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Chapter 3 - Basic Backup and Restore Operations

Updated: February 28, 2002

This chapter describes management operations, including setting up alerts and report checking, and the managing of backups, restores, and media. Additional system configuration options are also described, beyond those implemented as default configurations during product installation. This chapter is part of the Backup and Restore Solution for Windows 2000–based Data Centers.

On This Page

Introduction
Daily Administration
Managing Backups
Managing Restores
Managing Media
Summary

Introduction

This chapter covers the recommended or typical routine operations of the Galaxy Backup and Restore solution for the Microsoft Systems Architecture environment. These operations are the tasks used to verify the completion of periodic backups and provide the procedures to maintain or restore client data.

These operations include the following:

  • Daily Administration. Logs, reports, and alerts.

  • Managing Backups. Backup types, storage policies, subclients, backup operations, and backup sets.

  • Managing Restores. The Microsoft Windows® 2000 operating system, Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server, Microsoft SQL Server™ 2000.

  • Managing Media. Importing and exporting media.

Some of these operations require additional system configuration, beyond those implemented as default configurations during installation of the Galaxy solution (for details refer to Chapter 2, "Backup and Restore Deployment"). Advanced configuration of Galaxy in a Microsoft Systems Architecture environment is described in Chapter 4, "Advanced Backup and Restore Operations."

Daily Administration

Each day, the administrator reviews the following:

  • Events

  • Backup history

  • Media Management Housekeeping Report

  • Scratch Pool Report

  • Alerts

Procedures for completing each review are described in the following subsections.

Review Events for the Last 24 Hours

Each day, it is important to review the events of the last 24 hours.

To review all events that have occurred during the most recent 24-hour period

  1. In the CommCell Browser, click the Event Viewer icon. By default, the Event Viewer displays all events that have taken place in the last 24 hours.

  2. To view the details of an event, double-click the event to display the window. The Next and Previous buttons in this window allow you to view details on the next and previous messages being displayed.

Review Backup History for the last 24 Hours

The Backup History Reports window reports the backup job history of the selected iDataAgent, client computer, backup set, or subclient. The items reported include:

Table 3.1 Items reported in the Backup History Reports window

Report item

Description

iDataAgent

The iDataAgent that conducted the backup operation.

Instance

The instance that conducted the operation. This field is not applicable to all iDataAgents.

Backup Set

The backup set under which the operation was conducted.

Subclient

The subclient that conducted the backup operation.

Status

The completion status (that is, SUCCESS or FAIL) of the operation.

Backup Type

The type of backup (that is, FULL, INCR, DIFF) that was conducted.

Job ID

The number allocated by the Job Manager to the backup operation.

Start Time

The date and time at which the backup operation started.

End Time

The date and time at which the backup operation completed.

Bytes (uncompressed)

The amount of data (in uncompressed bytes) that was secured in the backup operation.

To review backup history

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the entity (that is, subclient, client computer, and so on) whose backup history you want to review, and then click View Backup History.

  2. In the filter window, select the filter options, if any, that you want to apply, and then click OK. The system displays the window.

  3. Right-click any of the backup rows to view:

    • The files, if any, that failed to back up (if the iDataAgent supports this feature).

    • The details of the backup job.

    • The media for the backup job.

Review the Media Management Housekeeping Report

The Media Management Housekeeping Report provides information on tapes and drives in need of maintenance.

To create a Media Management Housekeeping Report

  1. In the CommCell Browser, click the Reports icon.

  2. In the Report Type field, select Media Management Housekeeping Report.

  3. In the Media Management Housekeeping Report Filter window, click Schedule to select the users who will receive the report and to schedule the report for specific times.

  4. In the CommCell Browser, click the Reports icon.

  5. In the Report Type field, select Media Management Housekeeping Report.

  6. Click Create to generate the report.

Review the Scratch Pool Report

The Scratch Pool Report provides information about the contents and low watermarks of scratch pools. A scratch pool is a repository of the media that are available for use. If the amount of free space reaches or falls below the low watermark, the system adds an entry in the Event Viewer, and it can send an alert if configured appropriately.

To create a Scratch Pool Report

  1. In the CommCell Browser, click the Reports icon.

  2. In the Report Type field, select Scratch Pool Report.

  3. In the Scratch Pool Report Filter window, choose the desired option:

    • All Scratch Pools. Lists all available scratch pools within the CommCell

    • Scratch Pools Containing Fewer than ___Media. Lists the scratch pools containing fewer tapes than the number you specify in this field.

    • Scratch Pools Below the Low Watermark. Lists the scratch pools having a media count lower than the number specified by the scratch pool's low-watermark property.

  4. Click Schedule if you want to select the users who will receive the report and schedule the report for specific times.

  5. In the CommCell Browser, click the Reports icon.

  6. In the Report Type field, select Scratch Pool Report.

  7. Click Create to generate the report.

Review Alerts

An alert is an e-mail message sent by Galaxy, by using the mail server designated on the General tab of the CommCell Properties box, to inform the message recipient that a particular Galaxy event has occurred or user action has been taken. For example, if you configure an alert for changes to CommCell properties, when a property at the CommCell level is changed, an alert message is dispatched to the designated user. Or, if you configure an alert for successful backups at the Client Computer level, the selected users will receive an alert message for each successful backup for all iDataAgents installed on that client.

Configuring E-mail Alert Notification

Alerts are configured by selecting one or more events and then selecting which users are to receive alerts for the selected events. Events that are available for alert configuration are listed on the Alert tab of the object's Properties dialog box. Alerts can be configured at the CommCell, Client, iDataAgent, Instance, MediaAgent, Library, and Storage Policy levels.

Alerts configured at a higher level in the Galaxy hierarchy affect all lower levels. For example, if you configure an alert for successful backups at the Client Computer level, all successful backups for all iDataAgents on that client will initiate.

This section provides basic instructions on how to configure an e-mail alert for three different scenarios. These alert messages are part of recommended daily administration:

  • Failed Backups

  • No Spare Media

  • Spare Media Low

Galaxy Capabilities and Alerts are related in such a way that you need to have a user account to configure alerts for yourself. User and group security are detailed in Chapter 4, "Advanced Backup and Restore Operations."

To configure an alert

  1. Create an account:

    1. In the CommCell tree, select CommCell Users, right-click and select New. Add a user name, password, and your e-mail address. (The default username structure is: DOMAIN\login name). Your password entry is Galaxy specific and can match your Windows password, but does not have to.

    2. On the CommCell User Groups tab, double click Master. Click Users. Click the < button to move the group called master from the Available column to the Member Groups column, then click OK to exit.

    3. You are now ready to configure alerts to be e-mailed to your account.

  2. Configure the Failed Backup Alert:

    1. In the CommCell tree, right-click the CommCell icon and click Properties. The CommCell icon is the root of the tree as the Server Name.

    2. Scroll down the Alert column to the Backup section.

    3. Find the Event column that is named Failed.

    4. Click Edit and select the user to be added to the Users to be Notified list by clicking the < button. To remove a user from the Users to be Notified list, click the > button.

    5. Click OK to confirm the users to be notified.

    6. Click OK. Your configuration is set.

  3. Configure the No Spare Media Alert:

    1. In the CommCell tree, right-click the CommCell icon and click Properties.

    2. Scroll down the Alert column to the Tape section.

    3. In the Event column find No Spare Media.

    4. Click Edit and select the user to be added to the Users to be Notified list by clicking the < button. To remove a user from the Users to be Notified list, click the > button.

    5. Click OK to confirm the users to be notified.

    6. Click OK. Your configuration is set.

  4. Configure the Spare Media Low Alert:

    1. In the CommCell tree, right-click the CommCell icon and click Properties.

    2. Scroll down the Alert column to the Library section.

    3. In the Event column, find Spare Media Low.

    4. Click Edit and select the user to be added to the Users to be Notified list by clicking the < button. To remove a user from the Users to be Notified list, click the > button.

    5. Click OK to confirm the users to be notified.

    6. Click OK. Your configuration is set.

Note: Spare Media Low Alerts are only available when a media library has been configured.

Managing Backups

The Galaxy system supports Full, Incremental, or Differential backups. These backups can either be scheduled or manually initiated.

Full Backups

Backups for any client start with a full backup. The full backup becomes a baseline to which subsequent incremental and differential backups are applied. A full backup is a backup of all of the database elements allocated to a subclient. It is essentially a snapshot of the subclient. If the database elements are divided between two subclients, each subclient requires a full backup to back up the entire database on that client.

Incremental Backups

An incremental backup is a backup of only those portions of the database that have changed since the last backup. It is essentially a backup of the database transaction logs. On average, incremental backups consume far less media and place less of a burden on resources than full backups.

Differential Backups

A differential backup contains only those changes that have occurred since the most recent full backup. Like incremental backups, differential backups generally consume less media and place less of a burden on resources than full backups.

Comparing Full, Incremental, and Differential Backups

The backup scheme for an iDataAgent can include more than one type of backup. You may choose either full and incremental backups or full and differential backups, depending on your data security needs and preferences, but you cannot mix types. Full backups always back up all of the data that is assigned to a given subclient.

While full backups are sometimes necessary (to establish a backup baseline), they are the least efficient form of backup because they back up all data and therefore take the longest time to complete (but they are the quickest to restore). Incremental backups generally back up the least amount of data and are the most efficient form of backup. Differential backups, on average, are somewhere between the two. They tend to back up more data than incremental backups, but less than full backups.

Incremental backups are more efficient than differentials from a backup perspective. However, differential backups can increase restore efficiency. Each time a backup occurs, the data is written to an archive file on the backup media. Since each incremental backup produces an archive file, the backup data for a given subclient instance tends to be distributed among different archive files. In differential backups, however, all the changed data resides in one (that is, the latest) archive file. From a restore perspective, this storage protocol can be important, particularly if you want to restore a large amount of data.

Conclusions on Incremental and Differential Backups

Incremental and differential backups each have their own advantages.

Incremental backups:

  • Back up less data than differential backups.

  • Consume less media than differential backups.

  • Take less time to complete than differential backups.

  • Result in lengthier restores than differential backups do, particularly when large amounts of data are involved.

Differential backups:

  • Back up more data than incremental backups.

  • Consume more media than incremental backups.

  • Take more time to complete than incremental backups.

  • Result in faster restores than incremental backups, particularly of large amounts of data.

Differential backups are cumulative and get larger in succession as additional databases change over time. This can introduce problems in the backup strategy of subclient instances where the proportion of data that changes is high. Under these conditions, the size of the differential backup can rapidly approach the size of a full backup. In such cases, you may want to revisit your backup strategy and run full backups more frequently.

Synthetic Full Backups

Synthetic Full backups enable you to do a full backup to new media without involving the client. It is a restore-to-backup function that consolidates your previous backups onto a new tape. Be aware that a Synthetic Full backup does not collect any data from the client and, as such, is not a substitute for your normally scheduled backup. If you schedule a Synthetic Full backup followed immediately by a normal full backup to new media you can isolate a full backup on a single set of tape(s) for export and offsite storage. Restoring requires you to specify a point-in-time between the last backup before the synthetic full and the time of the synthetic full backup.

Scheduled Backups

Scheduled backups provide a convenient means of backing up data without user intervention. You can establish backup schedules for each subclient using the CommCell Console. When scheduling backups, you need to establish a backup schedule for each subclient or backup set level. A backup schedule may contain a full backup and one or more incremental or differential backups.

Storage Policies

Storage Policies act as the primary conduits through which data is backed up and restored. A Storage Policy forms the primary logical entity through which a subclient instance is backed up. Its chief function is to map backup data to a physical backup medium. The Galaxy system provides a default Storage Policy for each media library or stand-alone drive. When file system subclient instances are created, Galaxy automatically associates each to one of the default storage policies. You can, however, define any number of additional storage policies to:

  • Tailor the backup attributes to your needs

  • Send the backup data to another library

  • Provide for parallel backups

A Storage Policy has user-configurable parameters that you can use to tailor the Storage Policy's operation to meet your specific needs. These parameters include security, data streams, copy names, retention criteria, scratch pools, and drive pools. Retention parameters are dynamically applied, which means that if a retention time was previously set to infinite, you can change it to a lesser value and all existing backup sets adjust to the new value. Doing so allows you to alter retention parameters to dynamically prune backup data.

Media Contention Within Removable Media Groups

When you direct the backups from different subclients to the same Storage Policy, you increase the likelihood of resource contention for those Storage Policy copies that are associated with removable media libraries. A media group can support one operation at a time. As a result, backups or restores that access the same Storage Policy at the same time may actually be performed serially. This is particularly true if the corresponding Storage Policy is configured to provide only one data stream. Removable media contention tends to lessen as the number of configured streams increases. Even so, because a given backup can use any stream, it is possible that the backup data for different clients could, over time, be written to the same stream, and thus to the same tapes. Consequently, removable media contention can arise when backing up or restoring data to different clients that share the same Storage Policy.

The Galaxy system does not compel you to consolidate the data of different subclients or client computers within the same Storage Policy. To avoid the effects of media contention, you may want to create additional storage policies.

Galaxy Storage Policy Configuration Terminology

The following terms are used in the configuration of Galaxy Storage Policy.

Copy Names

Storage Policies provide a named entity (up to 32 characters), and defining attributes, to which backup data is deposited and managed. A Storage Policy can have one or more Copy Names (up to 32 characters) associated with it.

Galaxy automatically creates the first (primary) copy name when you create the Storage Policy. All backup data from the subclient is deposited to the primary copy.

Using New Copy Name, you can create any number of additional media backup copies called secondary copies. These secondary copies can be synchronized with the primary copy through the Auxiliary Copy operation. When Auxiliary Copy is executed for a Storage Policy, each secondary copy is updated (synchronized) in a precedence order with backup data from the primary copy. This update is a backup-media–to-backup-media data movement that does not involve the client. Any synchronized secondary copy can be promoted to a primary copy, as long as a backup/restore operation is not in progress. When executing restores, you are given a choice of which of these media copies to retrieve data from. This allows you to easily avoid a bad media copy when you need to restore data quickly.

Each Storage Policy Copy Name has its own set of attributes. Storage Policy attributes define the how, where, and when of managing backup data. In using Storage Policy copy names, you can back up the same data to different MediaAgents. This feature allows Galaxy to easily support backup-data redundancy by providing you with the ability to back up identical copies of data to different media libraries. The following storage-policy attributes should be defined for each copy name:

  • Library. This term is used by Galaxy to refer to all storage devices within the CommCell. Examples of storage devices include tape libraries and magnetic disk media, both of which may be displayed as libraries by Galaxy.

  • Drive Pool (removable media library only). A drive pool is defined as a logical arrangement of drives. Drive pools allow the drives in a single library to be shared by multiple MediaAgents.

  • Number of Streams. You need to specify the maximum number of concurrent streams you want the Storage Policy-Copy Name to support. Each data stream uses one media drive. Understand that multi-streamed storage policies can only be assigned to a subclient whose iDataAgent supports multiple streams.

  • Retention Time. This specifies the minimum number of days that you want to retain the data. Backup Sets can be pruned, and media recycled to the scratch pool, when this criterion and the Retention Cycles criteria have been met. This attribute can be dynamically changed at any time to facilitate media management. Archive Pruning operations have to be scheduled or manually initiated. Data Retention Time is not automatically determined, and must be set before Archive Pruning will run.

  • Retention Cycles. This specifies the minimum number of cycles that you want to retain. Each backup cycle starts at a Full backup or equivalent as defined by the iDataAgent, and may contain any number of incremental or differential backups. This attribute can be dynamically changed at any time to facilitate media management. As noted earlier in this chapter, Archive Pruning operations must be scheduled or initiated manually, but in this case, data Retention Cycles are then automatically set.

Scratch Pool (Removable Media Library Only)

A scratch pool is a repository of new or recycled media that is available for use. In Storage Policy configuration, the scratch pool field specifies the name of the scratch pool from which the Storage Policy-Copy Name will obtain and return media. This attribute can be dynamically changed at any time to facilitate media management.

Hardware Compression

If enabled, hardware compression is used for the Storage Policy-Copy Name. Enabling hardware compression overrides the subclient software compression setting.

Hardware compression can give you faster performance and fewer CPU demands on the client/MediaAgent, but it also means more traffic across the data path in both directions. It also uses a device-specific compression algorithm, which could cause problems when an attempt is made to restore data using a different manufacturer's drive.

Software Compression

If hardware compression is not enabled, software compression may be used. Software compression on the client reduces network traffic in both directions and uses a device-independent compression algorithm. However, it does put more loading on both the client CPU and the MediaAgent CPU. This last issue may negate almost all the benefits gained from reduced network traffic.

MediaAgent software compression does not reduce network traffic during backups but does reduce it during restores. There is less client-side CPU loading during restores than during backups; therefore, MediaAgent software compression may be a good choice if you have a powerful MediaAgent.

Technical Notes on Compression

Galaxy has hardware-compression and software-compression features. Hardware compression is performed on supported tape drives and is configured in Galaxy (CommCell Console) at the Storage Policy. Software compression is configured and performed for either Compress on Client or Compress on MediaAgent. Selection. Where software compression takes place is part of the subclient configuration, found under Properties and Advanced Features, and is allowable only if hardware compression is set to Off. Default settings for both hardware and software compression is initially set to Off.

Software compression creates a performance hit on the CPU that is running it (Client or MediaAgent). Software compression at the client will increase CPU cycles on the client system during backup operations but has the benefit of decreasing the overall network traffic between the client system and MediaAgent.

Software compression at the MediaAgent increases CPU cycles on the MediaAgent system during backup operations also. The benefit of decreased network traffic is not realized with this option. However, if several client workstations have software compression configured for the same MediaAgent and simultaneous backups are started, the MediaAgent will show signs of performance degradation.

Therefore, it is advisable to configure software compression on the MediaAgent only for client systems that are mission critical and cannot afford the performance degradation. An alternative to using software compression on the MediaAgent may be to use hardware compression, which disables software compression completely.

Hardware decompression occurs at the tape drive and is automatic for data that was compressed using hardware during backup. All software decompression is performed at the client system, regardless of where it may have been compressed. If client data is software-compressed on the MediaAgent during backup, it is still uncompressed at the client during a restore operation. Software decompression has less impact on the client during restore operations than compression would have during backups.

To see where compression is taking place during a backup, look in the Cvd.log on the client and search for CompressType or CompressWhere. Refer to Table 3.2 to decode the results; for example, CompressType=0, and CompressWhere=1 means software compression is talking place at the MediaAgent. Note that Hardware Compression and No Compression display the same type (that is, 2), meaning that software compression is off.

Table 3.2 Compression Log Values

CompressType

CompressWhere

Software Compression at the Client

0

0

Software Compression at the MediaAgent

0

1

Hardware Compression

2

2

No Compression

2

2

Which compression you use depends on the processing power of the client and MediaAgent, and the available bandwidth between the two. If you are the user, select Hardware Compression to start with and then test the alternatives once your backup implementation is up and running.

Creating a Storage Policy

Before performing the following steps, it is recommended that you read "Media Contention Within Removable Media Groups" and Galaxy Storage Policy Configuration Terminology" earlier in this chapter.

To create a Storage Policy

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the Storage Policies icon and select New Storage Policy.

  2. You should now see the Storage Policy Wizard welcome window. Click Next to continue.

  3. In the Storage Policy Name field, enter Storage Policy name and click Next.

  4. In the Primary Copy name field, enter primary copy name and click Next.

  5. Select the library to which you would like to associate the primary Storage Policy copy and click Next.

  6. If you are not working with a removable media library, skip to step 8. Otherwise, select the drive pool that you would like to associate with the Storage Policy and click Next.

  7. Choose a scratch pool for the primary Storage Policy copy and click Next to continue.

  8. In the dialog box set the Number of Streams to 1, and configure the Retention Time to 7 days and 1 cycle. The retention time is set to infinity by default. Once you have configured these settings, click Next to continue.

  9. If you are not configuring the Storage Policy to removable media, skip to step 10. Otherwise, you will now be prompted to select whether or not you want to enable hardware compression on the storage device. Leave the box cleared and click Next to continue.

  10. You will now be prompted to confirm the settings that you have chosen for your Storage Policy. Verify that the settings are correct and click Finish.

Your new Storage Policy should now be listed in the CommCell Browser.

View Scheduled Jobs for a Specific Storage Policy

Galaxy allows you to view scheduled jobs that are assigned to each Storage Policy. Having this feature allows you to see the demands that are being placed on each Storage Policy's resources.

To view the jobs assigned to a Storage Policy

  1. In the CommCell Browser, expand the CommCell root until the desired Storage Policy is shown. Right-click the Storage Policy and select View Schedules. You would then see the Scheduled Jobs window.

  2. The Schedule Jobs window provides details about each scheduled job assigned to the Storage Policy. New jobs can be scheduled at this time by clicking Add to launch the Schedule Wizard.

Deleting Storage Policies

A Storage Policy cannot be deleted if it is associated with a subclient. Before attempting to delete a Storage Policy, you must either delete each subclient assigned to the Storage Policy, or associate the subclients attached to the Storage Policy with another Storage Policy.

Once a Storage Policy is deleted, any data that had been associated with the Storage Policy will no longer be available for restore. All media that the Storage Policy was assigned to will immediately be available for pruning.

Reasons for deleting a Storage Policy may include the following:

  • Data that was backed up through the Storage Policy is no longer needed

  • No backup data is currently assigned to the Storage Policy and there are no plans for future backups involving the Storage Policy

To delete a Storage Policy

  1. In the CommCell Browser, expand the CommCell root until the desired Storage Policy is listed. Right-click the desired Storage Policy and select Delete.

  2. You are warned in the confirmation box that once you delete the Storage Policy, any data backed up using the Storage Policy will not be available for restore.

Creating Subclients

Subclients are used to back up different portions of the file system on a client computer. Initially, the Galaxy system defines a default subclient for each backup set. At that time, the default subclient contains the entire file system and the system state. If you define other subclients within the same backup set, then the default subclient contains the entire file system except for those portions that have been assigned to the other subclients.

When you define a subclient, you need to:

  • Provide a subclient name.

  • Define the content of the subclient.

  • Associate a Storage Policy to the subclient.

You enter this information using the Subclient Properties dialog box. Although this information alone is sufficient to declare a subclient, you can choose to establish other subclient properties as well. For example, you can:

  • Create a backup filter

  • Select the subclient's data compression scheme

  • Declare backup-triggered processes

Creating a New Subclient Within a Backup Set

It is important to note that you should not create a subclient while the parent backup set or any sibling subclient is backing up.

To create a new subclient within a backup set

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the backup set for which you want to create the subclient, and then click New Subclient from the shortcut menu.

  2. Click the General tab of the Subclient Properties dialog box and type the name (up to 32 characters) of the subclient that you want to create. The system state backup is only triggered on the default subclient.

  3. Click the Content tab, and in the Enter New Content field type the Subclient's content. Optionally, you can click Browse to enter the content.

  4. When specifying a UNC data path, click As User and enter the user account information for the domain user with permissions for that path.

  5. Click the Storage Device tab of the Subclient Properties dialog box, then select a Storage Policy you want to associate with this subclient from the Storage Policy pull-down menu.

Renaming a Subclient

You can rename any user-defined subclient at any time. However, Galaxy does not allow you to rename a default subclient. You should not rename a subclient that is being backed up.

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the subclient that you want to rename, and then on the shortcut menu click Properties.

  2. On the General tab of the Subclient Properties dialog box, in the Subclient name field type the new name, and then click OK. The CommCell Browser updates the subclient with its new name.

Changing the Content of a Subclient

The portion of a file system that is assigned to the subclient is called the subclient content. You can view and change the content of any subclient from the tab of the Subclient Properties dialog box. You should not change the content of the default subclient from its initial setting (that is, \). This setting ensures that the default subclient contains all portions of the file system that are not contained by other subclients. If you change the setting to a different path, then the default subclient will only back up the data pertaining to that path, and the file system will no longer be backed up in its entirety by the subclients within the backup set. It also important not to change the content of a subclient that is being backed up.

To change the content of a subclient

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the subclient whose content you want to change, and then on the shortcut menu click Properties.

  2. Click the General tab of the Subclient Properties dialog box.

  3. To include a file or folder in the content of the subclient, do one of the following:

    1. In the Enter New Content field manually enter the path (including the drive letter) of the file or folder that you want to add and click Add. Repeat this step if you want to add more files and/or folders to the content.

    2. Clicking Browse to browse and select the path. In the Browse window, expand the file system of the client computer, click the file or folder that you want to include, and then click Add. Repeat this step for each additional entry.

    3. To specify a UNC data path, click As User, and enter the user account information for the domain user with permissions for that path.

  4. To save your content changes, click OK on the Content tab of the Subclient Properties box.

Performing On-Demand Backups

Backups are one of the primary functions of the Galaxy system. It is through the backup process that you secure the data on the client computers within the CommCell. On-demand backups allow you to secure data and/or the system state immediately without having to wait for the scheduled backup time. This capability can be useful if:

  • You have some particularly valuable data that you need to secure immediately.

  • Your data is not routinely secured through a backup schedule and you want to back up your data.

Using on-demand backups, you can initiate full, incremental, and differential backups. You can initiate an on-demand backup on the following levels:

  • A selected subclient

  • A selected backup set

  • The default backup set

Note: Selecting a backup set backs up the entire file system on the client computer. Selecting a subclient backs up only that portion of the file system that is mapped to that subclient. Starting a backup on a backup set causes Galaxy to start individual backups for each subclient contained therein. If the subclients are associated with the same Storage Policy, then their backups will run serially unless that Storage Policy is configured to accommodate multiple data streams.

The Microsoft Windows 2000 system state backup is initiated from the default subclient in the backup set. The system state is always backed up using a full backup, even if that subclient runs a different kind of backup on the file system portion of the data.

To start an on-demand backup of a selected subclient

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the subclient that you want to back up, and then on the shortcut menu, click Backup.

  2. In the window, select the type of backup that you want to initiate.

  3. After selecting the backup type and any advanced options, click OK. You can track the progress of the backup operation in the Job Controller window.

To start an on-demand backup of a selected backup set

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the backup set that you want to back up, and then on the shortcut menu click Backup All Subclients. The system prompts you to confirm that you want to back up all the subclients contained within the selected backup set. Click OK to proceed.

  2. In the window, select the type of backup that you want to initiate.

    Note: Do not select Synthetic Full. This is a special type of backup.

  3. After selecting the backup type and any advanced options, click OK. You can track the progress of the backup operation from the Job Controller window.

To start an on-demand backup of the default backup set

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the File System iDataAgent icon corresponding to the client computer that you want to back up, and then from the shortcut menu click Backup Default Backup Set.

  2. The system prompts you to confirm that you want to back up all the subclients contained within the backup set. Click Yes to proceed.

  3. After selecting the backup type and any advanced options, click OK. Galaxy starts the backup operation. You can track the progress of the backup operation in the Job Controller window. When the backup completes, Galaxy displays a confirmation message.

Creating Backup Sets

A backup set is a logical grouping of subclients. During client installation, Galaxy creates one default backup set on the client computer. This backup set contains a default subclient, ensuring that the entire client file system and system state elements can be backed up. If desired, you can create additional backup sets for the same client computer.

A backup set always contains a default subclient. You can also create additional subclients within each backup set. Backup sets are a powerful feature. Through them, you can establish the following:

  • One or more series of backups for a given client computer.

  • One or more subclient groups for a given client computer.

  • One or more series of backups for related subclients (that is, members of a subclient group).

To create additional backup sets for the client computer

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the File System icon of the client computer for which you want the backup set created, and then from the shortcut menu, click New Backup Set. In the next dialog box, enter the following:

    • New Backup Set Name.

      Type the name (up to 32 characters) of the backup set that you want to create.

    • Make this the Default backup set.

      If you want to designate this backup set as the default, select this checkbox; otherwise, leave this checkbox cleared.

  2. Verify that the Storage Policy that Galaxy has associated with the default subclient is the Storage Policy that you want. If you want to select a different Storage Policy, click the Storage Policy entry and select the one you want from the list.

  3. Click Add to create additional subclients within this backup set.

  4. On the General tab of the Subclient Properties dialog box, enter the name (up to 32 characters) of the subclient, and the content of the subclient. Subclients have optional properties that you can establish at this time from the other tabs within this dialog box.

  5. Click OK and repeat this step for each additional subclient that you want to define within this backup set.

  6. If you want to change the properties of any subclient that is listed in the New Backup Set dialog box, select the subclient and click Edit. Doing so displays the Subclient Properties dialog box, from which you can change the properties of the subclient.

  7. If you want to delete any subclient that you may have defined in the New Backup Set dialog box, select the subclient and then click Delete.

  8. In the New Backup Set dialog box, click OK.

Managing Restores

Procedures often vary, depending on the type of data you are restoring.

Restoring Data to Windows 2000

In this section, you will learn how to restore some of the data that you backed up. To avoid overwriting existing data, restore the data to an alternate location.

Before you begin, review the items in the following checklist. Doing so will help you to avoid common problems.

Please ensure the following:

  • The CommServe computer is powered on and the CommServe is running.

  • The MediaAgent computer and media library are powered on.

  • The client computer is powered on.

  • All Galaxy services have been started.

  • You have successfully performed a backup of this client computer.

Restoring File System Data

Galaxy allows you to restore data in several different ways. In this section, the most common method, a Browse/Restore, will be used. Browsing allows you to view the data that you have backed up and then select some or all of that data for restoration.

To browse the backup data and restore some of it to another directory

  1. Log on to the CommServe computer.

  2. On the Windows Start menu, point to Programs, then Galaxy then click Galaxy CommCell Console for Java GUI.

  3. On the CommCell Logon window, log on by entering your Galaxy user name and password.

  4. Galaxy displays the CommCell Console window.

  5. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the File System icon, and then click Browse Default Backup Set.

  6. In the Browse Options dialog box, click OK (assuming the default settings are being used).

  7. Galaxy displays the Browse window, which shows the files and directories that you backed up from the client computer.

  8. In the Browse window, open the file system structure and select the data you want to restore.

  9. Click Restore All Selected.

  10. In the Restore Options dialog box, clear the Restore to Same Paths option, and then type the name of the directory to which you want the data restored (for example, C:\Newdir) in the Destination folder field. By default, Galaxy will create this directory if it does not already exist.

  11. Click OK (If the other settings are to remain unchanged).

  12. Galaxy starts a restore and indicates the status in the Job Controller window. Once the data is fully restored, Galaxy displays a confirmation message. Click OK to acknowledge the message.

  13. To confirm that the data was indeed restored, navigate to the restore destination directory. There you will find the data that you restored.

To restore file system data to the client computer

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the backup set whose data you want to browse and then from the shortcut menu click Browse Backup Data.

  2. In the dialog box, select the browse options that you want to use.

  3. In this procedure, the Client Computer field is unavailable because it was already determined when the backup set was selected in step 1.

  4. Select any additional browse options from the dialog box.

  5. In the Browse window, use the file system tree to open the structure of the file system.

  6. In the Browse window, select the files and/or directories that you want to restore and then click Restore All Selected.

  7. In the dialog box, select the restore options that you want to use.

  8. If you want to select any additional restore options, click Advanced and in the dialog box, select the options that you want.

  9. Once you have selected the restore options, the system displays the Progress bar and starts to restore the data. Observe the Progress bar to monitor the restore process. If you want to browse the same backup set again, perhaps using different browse-time thresholds, on the Browse menu click New Browse.

Restoring System Databases

The system state is always backed up in its entirety as Full backups. Included with the system state backup data are several other databases. Since these other databases are separate elements, they can be selectively restored, without performing a full system state restore. These database elements include the following:

  • Event logs

  • RSM database

  • Terminal Server database

  • Quota information

  • Content indexing catalogs

You have the choice of restoring these items when you perform a restore operation of the System Databases. These databases are available for restoration if they have been installed and have been backed up.

To restore the system databases

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the backup set that contains the System Databases to restore, and then click Restore System Databases.

  2. In the Restore System Databases Options dialog box, accept the defaults or change the option selections.

  3. Click OK. Galaxy initiates the system state restore job. Some services may be interrupted during the time that the databases are restored. After the restore, ensure that the services are returned to the online state.

Restoring Data to a Mapped Network Drive

Galaxy allows you to restore data to a client computer's mapped network drives. The restored data assumes the access characteristics of the destination share.

Before you begin, note that mapped network drives exist as Windows share directories (that is, shares) on some other computer on the network. For data security reasons, these shares possess access privileges that determine who can access the share and the rights under which access is permitted. If your Windows account does not have privileges to write data to the share, you must be prepared to provide the login and password of a Windows account that does have these privileges. Ensure that the Windows share to which you intend to restore the data is accessible as a mapped network drive from the destination computer.

To restore data to a mapped network drive

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the backup set whose data you want to browse, and then click Browse Backup Data from the short-cut menu.

  2. In the dialog box, select the browse options that you want to use.

  3. Select any additional browse options from the dialog box.

  4. In the Browse window, use the file system tree to open the structure of the file system.

  5. In the Browse window, select the files and/or directories that you want to restore, and then click Restore All Selected.

  6. In the dialog box, select the restore options that you want to use.

  7. Ensure that the destination computer is the computer that has the mapped drive, not the computer that has the share. Also, if the data did not originate from the mapped drive, type the destination path starting with the mapped drive letter in the Restore to Same Paths field (for example, H:\Sales\Monthly Reports).

  8. If you want to select any additional restore options, click Advanced and select the options you want from the dialog box.

  9. If you do not have Change permissions for the share to which you intend to restore the data, then you must select Impersonate NT User in the Advanced Restore Option dialog box and provide the login and password of a Windows account that does have these permissions; otherwise, the data cannot be restored to the selected share. If you can copy or create a file in the share, you should be able to restore data to that share without having to select this option. If the user account is established as a domain user account, you must enter a fully qualified user name (for example, domain_name\user_name) and password.

  10. Once you have selected the restore options the system displays the Progress bar and begins to restore the data. Observe the Progress bar to monitor the restore process.

Restoring Data to Exchange 2000 Server

To avoid common problems, make sure the client computer is powered on and that you have successfully performed a database backup of Exchange 2000 Server before you begin.

Restoring Database Data

The Galaxy iDataAgent for Exchange 2000 Server software enables you to restore your Exchange 2000 Server databases. The following procedure provides the steps necessary to restore an Exchange 2000 Server database:

Warning: This procedure describes how to restore the Exchange 2000 Server database. It is provided for informational purposes only. Do not perform this procedure unless you intend to overwrite your existing Exchange 2000 Server database with the backed up version.

  1. Dismount all information stores that you will be selecting during the restore operation. If you are restoring the entire server running Exchange 2000 Server, dismount all stores.

  2. If you are restoring the Key Management Service (KMS) database, verify that the KMS data directory is empty (typically \Program Files\Exchsrvr\Kmsdata ), and make sure that the Microsoft Exchange Key Management Service is started.

  3. If you are restoring the Site Replication Service (SRS) database, verify that there are no *.ebd, *.log or *.chk files in the Exchsrvr/Srsdata folder, and make sure that the Microsoft Exchange Site Replication Service is started.

  4. On the Start menu, point to Programs, then Galaxy, and then click Galaxy CommCell Console for Java GUI.

  5. In the CommCell Logon window, log on by entering your Galaxy user name and password.

  6. Galaxy displays the CommCell Console window.

  7. From the CommCell Browser tree, right-click the Exchange Database icon, and then click Browse Backup Data.

  8. In the Browse Options dialog box, click OK (assuming the default settings are being used).

  9. Galaxy displays the Browse window, which shows the Exchange 2000 Server databases that have been backed up.

  10. In the Browse window, select the database(s) you would like to restore.

  11. Click Restore All Selected.

  12. In the Restore Summary dialog box, use the default settings and restore the data to the same Exchange 2000 Server database.

  13. To automatically mount the stores after the restoration, select the Mount database after restore option. Note that this option is disabled if only KMS or SRS databases have been selected for restore. Do not perform this step unless you intend to overwrite your existing Exchange 2000 Server database stores with the backed up versions. Click OK.

  14. Galaxy starts a full restore of the items selected and indicates its status in the Job Controller window. Once the data is fully restored, Galaxy displays a confirmation message. Click OK to acknowledge the message.

  15. If you restored the KMS database, make sure that you stop and then re-start the Microsoft Exchange Key Management Service after the restore has successfully completed.

  16. If you restored the SRS database, make sure that you stop and then re-start the Microsoft Exchange Site Replication Service after the restore has successfully completed.

Restoring Data to an Exchange 2000 Mailbox

The Galaxy software for Exchange 2000 Mailbox allows you to select and restore not only specific mailboxes, but also individual mailbox messages. The following procedure uses the browse and restore feature to browse the mailbox data and restore some individual messages.

To browse the Mailbox data and restore individual settings

  1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, then Galaxy, and then click Galaxy CommCell Console for Java GUI.

  2. In the CommCell Logon window, log on by entering your Galaxy user name and password.

  3. Galaxy displays the CommCell Console window.

  4. In the CommCell Browser tree, right-click the Exchange Mailbox icon, and then click Browse Default Backup Set.

  5. In the Browse Options dialog box, click OK (assuming the default settings are being used).

  6. Galaxy displays the Browse window, which shows the mailboxes that you backed up.

  7. In the Browse window, expand the mailbox structure by opening an Exchange 2000 mailbox. Then select some mailbox data that you want to restore.

  8. Click Restore All Selected.

  9. In the Restore Summary dialog box, click OK to use the default settings and restore the messages to the same mailbox folder. Keep in mind that Galaxy will append these messages to the mailbox folder. It will not overwrite the original messages.

  10. Galaxy starts a full restore of the items selected and indicates its status in the Job Controller window. Once the messages are restored, Galaxy displays a confirmation message. Click OK to acknowledge the message.

  11. To confirm that the messages were actually restored, check the mailbox folder for the restored messages.

Restoring Data to SQL Server 2000

This section describes how to perform an out-of-place restore of a SQL Server database on the client computer. To avoid common problems, make sure that the client computer is powered on and that you have successfully performed an SQL Server 2000 database backup before you begin.

The Galaxy SQL Server client software allows you to select and restore specific databases. Using Galaxy's browse and restore feature, you can browse the database data and restore an individual database. The following instructions demonstrate the procedure using a backup of the sample Pubs database. For information about how this database was backed up, refer to Chapter 2, "Backup and Restore Deployment."

To restore data from a pubs database

  1. On any computer where the CommCell Console is installed, on the Start menu, point to Programs, then Galaxy, and then click Galaxy CommCell Console for Java GUI.

  2. In the CommCell Logon window, log on by entering your Galaxy user name and password.

  3. Galaxy displays the CommCell Console window.

  4. In the CommCell Browser tree, right-click SQL Server and then click Browse SQL Server.

  5. In the Browse Option dialog box, click OK to accept the default settings.

  6. In the Browse window, click the SQL Server instance. Then select the Pubs database that was backed up previously.

  7. Click Restore All Selected.

  8. In the SQL Database Restore Options dialog box, select a Restore type_of_database_Restore and a Recovery type_of_Recovery. Then click Advanced.

  9. In the Advanced SQL Restore Options dialog box, select the Pubs database and enter a new name. This replaces all instances of the name Pubs in the Database field with the new name.

  10. Change the Database File Path for all Pubs files to an alternate location. The path to the alternate location must exist before the restore is performed.

  11. Click OK to go back to the SQL Database Restore Options screen. Click OK again.

  12. Galaxy starts a full restore of the Pubs database to the new database name and location, and indicates its status in the Job Controller window.

  13. When the restore has completed, Galaxy displays a completion message. Click OK to close the window.

  14. To confirm that the Pubs database was actually restored, open Enterprise Manager and refresh the Databases list. The new copy of the Pubs database should be listed under the new name.

Managing Media

Managing media consists of importing into and exporting from a library.

Importing Media into a Library

Importing is the process by which you move media that are outside a library into storage slots within the library. There are two ways of importing media:

  • You can import media through the library's mail slot (if one is available).

  • You can open the library door and insert media into storage slots by hand.

Importing media through a mail slot offers several advantages: The inventory update that is triggered by a mail slot import is much less time-consuming than the full inventory operation that is triggered when you open and then close the library door. In addition, if you import new media through a mail slot using the Galaxy import operation, Galaxy automatically discovers the media. Note that inserting media in, and closing, the mail slots of some libraries may trigger a full inventory operation (rather than an inventory update).

If you open the door and insert media, you must initiate a discovery operation. You must also initiate a discovery operation if you import through a mail slot, without using the Galaxy import operation. However, under certain circumstances, you may want to open the library door even though a mail slot is available. For example, if you want to add many media to a library at once, it may be faster to open the door than to use the mail slot.

If you are not using a mail slot, be careful not to open the library door while media are mounted in drives within the library. In some library models (for example, ATL 200 and ATL 500), opening the door causes the library to unmount all media, even those that are in active use. This can cause database inconsistency and failure of the running job(s).

To import media into a library

  1. From the CommCell Browser, right-click the library (or the scratch pool of the library) into which you want to import media, and then click Import Media from the short-cut menu.

  2. An Import Media prompt appears, advising you to do one of the following:

    • Importing through a mail slot. Insert one or more media into the mail slot and wait for them to be moved to storage slots. Do not click OK until all of the imported media have been moved to storage slots. After all media are transferred to storage slots, click OK in the Import Media prompt. If you click OK in the Insert Media prompt before the media are moved to storage slots, Galaxy will not discover the media.

    • Inserting media directly. Open the library door, insert media into storage slots, and then close the door. Click OK in the Import Media prompt.

  3. Galaxy displays a warning message to move cleaning media to the cleaning media pool. Click OK.

  4. If the imported media were previously discovered, their barcodes are displayed in the library inventory in the right pane of the CommCell Browser. Otherwise, the media must be discovered:

    • Automatic Discovery. If you imported undiscovered media through the mail slot (and you did not click OK in the Insert Media prompt until the media were moved to storage slots), Galaxy automatically discovers the media.

      • In the dialog box that appears, select the hardware type of the new media from the Media Type to be Imported list.

      • Select the scratch pool to which you want the media assigned from the Destination Scratch Pool list.

      • The total number of undiscovered media available in the library is displayed in the No. of media in Free Media Pool field.

      • Specify the number of media you would like to discover in the No. of media to be discovered field.

      • Click OK.

    • Manual Discovery. If you opened the library door and inserted media directly, or if you imported through a mail slot and clicked OK before the media were moved to storage slots, you must manually discover media. For details on Discovering Media within a Library refer to the online help, under the topic Library Operations.

Exporting Media from a Library

Exporting is the process by which you physically remove one or more media from a library. When you export a medium, the data that it contains is no longer at the immediate disposal of the Galaxy system. If an operation (for example, restore or auxiliary copy) requires data from an exported medium, you will have to reimport the medium to complete the operation. Galaxy retains information about exported media; they do not have to be rediscovered if they are reimported.

There are two ways to export media:

  • You can export media through the library's mail slot (if one is available).

  • You can open the library door and remove media from the storage slots by hand.

Exporting media through a mail slot offers an advantage. The inventory update that is triggered by a mail slot export is much less time-consuming than the full inventory operation that is triggered when you close the library door. Under certain circumstances, however, you may want to open the library door even though a mail slot is available. For example, if you want to remove many media from a library at once, it may be faster to open the door than to use the mail slot. Media that are being written to or read from cannot be exported. It is recommended that you enter a description of the storage location and appropriate reference information when you export a medium.

Note: Removing media from and closing the mail slots of some libraries may trigger a full inventory operation (rather than an inventory update).

To export media from a library

If you are not using a mail slot, be careful not to open the library door while media are mounted in drives within the library. In some library models (for example, ATL 200 and ATL 500), opening the door causes the library to unmount all media, even those that are in active use. This can cause database inconsistency and failure of the running job(s).

  1. In the CommCell Browser, right-click the library from which you want to export media, and then from the shortcut menu click Export Media.

  2. In the next dialog box, on the Media List, select the barcodes of one or more media that you want to remove from the library. You can enter an optional comment about the location to which you are moving the media (for example, Shelf 26 in Storage Room) in the Location field. Click OK. The location field is for display purposes only, to help you keep track of exported media. Galaxy cannot ensure that media are stored in the locations entered.

  3. An Export Media prompt appears, advising you to do one of the following:

    • Exporting through a mail slot. Click OK, wait for the media to be moved to the mail slot, and then remove them from the library. If you are exporting multiple media, they will be delivered to the mail slot one by one until all have been exported.

    • Removing media directly. Open the library door, remove the media that you want to export, and then close the door.

  4. (Optional) In the case of a bulk export (multiple media), some libraries require that you open the mail slot and remove each medium individually, as it is delivered. This is true even if the mail slot can hold multiple media. If your library has this requirement and you fail to remove a medium within the Galaxy export media timeout period, the operation times out; that is, Galaxy terminates the operation and sends a message to the Event Log reporting the failure.

Summary

Information in this chapter covers the daily recommended or routine operations of the Galaxy Backup and Restore solution for the Microsoft Systems Architecture environment. These tasks include the verification of periodic backups and the procedures for maintaining or restoring client data for the Windows 2000 File System, Exchange 2000 and SQL Server 2000. Additional system configuration is provided, to enable these tasks to be successfully carried out.

For further information on the default Galaxy configuration, refer to Chapter 2, Backup and Restore Deployment. For further information on the advanced configuration of Galaxy in a Microsoft Systems Architecture environment, refer to Chapter 4, Advanced Backup and Restore Operations.

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