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Step-by-Step Guide to Kerberos 5 (krb5 1.0) Interoperability

Published: January 2000

The Microsoft Windows® 2000 operating system implementation of the Kerberos version 5 protocol is designed for interoperability with other security services based on the MIT Kerberos version 5 reference implementation.

On This Page

Introduction
Using Kerberos Clients
Support for Kerberos Services
Using an MIT KDC with a Standalone Windows 2000 Workstation
Setting Trust With a Kerberos Realm
Using MIT Sample Applications
Additional Information

Introduction

The interoperability objectives for the Windows 2000 release support the following configurations:

  • A Windows 2000 Server domain controller can serve as the Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) server for MIT Kerberos-based client and host systems. UNIX systems can use kinit and the DES-CBC-MD5 or DES-CBC-CRC encryption type to authenticate to the Windows 2000 KDC.

  • The Windows 2000 Kerberos Security Support Provider (SSP) implements the General Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS API) Kerberos Mechanism Token formats defined in RFC 1964. Windows 2000 does not provide the GSS API; instead, the Kerberos support is available to Microsoft Win32 applications using the SSPI APIs implemented by the Kerberos SSP. Client applications on UNIX using GSS API can obtain session tickets to services on Windows 2000, and can complete mutual authentication, message integrity, and confidentiality. (Context flags that are verified are GSS_C_MUTUAL_FLAG, GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG, GSS_C_CONF_FLAG, GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG.)

  • Windows 2000 Professional clients can be configured to use a Kerberos realm, with single sign-on to the Kerberos realm and the local Windows 2000 Professional-based client account.

Interoperability with Kerberos services requires minor configuration changes from the default installation. For example, a Windows 2000 workstation that uses a Kerberos realm must be configured to locate the Kerberos realm, available KDC servers and available Kerberos change password servers. Microsoft provides command-line tools to help with the configuration steps. These tools are:

  • Ksetup. Configures Kerberos realms, KDCs, and Kpasswd servers.

  • Ktpass. Sets the password, account name mappings, and keytab generation for Kerberos services that use the Windows 2000 Kerberos KDC.

The Kerberos configuration utilities are available on the Windows 2000 distribution media, in the \support\reskit\netmgmt\security folder.

The Kerberos test utilities are available in the Windows 2000 software development kit (SDK), in the \mssdk\samples\winbase\security\win2000 folder. These tools are:

  • Gssclient. Tests RFC 1964 interoperability (gss directory).

  • Gssserver. Tests RFC 1964 interoperability (gss directory).

  • Klist. Examines the Kerberos credential cache.

The Windows 2000 release has some known Kerberos interoperability limitations. These limitations include the following:

  • Only DES-CBC-MD5 and DES-CBC-CRC encryption types are available for MIT interoperability.

  • Hierarchical realm support for cross-platform trust between the Windows 2000 and MIT Kerberos realms is not included; however, transitive trust is supported between Windows 2000 domains in the domain tree.

  • The KDC does not support post-dated tickets.

  • Any upgraded user accounts and the administrator account in a new domain must have the password changed before non-Windows Kerberos clients can use them.

Using Kerberos Clients

Creating Computer and User Accounts

Use the Active Directory® directory service management tool to create computer and user accounts for the host and user security principals logging into the Windows 2000 Kerberos domain.

To configure the UNIX hosts

  1. Use the Active Directory Management tool to create a new user account for the UNIX host:

    • Select the Users folder, right-click and select New, then choose user.

    • Type the name of the UNIX host.

  2. The account can be created in any container. It might be useful to create a new organizational unit (OU) and create the accounts there.

  3. Use Ktpass to create the keytab file and set up the account for the UNIX host, and then copy the keytab file to the UNIX system and merge the keytab file into /etc/krb5.keytab, as follows:

    • Use the following command to generate the UNIX host keytab file, map the principal to the account, and set the host principal password:

      C:> Ktpass princ host/hostname@NT-DNS-REALM-NAME mapuser account -pass password out unixmachine.keytab

      where:

      hostname is the host DNS name, for example, foobar.microsoft.com.

      NT-DNS-REALM-NAME is the uppercase name of the Windows 2000 domain; for example, RESKIT.COM.
      account is the user account for the computer.
      password is a complex password for the account.

      Windows 2000 account names are not multipart as are Kerberos principal names. Because of this, it is not possible to directly create an account of the name host/hostname.dns.com. Such a principal instance is created through service principal name mappings. In this case, an account is created with a meaningful name hostname and a service principal name mapping is added for host/hostname.dns.com. This is the purpose of using Ktpass with the princ and mapuser switches.

    • Securely transfer the keytab file (unixmachine.keytab from the example above) to the UNIX host. Then, merge the keytab file with any existing keytab file for the UNIX computer. The UNIX commands to merge the keytab file are:

    • % ktutil

    • ktutil: rkt unixmachine.keytab

    • ktutil: list

      The output should appear similar to the following:

      slot KVNO Principal

      ---- ---- ---------

      1 1 host/foobar.reskit.com@RESKIT.COM

      ktutil: wkt /etc/krb5.keytab

      ktutil: q

    • Edit the file (/etc/krb5.conf) to refer to the Windows 2000 domain controller as the Kerberos KDC. The krb5.conf file entries should be similar to the following:

    • [libdefaults]

    • default_realm = RESKIT.COM

    • default_tkt_enctypes = des-cbc-md5 ; or des-cbc-crc

    • default_tgs_enctypes = des-cbc-md5 ; or des-cbc-crc

    • [realms]

    • RESKIT.COM = {

    • kdc = server3.ntdom.microsoft.com:88

    • }

    • The default encryption type entries, default_txx_enctype, are optional. However, if the Kerberos client receives an encryption type error, set the default encryption type to either DES-CBC-MD5 or DES-CBC-CRC.

    • If your UNIX computer's DNS name does not include the realm namefor example, foobar.reskit.com does not include ntdom.reskit.comyou may be required to map the hostname to the Kerberos realm name manually, as follows:

      [domain_realm] .foobar.reskit.com = NTDOM. RESKIT.COM Without this entry, your Kerberos applications might try to connect to the wrong realm and fail, which can be frustrating to debug.

      See the Kerberos version 5 manual pages for more information on krb5.conf.

    • Be sure that your system clocks are synchronized (within two minutes) to the KDC system's clock. Otherwise, Kerberos authentication will fail due to clock skew errors.

  4. Finally, you need to create UNIX accounts that correspond to the Windows 2000 domain accounts so that the login process will know to use Kerberos authentication. You can do this by using the vipw command or other administration tools, depending on how you manage UNIX accounts. See the Kerberos version 5 manual pages for more information.

Support for Kerberos Services

Services running on UNIX systems can be configured with service instance accounts in Active Directory. This allows full interoperability. Kerberos clients and servers on UNIX systems can authenticate using the Windows 2000 Kerberos server. And Windows 2000 Professional-based clients can authenticate to Kerberos services that support GSS API.

Unlike Kerberos principal names, Windows 2000 account names are not multipart. Because of this, it is not possible to directly create an account of the name sample/unix1.ntdom.microsoft.com. Such a principal instance is created through the service principal name mappings.

To create a service instance account in Active Directory

  1. Use the Active Directory Management tool to create a user account for the UNIX service; for example, create an account with the name sampleUnix1.

  2. Use the Ktpass tool to set up an identity mapping for the user account. Use this command:

    C:> Ktpass princ service-instance@REALM mapuser account-name -pass password -out unixmachine.keytab

    The format of the Kerberos service-instance name is: service/host.realm_name, for example:

    C:> ktpass princ sample/unix1.reskit.com@RESKIT.COM -mapuser

    sampleUnix1 pass password out unix1.keytab

    In this case, an account is created with a meaningful name sampleUnix1, and a service principal name mapping is added for sample/unix1.reskit.com. This is the purpose of using Ktpass with the princ and mapuser switches.

  3. Merge the keytab file with the /etc/krb5.keytab file on the UNIX host.

Note: You cannot map multiple service instances to the same user account.

Using an MIT KDC with a Standalone Windows 2000 Workstation

For the Windows 2000 workstation to use a Kerberos KDC, you must configure both the Kerberos KDC server and the workstation as described next.

To configure the Kerberos KDC server and the Windows 2000 workstation

  1. Run the Ksetup utility to configure the Kerberos KDC server and realm (for details, see the Ksetup section later in this document).

    • In the Kerberos realm, create a host principal for the computer. Use the command:

      Kadmin q "ank pw password host/machine-name.dns-domain_name"

      For example, if the Windows 2000 workstation name is W2KW and the Kerberos realm name is REALM.RESKIT.COM, the principal name is host/w2kw.realm.reskit.com.

      Kadmin is a utility that is part of the MIT Kerberos distribution.

    • Since a Kerberos realm is not a Windows 2000 domain, the computer must be configured as a member of a workgroup. This is automaticwhen you set the Kerberos realm and add a KDC server as follows:

      C:> Ksetup /setdomain REALM.RESKIT.COM

      C:> Ksetup /addkdc REALM.RESKIT.COM kdc.realm.reskit.com

    • Set the local machine account password, as follows:

      C:> Ksetup /setmachpassword password

  2. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. (This is a required step.) Whenever changes are made to the external KDC and realm configuration, a restart is required.

  3. Use Ksetup to configure single sign on to local workstation accounts. Define the account mappings; this will map local machine accounts to Kerberos principals. For example:

    C:> Ksetup /mapuser auser@REALM.RESKIT.COM guest C:> Ksetup /mapuser * *

    Note that the second command maps clients to local accounts of the same name.

  4. Use Ksetup with no arguments to see the current settings. (Note that the KDC server[s] is not shown.)

Setting Trust With a Kerberos Realm

You can set up a trust relationship between Windows 2000 domains and Kerberos realms. The following procedure sets up trust between Windows 2000 domain RESKIT.COM and Kerberos realm REALM.RESKIT.COM. By default the trust will be non-transitive. This can be changed to transitive by using the netdom.exe tool from the Windows 2000 Resource Kit. The tool is located in the \support\reskit\netmgmt folder on the distribution media. See the tool Help menu for details.

To set up access to services

Workstation computers that use services in an MIT realm need to have a realm entry added. To do this, use the Ksetup command on each system that uses the MIT realm for services.

C:> Ksetup /addkdc REALM.RESKIT.COM kdc.realm.reskit.com

These mappings are stored in the registry under HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\LSA\Kerberos\Domains. To deploy realm configuration data to multiple computers, use the Security Configuration Template mechanism instead of using Ksetup explicitly on individual computers. The computer must be restarted before the new realm setting will be used.

To set up trust

  1. On the domain controller for the Windows 2000 domain, use the following command to set up the configuration for the foreign Kerberos realm (the computer will need to be restarted before this setting will be used):

    C:> Ksetup /addkdc REALM.RESKIT.COM kdc.realm.reskit.com

  2. Start the Domain Tree Management tool. Click Programs, then Administrative tools, and then Active Directory Domains and Trusts.

  3. Right-click on Properties of your domain, then select the Trust tab and press Add. The passwords used in this step are described in Step 5.

  4. Create a trusted domain relationship with the MIT Kerberos realm. When prompted if this is a non-Windows Kerberos Realm, click OK.

    Bb742433.kerb1(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

    Figure 1: Set up a Trust
  5. Use the following MIT Kerberos administration commands to create cross-realm principals in the foreign MIT realm:

    C:> Kadmin q "ank pw password krbtgt/RESKIT.COM@REALM.RESKIT.COM"

    C:> Kadmin q "ank pw password krbtgt/REALM.RESKIT.COM@RESKIT.COM"

Instead of using the Domain Tree Management user interface (UI), you can use the Netdom tool to establish trust to an MIT Kerberos realm. The tool is located in the \support\reskit\netmgmt folder on the distribution media. See the tool Help menu for details.

Creating Account Mappings

Account mappings are used to map a foreign Kerberos identity (in a trusted MIT Kerberos realm) to a local account identity in the domain. These account mappings are managed through the Active Directory Management tool.

These account mappings will allow the Kerberos realm to act as an account domain. Users with Kerberos principals that have mappings to domain accounts, can logon to a workstation that is joined to a trusted domain using the Kerberos principal and password from the Kerberos realm.

If you need to access down-level Microsoft Windows NT® systems, the domain account that is used for mapping, needs to have a password that is synchronized to the Kerberos principal password. This is because downlevel Windows NT systems will be using NTLM for authentication.

Users can change their passwords in the Kerberos realm by selecting the Change password feature from the <CTRL+ALT+ DEL> sequence.

To create a mapping

  1. Start the Directory Management tool. Point to Programs, then Administrative tools, and then Active Directory Users and Computers.

  2. Start advanced features by clicking View, and then Advanced Features.

    Bb742433.kerb2(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

    Figure 2: Advanced Features
  3. Locate the account to which you want to create mappings, and right-click to view Name Mappings. This example uses the account jbrezak_proxy.

  4. Click the Kerberos Names mappings tab.

  5. Add a principal from the foreign MIT realm. This example uses teresa@REALM.RESKIT.COM.

    Bb742433.kerb3(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

    Figure 3: Kerberos Name Mapping

Using MIT Sample Applications

The MIT Kerberos Krb5-1.0 distribution media comes with sample applications that demonstrate Kerberos using both the Krb5 and GSS APIs. These sample applications run properly on a UNIX system configured to use the Windows 2000 KDC. The samples are located in the following directories:

  • /krb5-1.0.5/src/appl/sample

  • /krb5/krb5-1.0.5/src/appl/gss-sample

Configure the UNIX host to use the Windows 2000 KDC, create a user account in Active Directory, and set the password on the account. Verify that you can use kinit to authenticate from the UNIX host to the Windows 2000 KDC.

Sample Kerberos Client and Server Application

You can run the sample Kerberos client and server application using the Windows 2000 KDC.

To run the sample Kerberos application

  1. Configure the sserver to start from inetd by making an entry in /etc/services. See the Kerberos version 5 manual page for sserver for more information.

    Create a service instance account in Active Directory. Follow the steps described in the previous section, "Support for Kerberos Services." To summarize, the steps are:

    • Use the Active Directory Management tool to create a user account for the UNIX service and name it sample.

    • Use the Ktpass tool to set up an identity mapping for the host account:

    • C:> ktpass princ service-instance

    • mapuser account-name -pass password

    • -out unixmachine.keytab

    The format of the Kerberos service-instance name is: service/host.realm name., for example:

    sample/unix1.reskit.com

    • Merge the keytab file with the /etc/krb5.keytab file on the UNIX host.

  2. On the UNIX host, use kinit on your user account and use klist to verify that you have a ticket to the krbtgt/DOMAIN.NAME@REALM.NAME principal.

  3. Run the sclient program. Assuming the UNIX host name is pdcunix, the command line (using default values for the [port] and [service] arguments) is:

  4. % sclient unix1

  5. sendauth succeeded, reply is:

  6. reply len 44, contents:

  7. You are user@RESKIT.COM

GSS Sample Client and Server Applications

You can also run the GSS sample application, GSS server, and GSS client using Windows 2000 KDC as the authentication server. As with the Kerberos sample client/server, you can use sample as the service name. See the readme file in the gss-sample directory for more information.

To run the GSS sample client and server application using the Windows 2000 KDC

  1. Use the Windows 2000 sample user account created for the Kerberos sample as described above.

  2. Start the GSS server. Text similar to the following will be displayed.

  3. % gss-server sample &

  4. Start the GSS client:

  5. % gss-client <host> sample "Message"

The following example output shows the result of running the GSS client and server application on UNIX with the Windows 2000 KDC. The user is authenticated as teresa, the host is unix1, and the domain is REALM.RESKIT.COM.

% gss-client unix1 sample "Kerberos interop works great!" 
"teresa@REALM.RESKIT.COM" to 
"sample/unix1.realm.reskit.com@REALM.RESKIT.COM", lifetime 34705, 
flags 36, locally initiated, open 
Name type of source name is { 1 2 840 113554 1 2 2 1 }. 
Mechanism { 1 2 840 113554 1 2 2 } supports 6 names 
0: { 1 2 840 113554 1 2 1 1 } 
1: { 1 2 840 113554 1 2 1 2 } 
2: { 1 2 840 113554 1 2 1 3 } 
3: { 1 2 840 113554 1 2 1 4 } 
4: { 1 2 840 113554 1 2 2 1 } 
5: { 1 2 840 113554 1 2 2 2 } 
Sending init_sec_context token (size=534)...continue needed... 
context flag: GSS_C_MUTUAL_FLAG 
context flag: GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG 
context flag: GSS_C_CONF_FLAG  
context flag: GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG  
Signature verified. 

The MIT Kerberos Krb5-1.0 release of the GSS samples uses DNS reverse name lookups to identify the target server principal name. Therefore, the principal name for the GSS service must be in the form service/host.domain.name, where the domain name must be the same as the Windows 2000 domain name. If your UNIX host DNS domain name is different from the Windows 2000 domain name (they can be the same or different DNS domains), you need to define a DNS name entry for the host.

For example, if the DNS host name is unix1.xxx.reskit.com, the Windows 2000 domain name is RESKIT.COM, and the GSS server principal name is sample/unix1.reskit.com, you would create the following entry in the /etc/hosts file:

x.x.x.x  unix1.reskit.com  unix1.xxx.reskit.com  unix1 
where x.x.x.x is your IP address. 

Note: If the host DNS domain name is different from the Windows 2000 domain DNS name, you might see a GSS client error verifying the data integrity.

Testing GSS API (RFC-1964) Interoperability

You can demonstrate the interoperability between the Windows 2000 Kerberos Security Support Provider and the GSS-Krb5 mechanism by running the Krb5 GSS sample applications on UNIX and a port of the GSS sample applications on Windows 2000.

The source code for the sample applications for the GSS client, and for the GSS server port to Windows 2000 using SSPI are available in the samples area of the Microsoft Windows 2000 SDK CD-ROM. The calls to GSS API were replaced with equivalent calls to SSPI, the corresponding Win32 network security interface.

This example uses the Windows 2000 domain controller as the KDC.

To run the GSS server application using the Windows 2000 KDC

  1. Build the sample application GSS server in the platform SDK.

  2. Use the sample account from the sclient example. (Account password is "password")

  3. Run the SSPI-version of GSS server with the following example command:

  4. c:> gss-server sample/computer.reskit.com password

  5. RESKIT.COM

  6. On the UNIX system, start the GSS client, and specify the Windows 2000 host and service name. Note that the service name is in the form service@Windows NT host DNS name. An example of the command and the subsequent output (from the sample) follows.

  7. % gss-client computer sample@computer.reskit.com

  8. "Kerberos interop works great!"

The output of gssserver running on Windows NT looks similar to the following:

D:\> gssserver 
Usage: gss-server [-port port] [-verbose] 
[-inetd] [-logfile file] [service_name] [service_password] [service_realm] 
D:\> gssserver sample/computer.reskit.com password RESKIT.COM 
context flag: GSS_C_MUTUAL_FLAG 
context flag: GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG 
context flag: GSS_C_CONF_FLAG 
Accepted connection: "RESKIT.COM\teresa" 
Received message: "Kerberos interop works great!" 

You can use Klist to verify the tickets issued by the Windows 2000 KDC for the sample server running on the UNIX system and the Windows 2000 system. The output will be similar to the following:

% klist 
Ticket cache: /tmp/krb5cc_ttyv0 
Default principal: teresa@RESKIT.COM 

Valid starting

Expires

Service principal

12 Sep 97 16:19:49

13 Sep 97 02:18:48

krbtgt/RESKIT.COM@RESKIT.COM

12 Sep 97 16:19:56

13 Sep 97 02:18:48

sample/computer.reskit.com@RESKIT.COM

To run the GSS server application using the Windows 2000 KDC

  1. Build the sample application gssclient in the platform SDK.

  2. Use the sample account from the sclient example.

  3. Run the MIT version of GSS server with the following example command:

  4. $ gss-server sample@krbhost.reskit.com

  5. On the Windows 2000 system, start gssclient.exe to connect with the MIT GSS server.

    C:> gssclient krbhost sample/krbhost.reskit.com Hello

    LoadLib = 77583214
    checking mithost...calling host krbhost, name sample/krbhost.realm.com@REALM.COM, msg "Hello". Sending init_sec_context token (size=2055)...continue needed...

    Block Size is 8, inbuffer = 6
    Signature verified.

    C:> klist tickets
    Cached Tickets:
    Server: krbtgt/RESKIT.COM@ RESKIT.COM
    KerbTicket Encryption Type: KERB_ETYPE_DES_CBC_MD5
    Start Time: 2/22/1999 10:43:49
    End Time: 3/24/1999 10:43:49
    Renew Time: 3/24/1999 10:43:49
    EncryptionType: 3
    TicketFlags: (0x40c00000) forwardable renewable initial
    Server: sample/krbhost.reskit.com@RESKIT.COM
    KerbTicket Encryption Type: KERB_ETYPE_DES_CBC_MD5
    Start Time: 2/22/1999 10:41:18
    End Time: 2/22/1999 20:41:18
    Renew Time: 3/1/1999 10:41:18
    EncryptionType: 3
    TicketFlags: (0x40800000) forwardable renewable

Additional Information

For the latest information on the Windows 2000 network operating system, visit the Windows 2000 website and the Windows NT Forum on the Microsoft Network.

For specific help about installing and using Windows 2000, see Windows 2000 Professional Online Help and Windows 2000 Server Online Help.

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