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Appendix A - System Recovery and Troubleshooting

This appendix provides information about how to prepare for system problems, how to use options that can help start a system that otherwise would not start, and how to use the repair and recovery options available in Windows 2000. In addition, this appendix provides information about troubleshooting, including troubleshooting STOP errors (errors that cause the operating system to stop functioning and display an error screen).

On This Page

Prevention and Recovery for Specific Types of System Problems
Backups and Other Safeguards
Creating Floppy Disks for Starting a Disabled System
Options to Use When a System Will Not Start
Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options
The Recovery Console
The Emergency Repair Disk
Using Setup as a Repair Option
Safeguarding and Restoring a Domain Controller
Using the Hardware Compatibility List
Troubleshooting STOP Messages
Frequently Asked Questions About Windows 2000 Setup
Troubleshooting Device or BIOS Problems

Prevention and Recovery for Specific Types of System Problems

System problems can be classified into several types:

  • Addition of a new device or device driver file that is incompatible with Windows 2000. 

  • Damaged or corrupted files, including a device driver, the registry, system files, information in the boot sector, or other files required for normal startup. 

  • Physical problems with the hard disk, the CPU, or other important hardware. 

The following sections describe preventative steps and possible recovery methods for each of the three major types of problems.

Preventing or Recovering from Device Driver Problems

System problems can result if you add a new device and/or device driver file that is incompatible with Windows 2000 and causes problems during startup.

Preventing problems 

To help prevent problems with devices and device drivers, take the following steps:

  • Check the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL), described in "Using the Hardware Compatibility List " later in this appendix, before installing a new device or device driver. 

  • Read your hardware documentation for compatibility and configuration information. 

  • Obtain the latest device driver file from the device manufacturer. 

Recovery methods 

For correcting problems with devices or device drivers, try the following:

  • Restart the computer using safe mode, Last Known Good Configuration, or other methods described in "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" later in this appendix. 

  • If possible, check Event Viewer. For information, see Windows 2000 Help. 

  • Take the preventative steps described in the preceding list. Try to obtain a more functional copy of the device driver so that you can uninstall the device and then reinstall with the new driver. 

Preventing or Recovering from Damage to Key Files

If certain types of files are damaged or corrupted, system problems can result. These types of files are:

  • Device drivers 

  • The registry 

  • System files 

  • Information in the boot sector 

  • Other files required for normal startup 

Preventing problems 

To help prevent problems caused by damage to files, take the following steps:

  • Protect the computer against power surges and failures, which can damage files when they are being written to the hard disk. 

  • Before installing or implementing unusual device configurations, drivers, or registry settings, obtain detailed information from the device manufacturer and from Windows 2000 Help. 

  • Perform regular backups, including System State backups. For information about Backup, see the disaster protection section of Windows 2000 Help. For specific information about backups for a domain controller, see "Safeguarding and Restoring a Domain Controller" later in this appendix. 

Recovery methods 

For recovering from damage to key files, try the following methods:

  • Restart the computer using safe mode, Last Known Good Configuration, or other methods described in "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" later in this appendix. 

    If you plan to start the computer with a safe mode option and then use the Backup program with Removable Storage, the only safe mode options you can use are Last Known Good Configuration, Enable VGA Mode, and Directory Services Restore Mode. For more information, see "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options" later in this appendix. 

  • If possible, check Event Viewer. 

  • Restore the System State from a recent backup, or use the Recovery Console to replace a damaged file with a clean copy. For information, see "Starting the Backup Program" and "The Recovery Console" later in this appendix. For specific information about restoring a domain controller, see "Safeguarding and Restoring a Domain Controller" later in this appendix. 

Preventing or Recovering from Hardware Problems

Physical problems with the hard disk, the CPU, the network adapter, the memory, or other important hardware can cause difficulties with starting and running the computer.

Preventing problems 

To help prevent hardware problems, take the following steps:

  • Protect the computer against power surges and failures, which can damage hardware. 

  • Monitor Event Viewer and other diagnostics tools for signs of a developing hardware problem. 

  • Perform regular backups and implement fault tolerance. This helps protect against the loss of system information or data that can result from a hardware problem. For information, see the disaster protection section of Windows 2000 Help. For specific information about backups for a domain controller, see "Safeguarding and Restoring a Domain Controller" later in this appendix. 

Recovery methods 

For recovering from hardware problems, try the following:

  • Try to restart the computer using safe mode or other methods described in "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" later in this appendix. 

  • If possible, check Event Viewer and other diagnostic tools. For information, see Windows 2000 Help. 

  • If necessary, rebuild and restore the system, making sure that the number and size of disk volumes are the same or larger than the previous system. If you must rebuild a system by starting with an empty hard disk, first install Windows 2000 Advanced Server (on the same disk as before), then recreate the partitions and volumes as they were on the damaged system, and finally restore the System State and other information from backup. 

    For specific information about restoring a domain controller, see "Safeguarding and Restoring a Domain Controller" later in this appendix. 

Backups and Other Safeguards

There are a number of steps to take as safeguards against the possibility of disk failure or other serious system problems:

  • Performing backups. Perform regular system backups, work with fault tolerance features such as disk mirroring, check for viruses, and carry out other standard administrative routines (such as using Event Viewer to review the event log). These safeguards help protect system and data integrity, and could provide warning if a disk or other hardware is beginning to fail. For information about backup options (for data files and also for system-state information), fault tolerance, disk mirroring, and Event Viewer, see Windows 2000 Help. To display Help, click Start, and then click Help

    For specific information about safeguarding a domain controller, see "Safeguarding and Restoring a Domain Controller" later in this appendix. 

  • Specifying startup and recovery options. Specify what you want Windows 2000 to do if the system stops unexpectedly. For example, you can specify that you want your computer to restart automatically, and you can control logging options. To specify startup options that Windows 2000 should use if the system stops, right-click My Computer, and then click Properties. On the Advanced tab, click Startup and Recovery, and then specify the options you want to set. 

    Recording hard disk information. Record the basic information about your hard disks. Do this each time you make significant changes to your disks. For each disk and volume, record the following information:

    • Size 

    • File system 

    • Volume label and type 

    • Drive letter or mount point (where applicable) 

    One way to do this is to write the information down. Another way is to open Disk Management and save an image of the display showing disk information. For information, look in Windows 2000 Help for Disk Management, and also look for the topic that tells how to "copy the window or screen contents." 

    If you are using clustering, see the Microsoft Windows 2000 Resource Kit for a tool to use to record disk information for cluster disks. This tool records the basic information described in the preceding paragraph, and it also records the disk signature. You will need to know the disk signature in order to recover a clustered disk. For more information about the Resource Kit, see Chapter 1, "Welcome." For more information about recovering clustered disks, see Windows 2000 Advanced Server Help. 

  • Creating an Emergency Repair Disk. Use Windows 2000 Backup to create an Emergency Repair Disk. For more information, see "Using Backup to Create an Emergency Repair Disk" later in this appendix. 

  • Keeping startup media available. Keep a set of startup media for Windows 2000 where you can find it easily. This might be the CD-ROM for Windows 2000 (for computers that can start from the CD-ROM drive) or a set of floppy disks that you create from the CD-ROM. For information about how to create floppy disks for starting the system, see "Creating Floppy Disks for Starting a Disabled System" later in this appendix. 

Starting the Backup Program

Windows 2000 includes Backup, a graphical program that you can use to back up and restore user data.

To start Backup 

  • Click Start, point to Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click Backup

For more information about Backup, see Help in Backup, or see the topics on disaster protection in Windows 2000 Help.

If you plan to use the Backup program with Removable Storage after starting the computer with a safe mode option, the only safe mode options you can use are Last Known Good Configuration, Enable VGA Mode, and Directory Services Restore Mode. For more information, see "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options" later in this appendix.

For specific information about backing up and restoring a domain controller, see "Safeguarding and Restoring a Domain Controller" later in this appendix.

Backing up the Registry and Other System State Information

The Backup program for Windows 2000 Advanced Server includes the option of backing up the System State. When you choose this option, you are backing up the following:

  • The registry, a hierarchical, structured database of information about a computer's configuration. 

  • The COM+ class registration database, which stores information used by Component Services and COM+ applications. 

  • Startup files (necessary for starting the computer) and system files (necessary for running the operating system). 

  • If the server is a certificate server, the Certificate Services database. 

  • If the server is a domain controller, the Sysvol folder and the database of information used by Active Directory. (For more information about domain controllers, see "Safeguarding and Restoring a Domain Controller" later in this appendix.) 

  • If the server is running the Cluster service, any resource registry checkpoints and the quorum resource recovery log, which contains the most recent cluster database information. 

In addition, when you back up the System State, a copy of the registry is placed on the local system partition in a subfolder under systemroot \Repair. If you copy registry files from this subfolder (for example, when using the Recovery Console to repair the registry), copy them to systemroot\system32\config. After you do this, the registry will contain the information it had when the system state was last backed up. Changes made after that time will be lost.

Creating Floppy Disks for Starting a Disabled System

To prepare for the possibility of a system failure on a computer that does not support starting from the CD-ROM drive, create floppy disks you can use to start the computer. (Before deciding that a computer must be started from a CD-ROM or floppy disks, try starting in safe mode on that computer first.) After starting a disabled computer from floppy disks, you then have the option of using the Recovery Console or the Emergency Repair Disk (if you have prepared one). For more information about safe mode and the recovery and repair options, see the following section "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start."

Note You can create floppy disks for starting a disabled system by using the Windows 2000 Setup CD-ROM on any computer running a version of Windows or MS-DOS. You will need four blank, formatted, 3.5-inch, 1.44-MB floppy disks. Label them Windows 2000 Setup Boot Disk, Windows 2000 Setup Disk #2, Windows 2000 Setup Disk #3, and Windows 2000 Setup Disk #4.

You cannot use startup disks created from the Windows 2000 Professional CD-ROM to start Windows 2000 Advanced Server. The startup disks must match the operating system on the computer you want to start.

To create floppy disks for starting a server 

  1. Insert a blank, formatted 1.44 MB disk into the floppy disk drive on a computer running any version of Windows or MS-DOS. 

  2. Insert the Windows 2000 Advanced Server CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive. 

  3. Click Start, and then click Run

  4. In Open, type d:\bootdisk\makeboot a: (where d: is the drive letter assigned to your CD-ROM drive), and then click OK

  5. Follow the screen prompts. 

Options to Use When a System Will Not Start

Windows 2000 provides a variety of options to use when a system will not start:

  1. The first options to try are safe mode and related startup options, which you can use to start the system with only the minimal necessary services. Safe mode options, including Last Known Good Configuration, are especially useful if a newly-installed driver is causing problems with starting the system. For more information, see the following section "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options." 

  2. An option to consider if safe mode does not help is the Recovery Console. This option is recommended only for advanced users or administrators. The method for starting the system is to use the Setup CD-ROM or floppy disks you created from the CD-ROM. Then you can access the Recovery Console, a command-line interface from which you can perform tasks such as starting and stopping services and accessing the local drive (including drives formatted with NTFS). For more information, see "The Recovery Console" later in this appendix. 

  3. If safe mode and the Recovery Console are not workable in your situation, and if you made appropriate advance preparations, you can try the Emergency Repair Disk option, which is part of Windows 2000 Backup. Windows 2000 Backup includes a wizard that helps you create an Emergency Repair Disk. If a system failure then occurs, you can start the system with the Setup CD-ROM or floppy disks you created from the CD-ROM, and then use the Emergency Repair Disk to restore core system files. 

  4. If safe mode and the Recovery Console are not workable in your situation, and you do not have an Emergency Repair Disk, you can try rerunning Setup from the Windows 2000 Advanced Server CD-ROM. Setup might be able to repair the system, although some settings could be lost. 

The following sections describe these options.

Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options

If your computer won't start, you can use safe mode or other startup options to start the computer with only the minimal necessary services. If the computer successfully starts with safe mode, you can then change the configuration to correct the problem (for example, by removing or reconfiguring newly installed drivers that might be causing a problem).

The following list describes safe mode and other advanced startup options available in Windows 2000. Safe mode allows access to all partitions, regardless of the file system used: FAT, FAT32, or NTFS (assuming that the physical disk is functional).

Note If you are using, or have used, Remote Install Services to install Windows 2000 on your computer, the advanced startup options might include options related to restoring or recovering your system using Remote Install Services (in addition to the options in the following list).

Safe Mode
Starts Windows 2000 using basic files and drivers only, without networking. The drivers and files used are for mouse, monitor, keyboard, mass storage, base video, and default system services. Safe mode also causes a boot log to be saved (see "Enable Boot Logging," later in this list).

Safe Mode with Networking
Starts Windows 2000 using basic files and drivers only (see the preceding item), but also includes network support. Safe Mode With Networking also causes a boot log to be saved (see "Enable Boot Logging," later in this list).

Safe Mode with Command Prompt
Starts Windows 2000 using basic files and drivers only (see "Safe Mode" earlier in this list), without networking, and displays only the command prompt. Safe Mode with Command Prompt also causes a boot log to be saved (see "Enable Boot Logging," later in this list).

Enable Boot Logging
Creates a boot log of devices and services that are loading. The log is saved to a file named Ntbtlog.txt in the system root (the folder in which Windows 2000 is installed, typically \Winnt).

Enable VGA Mode
Starts Windows 2000 using the basic VGA (video) driver. This mode is useful when you have installed a new driver for your video card that prevents Windows 2000 from starting properly. The basic video driver is always used when you start Windows 2000 in any kind of safe mode.

If you plan to start the computer with a safe mode option and then use the Backup program with Removable Storage, the only safe mode options you can use are Enable VGA Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Directory Services Restore Mode.

Last Known Good Configuration
Starts Windows 2000 using the settings (registry information) that Windows saved at the last shutdown. Use Last Known Good Configuration only in cases of incorrect configuration. It does not solve problems caused by corrupted or missing drivers or files.

Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost.

If you plan to start the computer with a safe mode option and then use the Backup program with Removable Storage, the only safe mode options you can use are Last Known Good Configuration, Enable VGA Mode, and Directory Services Restore Mode.

Directory Services Restore Mode
Restores the Active Directory on a domain controller. (You cannot use this option on Windows 2000 Professional or on member servers.)

If you plan to start the computer with a safe mode option and then use the Backup program with Removable Storage, the only safe mode options you can use are Directory Services Restore Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Enable VGA Mode.

Debugging Mode
Starts Windows 2000 while sending debug information through a serial cable to another computer.

Using Safe Mode and Other Startup Options

For information about safe mode and the other advanced startup options, see "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options" earlier in this appendix.

To start your computer in safe mode or with other advanced startup options 

  1. Restart your computer. 

  2. When a line of text appears at the bottom of the screen, prompting you to press F8 for startup options, press F8. 

  3. Use the arrow keys to select the startup option you want to use, and then press ENTER. (NUM LOCK must be off before the arrow keys on the numeric keypad will function.) 

    To return to the startup process without making a selection, press ESC. 

  4. Use the arrow keys to select the Windows 2000 operating system you want to start. 

    If you choose a safe mode option, choose a version of Windows 2000. Do not choose a version of Windows previous to Windows 2000. 

If the problem was caused by a newly-installed driver, starting the computer in Last Known Good Configuration might bring the computer into a functional configuration that you can use while researching the problem with the driver. If the problem had other causes, after starting the computer in some type of safe mode, you can use Event Viewer, Control Panel, Backup, and other tools to try to diagnose and correct the problem.

The Recovery Console

If safe mode and other startup options do not work, you can consider using the Recovery Console. However, this method is recommended only if you are an advanced user or administrator who can use basic commands to identify and locate problem drivers and files. The Recovery Console is a command-line console that you can use after starting the computer with the Setup CD-ROM (if the computer's CD-ROM drive allows this) or with floppy disks you created from the CD-ROM. For information about how to create floppy disks from the Setup CD-ROM, see "Creating Floppy Disks for Starting a Disabled System" earlier in this appendix.

You will have to log on with the Administrator account in order to use the Recovery Console. The commands it provides include commands that allow you to do simple operations such as change to a different directory or view a directory, and more powerful operations such as fixing the boot sector on the hard drive. You can display Help for the commands in the Recovery Console by typing help at the Recovery Console command prompt.

Using the Recovery Console, you can start and stop services, read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted with NTFS), copy data from a floppy disk or CD-ROM, format drives, fix the boot sector or master boot record, and perform other administrative tasks. The Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your system by copying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive, or if you need to reconfigure a service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. For example, you could use the Recovery Console to replace an overwritten or corrupted driver file with a good copy from a floppy disk.

Each time you use Backup to back up the System State, a copy of the registry is placed on the local system partition in a subfolder under systemroot \Repair. You can use the Recovery Console to copy files from systemroot \Repair to systemroot\system32\config (the location of the registry itself). After you do this, the registry will contain the information it had when the system state was last backed up. Changes made after that time will be lost.

Important Because the Recovery Console is quite powerful, it is recommended that only advanced users or administrators use it.

Using the Recovery Console

For information about the Recovery Console, see the preceding section, "The Recovery Console." You can start the Recovery Console as a response to a problem with starting the computer. In addition, you can install it on a functioning computer so that it is available as a startup option.

After you start the Recovery Console you will have to log on with your administrator password.

Important Because the Recovery Console is quite powerful, it is recommended for use only by advanced users or administrators.

To start the computer and use the Recovery Console 

  1. Insert the Windows 2000 Setup CD-ROM, or the first floppy disk you created from the CD-ROM, in the appropriate drive. For systems that cannot start from the CD-ROM drive, you must use a floppy disk. 

  2. Restart the computer, and if using floppy disks, respond to the prompts that request each floppy disk in turn. 

  3. When the text-based part of Setup begins, follow the prompts. Choose the repair option by pressing R. 

  4. When prompted, choose the Recovery Console by pressing C. 

  5. Follow the instructions for reinserting one or more of the floppy disks you created for starting the system. 

  6. If you have a system that has more than one operating system installed, choose the Windows 2000 installation that you need to access from the Recovery Console. 

  7. When prompted, type the Administrator password. 

  8. At the system prompt, type Recovery Console commands, and then type help for a list of commands, or help commandname for help on a specific command. 

  9. To quit the Recovery Console and restart the computer, type exit

To install the Recovery Console as a startup option on a functioning computer 

  1. With Windows 2000 running, insert the Windows 2000 CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive. 

  2. Click File and then click Run

  3. In the Open box, type: 

    d:\i386\winnt32 /cmdcons (where d: is the drive letter assigned to your CD-ROM drive) 

  4. Follow the instructions on the screen. 

    To run the Recovery Console, restart your computer and select the Recovery Console option from the list of available operating systems. 

The Emergency Repair Disk

If your system will not start, and using safe mode (or possibly the Recovery Console) has not helped, you can try the Emergency Repair Disk option, which is part of Windows 2000 Backup. Windows 2000 Backup includes a wizard that helps you create an Emergency Repair Disk. If a system failure occurs, you can start the system with the Setup CD-ROM or floppy disks you created from the CD-ROM, and then use the Emergency Repair Disk to restore core system files.

For more information about being prepared for possible disk failure or other serious system problems, see "Backups and Other Safeguards" earlier in this appendix. You can also see Help, which is available when you start Backup. To start Backup, click Start, point to Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click Backup.

By making an Emergency Repair Disk when your computer is functioning well, you'll be prepared to use it if you need to repair system files. The repairs possible with this method are limited to basic system repairs, including repair of the system files, partition boot sector, and startup environment. The Emergency Repair Disk does not back up data or programs, and is not a replacement for regularly backing up your system.

Using Backup to Create an Emergency Repair Disk

To create an Emergency Repair Disk, you use the Windows 2000 Backup program. The repairs possible with this method are somewhat limited. For more information, see the preceding section, "The Emergency Repair Disk."

To start Backup and create an Emergency Repair Disk 

  1. Obtain a blank, formatted 1.44 MB floppy disk. 

  2. In Windows 2000, click Start

  3. Point to Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click Backup

  4. On the Welcome tab, click Emergency Repair Disk

  5. Follow the instructions that appear on your screen. 

Important When you complete Setup, information about your original system settings is saved in the systemroot\Repair folder on the system partition. If you use the Emergency Repair Disk to repair your system, the information in this folder might be used during the repair process. Do not change or delete this folder.

Using an Emergency Repair Disk for System Repairs

If you have prepared an Emergency Repair Disk beforehand, you can use it to repair system files (after you start the system using the Windows 2000 Setup CD-ROM or floppy disks you created from the CD-ROM). For information about how to create floppy disks from the Setup CD-ROM, see "Creating Floppy Disks for Starting a Disabled System" earlier in this appendix. For information about creating an Emergency Repair Disk, see the preceding section, "Using Backup to Create an Emergency Repair Disk."

To use an Emergency Repair Disk for system repairs 

  1. Insert the Windows 2000 Setup CD-ROM, or the first floppy disk you created from the CD-ROM, in the appropriate drive. For systems that cannot start from the CD-ROM drive, you must use a floppy disk. 

  2. Restart the computer, and if using floppy disks, respond to the prompts that request each floppy disk in turn. 

  3. When the text-based part of Setup begins, follow the prompts. Choose the repair option by pressing R. 

  4. When prompted, insert the Windows 2000 Setup CD-ROM in the appropriate drive. 

  5. When prompted, choose the emergency repair process by pressing R. 

    When prompted, choose between the following:

    • Manual Repair (press M). Only advanced users or administrators should choose this option. Using it, you can repair system files, partition-boot sector problems, and startup environment problems. 

    • Fast Repair (press F). This is the easiest option to use, and doesn't require user input. If you choose this option, the Emergency Repair Disk program will attempt to repair problems related to system files, the partition boot sector on your system disk, and your startup environment (if you have a system that has more than one operating system installed). 

  6. Follow the instructions on the screen and, when prompted, insert the Emergency Repair Disk in the appropriate drive. 

    During the repair process, missing or corrupt files are replaced with files from the Windows 2000 CD-ROM or with files from the systemroot \Repair folder on the system partition. Replacement files from either of these sources will not reflect any configuration changes made after Setup. 

  7. Follow the instructions on the screen. 

    To help diagnose how the system was damaged, write down the names of files that are detected as faulty or incorrect. 

  8. If the repair was successful, allow the process to finish. 

    The computer's restarting indicates that the replacement files were successfully copied to the hard disk. 

Using Setup as a Repair Option

Even if you have not prepared an Emergency Repair Disk, you can attempt to repair system files by rerunning Setup from the Windows 2000 Advanced Server CD-ROM. Setup might be able to repair the system, although some settings could be lost.

At the time that Setup originally ran, information about your system settings was saved in the systemroot \Repair folder on the system partition. This information is available if you rerun Setup on a system that contains damaged system files.

To rerun Setup, use the procedure in "Using an Emergency Repair Disk for System Repairs" earlier in this appendix, and omit the step where you insert the Emergency Repair Disk in the disk drive.

Safeguarding and Restoring a Domain Controller

A domain is a grouping of accounts and network resources under a single domain name. A domain controller is a server that contains a copy of the user accounts and other Active Directory data in a given domain. To safeguard or restore a domain controller, you must take specific steps.

Safeguarding a Domain Controller

For basic information about safeguarding any server, see "Backups and Other Safeguards" earlier in this appendix. There are two methods for safeguarding Active Directory information on a domain controller. The two methods can be used at the same time:

  • Use Windows 2000 Backup to back up the System State on the domain controller. For a domain controller, the System State includes Active Directory information. For information about Backup, see "Starting the Backup Program" and "Backing up the Registry and Other System State Information" earlier in this appendix. In addition, see Help in Backup. 

  • Establish more than one domain controller in the domain. If one domain controller has problems, it can be restored from the Active Directory information stored on another domain controller. For information about Active Directory and domain controllers, see Windows 2000 Advanced Server Help. 

Restoring a Domain Controller

If you have a domain controller that is damaged and must be restored, you can first try to repair it with the methods outlined in "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" earlier in this appendix.

If you cannot readily repair the system, you can instead reinstall Windows 2000 Advanced Server and restore the Active Directory information on the domain controller.

If the domain controller has a substantial hardware problem and must be rebuilt, make sure the number and size of disk volumes is the same or larger than the previous system.

When restoring Active Directory information, use one of two methods:

  • One way is to use backup media to restore the System State (which, for a domain controller, includes Active Directory information). For information about using Backup, see "Starting the Backup Program" and "Backing up the Registry and Other System State Information" earlier in this appendix. In addition, see the Help available from Backup. 

  • If another domain controller exists in that domain, after reinstalling Windows 2000 Advanced Server on the damaged system, make it a domain controller in the domain. When you do this, Active Directory is automatically copied from an existing domain controller to the newly reinstalled domain controller. For more information, see Windows 2000 Help, specifically, the section on Active Directory and the topic on Active Directory support tools. The Active Directory support tools are included in the Microsoft Windows 2000 Resource Kit. For more information about the Resource Kit, see Chapter 1, "Welcome." 

Restoring Active Directory from Backup Media

If you need to restore Active Directory information on a domain controller, one way is to use Backup to restore the System State. This will restore Active Directory, File Replication Service (including Sysvol) and Certificate Services (if installed). For information about using Backup, see "Starting the Backup Program" earlier in this appendix, and see the Help available from Backup.

If the domain controller computer has been replaced because of malfunction, or if the network adapters have been replaced, you might need to reconfigure the network settings manually.

If the domain controller has a substantial hardware problem and must be rebuilt, make sure the number and size of disk volumes is the same or larger than the previous system. If you must rebuild a system by starting with an empty hard disk, first install Windows 2000 Advanced Server (on the same disk as before), then recreate the partitions and volumes as they were on the damaged system, and finally restore the Active Directory information.

To restore the System State data on a domain controller, first start the computer in Directory Services Restore Mode. Using this mode, you can restore the Sysvol directory and Active Directory. For information, see "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options" earlier in this appendix.

Note the following items when using Backup to restore files:

  • You can use Backup to restore the System State data on a local computer only, not on a remote computer. 

  • You must be an administrator or a backup operator to back up files and folders. 

  • The registry, Active Directory, and other key system components are contained in the System State data. You must back up the System State data if you want to back up and restore these components. 

  • If you restore the System State data and you do not designate an alternate location for the restored data, Backup erases the System State data that is currently on your computer and replaces it with the System State data you are restoring. Also, if you restore the System State data to an alternate location, only the registry files, Sysvol, directory files, and system startup files are restored to the alternate location. The Active Directory database, the Certificate Services database, and the COM+ Class Registration database are not restored if you designate an alternate location. 

  • Administrators and backup operators can restore encrypted files and folders without decrypting the files or folders. 

Restoring Active Directory Through Another Domain Controller

You can restore a domain controller by reinstalling Windows 2000 Advanced Server on the damaged system, making it a domain controller, and allowing the correct information to be copied to it automatically by Active Directory. To do this, first use Sites and Services on an existing domain controller to delete any references to the old domain controller. (To open Sites and Services, click Start, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active Directory Sites and Services.) Then, on the damaged system, reinstall Windows 2000 Advanced Server. On that server, use the Active Directory Installation wizard to reinstall Active Directory, promoting the server to a domain controller. Active Directory and Sysvol will be brought up-to-date through replication from a domain controller.

For more information, see Windows 2000 Help, specifically, the section on Active Directory and the topic on Active Directory support tools. The Active Directory support tools are included in the Microsoft Windows 2000 Resource Kit. For more information about the Resource Kit, see Chapter 1, "Welcome."

Using the Hardware Compatibility List

The Windows 2000 Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) is a compilation of systems and hardware that has been extensively tested with Windows 2000 for stability and compatibility. It is the guide used by Microsoft Product Support Services for determining whether a given system is supported for use with Windows 2000. If you experience problems during your installation of Windows 2000, your first troubleshooting step is to verify all of your computer's hardware components against this list.

To see the version of the HCL that was released with Windows 2000, on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM, in the Support folder, open Hcl.txt.

Updated versions of the HCL are available on:

Note For instructions on how to record information about the devices on your computer, see the section on taking a device inventory in Chapter 3, "Planning Your Windows 2000 Advanced Server Installation."

Troubleshooting STOP Messages

This section outlines the steps to troubleshoot STOP messages, which are the result of a system error in Windows 2000. Following a system error, your computer stops responding, and a message is displayed on a blue or black background.

Troubleshooting STOP Messages: General Strategies

This section describes a general method for troubleshooting STOP messages. Follow these steps for any STOP error that does not display identifying text or specific troubleshooting steps. If the STOP message recurs after you complete a step, continue on to the next step.

For troubleshooting specific STOP errors, which provide identifying text, see "Troubleshooting Specific STOP Messages" later in this appendix. Or, see the Microsoft Windows 2000 Resource Kit, published by Microsoft Press.

  1. Using a recent version of virus-protection software, check for viruses on your computer. 

    If a virus is found, perform the steps required to eliminate it from your computer. See your antivirus software documentation for these steps. 

  2. If you can start Windows 2000, check Event Viewer for additional information that might help determine the device or driver causing the problem. To do this, click Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools, double-click Event Viewer, and then click System Log

    To display a description of an event, in Event Viewer, double-click the event. 

  3. Disable any newly installed drivers and remove any newly added programs. 

    If you can't start your computer, try starting it in the Last Known Good Configuration or safe mode, and then remove or disable newly added programs or drivers. 

    For more information, see "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options" earlier in this appendix. If you cannot start in safe mode, see "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" earlier in this appendix. 

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

  4. Remove any newly installed hardware (RAM, adapters, hard disks, modems, and so on). 

  5. Ensure that you have updated drivers for your hardware devices and that you have the latest system BIOS. The device manufacturers can assist you in obtaining these items. 

  6. Run the system diagnostics supplied by your computer manufacturer, especially the memory check. 

  7. Check the Microsoft Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) to verify that all your hardware and drivers are compatible with Windows 2000. 

    To display the HCL, on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM, in the Support folder, open Hcl.txt. You can find updated versions of the HCL at other locations described in "Using the Hardware Compatibility List" earlier in this appendix. 

  8. Disable memory caching in the BIOS. Contact your hardware manufacturer if you need assistance in performing this step. 

  9. Restart your computer. At the startup screen, press F8 for Advanced Startup options, and then select Last Known Good Configuration

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on STOP messages. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use the STOP message number (for example, stop 0x0000000A).

Troubleshooting Specific STOP Messages

The following section discusses how to troubleshoot specific STOP messages.

STOP message 0x0000000A

STOP message number

(0x0000000A)

Descriptive text

IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL

Usual cause

Drivers using improper memory addresses.

To troubleshoot STOP message 0x0000000A on an existing installation 

  1. If you can start Windows 2000, check Event Viewer for additional information that might help determine the device or driver causing the problem. To do this, click Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools, double-click Event Viewer, and then click System Log

  2. Disable any newly installed drivers and remove any newly added programs. 

    If you can't start your computer, try starting it in the Last Known Good Configuration or safe mode, and then remove or disable newly added programs or drivers. 

    For more information, see "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options" earlier in this appendix. If you cannot start in safe mode, see "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" earlier in this appendix. 

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

  3. Remove any newly installed hardware (RAM, adapters, hard disks, modems, and so on). 

  4. Ensure that you have updated drivers for your hardware devices and the latest system BIOS. The device manufacturers can assist you in obtaining these items. 

  5. Run system diagnostics supplied by your hardware vendor, especially a memory check. 

  6. Check the Microsoft Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) to verify that your hardware and its drivers are compatible with Windows 2000. 

    To display the HCL, on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM, in the Support folder, open Hcl.txt. You can find updated versions of the HCL at other locations described in "Using the Hardware Compatibility List" earlier in this appendix. 

  7. Disable memory caching in the BIOS. Contact your hardware manufacturer if you need assistance in performing this step. 

  8. Restart your computer. At the startup screen, press F8 for Advanced Startup options, and then select Last Known Good Configuration

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x0000000A.

STOP message 0x0000000A

STOP message number

(0x0000000A)

Descriptive text

IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL

Usual cause

Drivers using improper memory addresses.

To troubleshoot STOP message 0x0000000A on a new installation 

  1. During the installation process, at the "Setup is inspecting your computer's hardware configuration" message, press F5. Select the correct computer type when prompted. For example, if you have a single-processor computer, select Standard PC

  2. Disable memory caching in the BIOS. Contact your hardware manufacturer if you need assistance in performing this step. 

  3. Remove all adapters and disconnect all hardware devices that are not absolutely required to start the computer and install Windows 2000 Advanced Server. 

  4. If you are using a SCSI adapter, obtain the latest Windows 2000 Advanced Server driver from the adapter vendor, disable sync negotiation, check termination, and check the SCSI IDs of the devices. 

  5. If you are using IDE devices, define the on-board IDE port to Primary only. Check the Master/Slave/Only settings for the IDE devices. Remove all IDE devices except for the hard disk.

  6. Run the system diagnostics supplied by your hardware vendor, especially the memory check. 

  7. Check the Microsoft Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) to verify that the hardware and its drivers are compatible with Windows 2000. 

    To display the HCL, on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM, in the Support folder, open Hcl.txt. You can find updated versions of the HCL at other locations described in "Using the Hardware Compatibility List" earlier in this appendix. 

  8. Restart your computer. At the startup screen, press F8 for Advanced Startup options, and then select Last Known Good Configuration

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x0000000A.

STOP message 0x0000001E

STOP message number

(0x0000001E)

Descriptive text

KMODE_EXCEPTION_NOT_HANDLED

Usual causes

This message has several possible causes. See the paragraph following this procedure.

To troubleshoot STOP message 0x0000001E 

  1. Check that you have adequate disk space, especially for new installations. 

  2. Disable the driver identified in the STOP message or any newly installed drivers. 

    If you can't start your computer, try starting it in the Last Known Good Configuration or safe mode, and then remove or disable newly added programs or drivers. 

    For more information, see "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options" earlier in this appendix. If you cannot start in safe mode, see "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" earlier in this appendix. 

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

  3. If you have a non-Microsoft-supplied video driver, try switching to the standard VGA driver or to a suitable driver supplied with Windows 2000. 

  4. Ensure that you have the latest system BIOS. Contact your hardware manufacturer if you need assistance in performing this step. 

  5. Restart your computer. At the startup screen, press F8 for Advanced Startup options, and then select Last Known Good Configuration

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x0000001E.

STOP messages 0x00000023 and 0x00000024

STOP message number

(0x00000023) or (0x00000024)

Descriptive text

FAT_FILE_SYSTEM or NTFS_FILE_SYSTEM

Usual causes

Heavily fragmented drive, heavy file I/O, some types of drive-mirroring software, or some antivirus software.

To troubleshoot STOP messages 0x00000023 and 0x00000024 

  1. Disable any anti-virus or backup programs, and disable any defragmentation utilities. 

  2. Check for hard drive corruption by running CHKDSK /f and then restarting the computer. 

  3. At the startup screen, press F8 for Advanced Startup options, and then select Last Known Good Configuration

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x00000023 or stop 0x00000024.

STOP message 0x0000002E

STOP message number

(0x0000002E)

Descriptive text

DATA_BUS_ERROR

Usual cause

A parity error in the system memory.

To troubleshoot STOP message 0x0000002E 

  1. Run system diagnostics supplied by your hardware vendor, especially a memory check. 

  2. Disable memory caching in the BIOS. Contact your hardware manufacturer if you need assistance in performing this step. 

  3. Try starting in safe mode. 

    For more information, see "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options" and "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" earlier in this appendix. 

    If you can start your computer in safe mode, try changing to a standard VGA driver. If this doesn't resolve the problem, you might need to change to a different video adapter. 

    For a list of supported video adapters, see the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL). To display the HCL, on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM, in the Support folder, open Hcl.txt. You can find updated versions of the HCL at other locations described in "Using the Hardware Compatibility List" earlier in this appendix. 

  4. Ensure that you have updated drivers for your hardware devices and the latest system BIOS. The device manufacturers can assist you in obtaining these items. 

  5. Remove any newly installed hardware (RAM, adapters, hard disks, modems, and so on).

  6. Restart your computer. At the startup screen, press F8 for Advanced Startup options, and then select Last Known Good Configuration

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x0000002E.

STOP message 0x0000003F

STOP message number

(0x0000003F)

Descriptive text

NO_MORE_SYSTEM_PTES.

Usual cause

A driver not cleaning up properly.

To troubleshoot STOP message 0x0000003F 

  • Remove any recently installed software, including backup utilities or disk-intensive applications, such as defragmenting, virus protection, and backup utilities. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x0000003F.

STOP message 0x00000058

STOP message number

(0x00000058)

Descriptive text

FTDISK_INTERNAL_ERROR

Usual cause

The failure of a primary drive in a fault-tolerance set.

To troubleshoot STOP message 0x00000058 

  1. Using a Windows 2000 startup floppy disk, start your computer from the mirrored (secondary) system drive. 

  2. Restart your computer. At the startup screen, press F8 for Advanced Startup options, and then select Last Known Good Configuration

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x00000058.

STOP message 0x0000007B

STOP message number

(0x0000007B)

Descriptive text

INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE

Usual cause

A problem occurring during the initialization of the I/O system (usually the startup device or the file system).

To troubleshoot STOP message 0x0000007B 

  1. Check for viruses on your computer. This STOP message is frequently displayed when there is a virus in the boot sector. 

  2. For ways to fix your drive, see "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" and "The Recovery Console" earlier in this appendix. 

  3. Remove any newly added hard drives or controllers. 

  4. If you're using a SCSI adapter, obtain the latest Windows 2000 driver from the adapter vendor, disable sync negotiation, check termination, and check the SCSI IDs of the devices. 

  5. If you're using IDE devices, define the on-board IDE port to Primary only. Check the Master/Slave/Only settings for the IDE devices. Remove all IDE devices except for the hard disk. 

  6. Run CHKDSK. 

    The file system could be corrupt. If Windows 2000 can't run CHKDSK, you might have to move the drive to another computer running Windows 2000 and run the CHKDSK command on that drive. 

  7. Restart your computer. At the startup screen, press F8 for Advanced Startup options, and then select Last Known Good Configuration

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x0000007B.

STOP boot sector 0x0000007F

STOP message number

(0x0000007F)

Descriptive text

UNEXPECTED_KERNEL_MODE_TRAP

Usual cause

Hardware or software problems; most often, hardware failure.

To troubleshoot STOP boot sector 0x0000007F 

  1. Run system diagnostics supplied by your hardware vendor, especially a memory check. This STOP message is often displayed in the case of faulty or mismatched memory. 

  2. Disable memory caching in the BIOS. Contact your hardware manufacturer if you need assistance in performing this step. 

  3. Try removing or replacing hardware, RAM, controllers, adapters, modems, and other peripherals. 

  4. Check the Microsoft Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) to verify that the hardware and its drivers are compatible with Windows 2000. 

    To display the HCL, on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM, in the Support folder, open Hcl.txt. You can find updated versions of the HCL at other locations described in "Using the Hardware Compatibility List" earlier in this appendix. This problem could be caused by an incompatibility with the motherboard on the computer. 

  5. Restart your computer. At the startup screen, press F8 for Advanced Startup options, and then select Last Known Good Configuration

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x0000007F.

STOP message 0x000000B4

STOP message number

(0x000000B4)

Descriptive text

VIDEO_DRIVER_INIT_FAILURE

Usual causes

The video driver is bad, corrupted, missing, or disabled.

To troubleshoot STOP message 0x000000B4 

  1. Try starting your computer in safe mode or Enable VGA Mode. 

    For more information, see "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options" earlier in this appendix. If you cannot start the computer with safe mode or Enable VGA Mode, see "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" earlier in this appendix. 

  2. If you can start your computer in safe mode, uninstall the video driver by using Add/Remove Hardware. To access Add/Remove Hardware, click Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel, and then click Add/Remove Hardware

    After completing the previous step, choose one of the following methods for reinstalling the video driver:

    • If you know your video adapter is not Plug and Play, try reinstalling your video driver while in safe mode or Enable VGA Mode. Use Add/Remove Hardware (described in the previous step) to reinstall the driver, and then restart the computer. 

    • If you know your video adapter is Plug and Play, restart the computer after uninstalling the driver, and the driver will automatically be reinstalled when the video adapter is detected. 

    • If you are not sure whether your video adapter is Plug and Play, try restarting the computer. If the display does not work after restarting, restart in safe mode or Enable VGA Mode again, and then use Add/Remove Hardware (described in the previous step) to reinstall the driver. Finally, restart the computer. 

    For a list of supported video adapters, see the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL). To display the HCL, on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM, in the Support folder, open Hcl.txt. You can find updated versions of the HCL at other locations described in "Using the Hardware Compatibility List" earlier in this appendix. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x000000B4.

STOP message 0x000000BE

STOP message number

(0x000000BE)

Descriptive text

ATTEMPTED_WRITE_TO_READONLY_MEMORY

Usual causes

A driver is bad or corrupted or does not function correctly.

To troubleshoot STOP message 0x000000BE 

  1. Disable the driver identified in the STOP message or any newly installed drivers. 

    If you can't start your computer, try starting it in the Last Known Good Configuration or safe mode, and then remove or disable newly added programs or drivers. 

    For more information, see "Safe Mode, Last Known Good Configuration, and Other Startup Options" earlier in this appendix. If you cannot start in safe mode, see "Options to Use When a System Will Not Start" earlier in this appendix. 

    Important When you use Last Known Good Configuration, system setting changes made after the last successful startup are lost. 

  2. Attempt to replace the driver, either with a good copy from your installation media, or with an updated version from the manufacturer. 

If you have access to the Web, you can search for updated information on this STOP message. To do this, go to http://support.microsoft.com/support/ , click Search Support, and then follow the instructions on the page. When typing keywords, use stop 0x000000BE.

Frequently Asked Questions About Windows 2000 Setup

This section lists some of the most common questions raised while running Setup. If you have encountered a problem, check here to see if your issue is explained.

What is Windows 2000 doing during the first part of Setup? 

During the first part of Setup (also referred to as character-based Setup), Windows 2000 examines your system architecture for foundation-level information and drivers. This information includes:

  • CPU type 

  • Motherboard type (PCI, VESA, MCA, EISA, or ISA) 

  • Hard drive controllers 

  • File systems 

  • Free space on hard drives 

  • Memory 

Windows 2000 looks for any devices that must be initialized at system startup in order for your computer to run. Windows 2000 also constructs a "mini" version of Windows 2000, which is used to restart your computer into the Setup wizard (the graphical user interface (GUI) portion of Setup, which lists what Setup is doing).

While running Setup, my computer stops and displays a long message beginning with the word "STOP." 

What happened? 

You can use text-mode STOP messages to identify and debug hardware and software problems that occur while loading or running Windows 2000. When an operating system fails, it is preferable to generate an obvious message, such as the STOP screen, rather than to fail in an "invisible" manner and possibly corrupt data. A STOP screen consists of a STOP message and the text translation. STOP screens give you and a Microsoft Product Support Services engineer the necessary information to locate and identify problem areas.

My computer supports starting directly from the CD-ROM drive. When I try to start from the Windows 2000 compact disc, however, nothing happens. 

What's wrong? 

To start your computer directly from the Windows 2000 compact disc, your computer's BIOS must support the El Torito Bootable CD-ROM (no emulation mode) format. Check with your computer manufacturer if you are unsure if your BIOS has this feature. The BIOS specifies the order of events during startup. The CD-ROM should be listed as the first startup device.

Troubleshooting Device or BIOS Problems

The following sections provide troubleshooting information for certain types of devices that might cause difficulties with installing or running Windows 2000.

Noncompliant ACPI BIOS

A computer's basic input/output system (BIOS) is a set of software through which the operating system communicates with the computer's hardware devices. The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) is the current standard for the way the BIOS works.

If you have an ACPI-based BIOS that is not compliant with the ACPI standard, it might not support workable communication between Setup and your hardware. In this situation, Setup stops and displays instructions for contacting your hardware manufacturer and taking other steps to solve the problem. If this happens, follow the instructions provided.

For basic background about the terms "BIOS" and "ACPI," see the following section, "Definitions of BIOS and ACPI." If you have a basic understanding of the meaning of the terms, see "ACPI Compliance of the BIOS" later in this appendix.

Definitions of BIOS and ACPI

A computer's basic input/output system (BIOS) is a set of essential software that makes it possible for the operating system to communicate in an orderly way with the hardware devices on the computer. The BIOS is provided by the computer manufacturer. It is critical to performance, even though it will usually be invisible to you.

The current standard for the way the BIOS works is the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI). ACPI provides greater flexibility in turning on and turning off individual devices in your computer. For example, using Windows 2000 and an ACPI BIOS, your monitor can be turned off automatically when the computer is idle for a specified length of time. ACPI is the foundation for the OnNow industry initiative that allows computers to be started by the touch of a key.

ACPI also supports Plug and Play. With Plug and Play, when you add a hardware device to your computer, the computer can detect it and install the appropriate device driver (the software that controls the device) automatically.

Windows 2000 supports not only ACPI-compliant BIOS versions, but also some BIOS versions based on older advanced power management (APM) and Plug and Play designs. With older designs, the entire system could be placed in a standby state (so that it used less power) but individual devices could not.

ACPI Compliance of the BIOS

An ACPI BIOS provides detailed information about hardware devices to Windows 2000 Setup and to the Windows 2000 operating system. If the BIOS is not compliant with the standard, it does not provide this information correctly, and Windows 2000 might not have the support it needs to communicate with hardware devices.

To learn more about the ACPI compliance of your BIOS:

  • For information about which ACPI-based BIOS versions are ACPI-compliant, check the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) for Windows 2000. This is the definitive source for this information. For information about the HCL, see "Using the Hardware Compatibility List" earlier in this appendix. 

  • For information about your BIOS version, before running Setup, restart the computer and watch the text on the screen. Pay particular attention to blocks of text containing the phrase "ACPI BIOS." 

    One piece of information that could be useful is the date of the BIOS. The more recent the version of an ACPI BIOS, the more likely that it is compliant. 

  • For information about BIOS versions for your hardware, check your hardware documentation and contact your hardware manufacturer. 

Windows 2000 Setup also checks the type and compliance of the BIOS:

  • If a BIOS is ACPI-compliant, Setup runs normally, and ACPI features are available after Setup. 

  • If a known noncompliant ACPI BIOS is detected, Setup continues to run, but it communicates with the BIOS as if the ACPI power-management features did not exist. When Setup is finished, Windows 2000 will run, but ACPI features will be deactivated until the BIOS is replaced with a compliant version. 

    To check on the status of ACPI power-management features after Setup, click Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel, and then double-click Power Options. For information about using Power Options, see Help in Control Panel. 

    If you update your BIOS after running Setup, you will need to re-run Setup to activate ACPI power-management features. In this situation, Setup takes very little time to finish. 

  • If a BIOS is not compliant but Setup has no indication of this (the BIOS is not in the Setup list of noncompliant versions), Setup stops and displays instructions for contacting your hardware manufacturer and taking other steps to solve the problem. If this happens, follow the instructions provided. 

ISA Devices That Are Not Plug and Play

If your system contains ISA devices that are not Plug and Play, set your system BIOS to reserve all IRQs currently in use by those ISA devices. Failure to do so could result in the following message:

INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE

In some cases, those ISA devices might not function.

Sound Blaster SCSI Problems

During a new installation or an upgrade, sound Blaster SCSI cards and PCI SCSI cards could cause your monitor to display a blue screen with the following message:

INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE

This occurs because the BIOS assigns the SCSI card an interrupt that is already in use. If this occurs, physically remove the card and then reinstall after the installation/upgrade is complete.

Nonsupported SCSI Drivers

During an upgrade to Windows 2000 on computers using nonsupported SCSI drivers for startup devices, the monitor might display a blue screen with the following message:

INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE

Refer to the Hardware Compatibility List (Hcl.txt) for specific information on supported hardware and drivers. To display the HCL, on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM, in the Support folder, open Hcl.txt. You can find updated versions of the HCL at other locations described in "Using the Hardware Compatibility List" earlier in this appendix.

If your hardware and drivers are supported, see the section on mass storage drivers and the setup process in Chapter 3, "Planning Your Windows 2000 Advanced Server Installation."

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