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How to: Specify PHP Data Types

SQL Server 2008 R2

When using the PDO_SQLSRV driver, you can specify the PHP data type when retrieving data from the server with PDOStatement::bindColumn and PDOStatement::bindParam. See PDOStatement::bindColumn and PDOStatement::bindParam for more information.

The following steps summarize how to specify PHP data types when retrieving data from the server using the SQLSRV driver:

  1. Set up and execute a Transact-SQL query with sqlsrv_query or the combination of sqlsrv_prepare/sqlsrv_execute.

  2. Make a row of data available for reading with sqlsrv_fetch.

  3. Retrieve field data from a returned row using sqlsrv_get_field with the desired PHP data type specified as the optional third parameter. If the optional third parameter is not specified, data will be returned according to the default PHP types. For information about the default PHP return types, see Default PHP Data Types.

    For information about the constants used to specify the PHP data type, see the PHPTYPEs section of Constants (Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server).

The following example retrieves rows from the Production.ProductReview table of the AdventureWorks database. In each returned row the ReviewDate field is retrieved as a string and the Comments field is retrieved as a stream. The stream data is displayed by using the PHP fpassthru function.

The example assumes that SQL Server and the AdventureWorks database are installed on the local computer. All output is written to the console when the example is run from the command line.

<?php
/*Connect to the local server using Windows Authentication and specify
the AdventureWorks database as the database in use. */
$serverName = "(local)";
$connectionInfo = array( "Database"=>"AdventureWorks");
$conn = sqlsrv_connect( $serverName, $connectionInfo);
if( $conn === false )
{
     echo "Could not connect.\n";
     die( print_r( sqlsrv_errors(), true));
}

/* Set up the Transact-SQL query. */
$tsql = "SELECT ReviewerName, 
                ReviewDate,
                Rating, 
                Comments 
         FROM Production.ProductReview 
         WHERE ProductID = ? 
         ORDER BY ReviewDate DESC";

/* Set the parameter value. */
$productID = 709;
$params = array( $productID);

/* Execute the query. */
$stmt = sqlsrv_query($conn, $tsql, $params);
if( $stmt === false )
{
     echo "Error in statement execution.\n";
     die( print_r( sqlsrv_errors(), true));
}

/* Retrieve and display the data. The first and third fields are
retrieved according to their default types, strings. The second field
is retrieved as a string with 8-bit character encoding. The fourth
field is retrieved as a stream with 8-bit character encoding.*/
while ( sqlsrv_fetch( $stmt))
{
   echo "Name: ".sqlsrv_get_field( $stmt, 0 )."\n";
   echo "Date: ".sqlsrv_get_field( $stmt, 1, 
                       SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STRING( SQLSRV_ENC_CHAR))."\n";
   echo "Rating: ".sqlsrv_get_field( $stmt, 2 )."\n";
   echo "Comments: ";
   $comments = sqlsrv_get_field( $stmt, 3, 
                            SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STREAM(SQLSRV_ENC_CHAR));
   fpassthru( $comments);
   echo "\n"; 
}

/* Free statement and connection resources. */
sqlsrv_free_stmt( $stmt);
sqlsrv_close( $conn);
?>

In the example, retrieving the second field (ReviewDate) as a string preserves millisecond accuracy of the SQL Server DATETIME data type. By default, the SQL Server DATETIME data type is retrieved as a PHP DateTime object in which the millisecond accuracy is lost.

Retrieving the fourth field (Comments) as a stream is for demonstration purposes. By default, the SQL Server data type nvarchar(3850) is retrieved as a string, which is acceptable for most situations.

NoteNote

The sqlsrv_field_metadata function provides a way to obtain field information, including type information, before executing a query.

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