    foreach (string name in petGroup)
                        Console.WriteLine("  {0}", name);
                }
            }

            /*
             This code produces the following output:

             8
               Barley
             4
               Boots
               Daisy
             1
               Whiskers
            */

In query expression syntax, a group by (Visual C#) or Group By Into (Visual Basic) clause translates to an invocation of GroupBy. The translation of the query expression in the following example is equivalent to the query in the example above.

IEnumerable<IGrouping<int, string>> query =
    from pet in pets
    group pet.Name by pet.Age;
NoteNote

In a Visual C# or Visual Basic query expression, the element and key selection expressions occur in the reverse order from their argument positions in a call to the GroupBy<TSource, TKey, TElement>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource, TKey>, Func<TSource, TElement>) method.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 4.5.2, 4.5.1, 4.5, 4, 3.5

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

Portable Class Library

Supported in: Portable Class Library

.NET for Windows Store apps

Supported in: Windows 8

.NET for Windows Phone apps

Supported in: Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Silverlight 8.1

Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows Vista SP2, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core Role not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core Role supported with SP1 or later; Itanium not supported)

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

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