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Windows Server 2003 Glossary - B

Updated: March 7, 2008

Applies To: Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2003 with SP2

For more Windows Server terms, see the Windows Server 2008 Glossary.

Glossary - B

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backbone

In Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), an area common to all other OSPF areas that is used as the transit area for inter-area traffic and for distributing routing information between areas. The backbone must be contiguous.

See also: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)   

backbone router

In Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), a router that is connected to the backbone area. This includes routers that are connected to more than one area (area border routers (ABRs)). However, backbone routers do not have to be ABRs. Routers that have all networks connected to the backbone are internal routers.

See also: area border router (ABR)   backbone   Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)   router   

background program

A program that runs while the user is working on another task. The computer`s microprocessor assigns fewer resources to background programs than foreground programs.

See also: foreground program   

backup

A duplicate copy of a program, a disk, or data, made either for archiving purposes or for safeguarding valuable files from loss in case the active copy is damaged or destroyed. Some application programs automatically make backup copies of data files, maintaining both the current version and the preceding version.

backup domain controller (BDC)

A domain controller running Windows NT Server 4.0 or earlier that receives a read-only copy of the directory database for the domain. The directory database contains all account and security policy information for the domain.

See also: Active Directory   mixed mode   primary domain controller (PDC)   

backup media pool

A logical collection of data-storage media that has been reserved for use by Microsoft Windows Backup. Backup uses Removable Storage to control access to specific media within a library.

See also: library   media pool   Removable Storage   

Backup Operators group

A type of local or global group that contains the user rights you need to back up and restore files and folders. Members of the Backup Operators group can back up and restore files and folders regardless of ownership, permissions, encryption, or auditing settings.

See also: auditing   global group   local group   user rights   

backup set

A collection of files, folders, and other data that has been backed up and stored in a file or on one or more tapes.

See also: backup set catalog   on-disk catalog   on-media catalog   

backup set catalog

A summary of the files and folders that have been saved in a backup set.

See also: backup set   

backup types

A type that determines which data is backed up and how it is backed up. There are five backup types: copy, daily, differential, incremental, and normal.

See also: copy backup   daily backup   differential backup   incremental backup   normal backup   

bandwidth

The data transfer capacity of a transmission medium. In digital communications, the transfer capacity expressed in bits per second (bps) or megabits per second (Mbps). For example, Ethernet accommodates a bandwidth of 10,000,000 bps or 10 Mbps. In analog communications, the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies in a specific range. For example, an analog telephone line accommodates a bandwidth of 3,000 hertz (Hz), the difference between the lowest (300 Hz) and highest (3,300 Hz) frequencies that it can carry.

See also: bits per second (bps)   

Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP)

A Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) control protocol that is used on a multiprocessing connection to dynamically add and remove links.

See also: Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)   

BAP

base priority

A precedence ranking that determines the order in which the threads of a process are scheduled for the processor. Use Task Manager to view and change base priorities. For Message Queuing, a property that specifies the queue`s priority in a public queue. You can set the base priority from -32,768 to 32,767; the default priority is 0. Private queues do not support base priority. Message Queuing routes and delivers messages first by base priority, then by message priority.

See also: Message Queuing   private queue   public queue   

Basic authentication

An authentication mechanism that is supported by most browsers, including Internet Explorer. Basic authentication encodes user name and password data before transmitting it over the network. Note that encoding is not the same as encryption. Also known as plaintext authentication.

See also: Anonymous authentication   authentication   Digest authentication   encryption   password   user name   

basic disk

A physical disk that can be accessed by MS-DOS and all Windows-based operating systems. Basic disks can contain up to four primary partitions, or three primary partitions and an extended partition with multiple logical drives.

See also: dynamic disk   extended partition   logical drive   MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)   primary partition   

basic input/output system (BIOS)

The set of essential software routines that test computer hardware at startup, start the operating system, and support the transfer of information between hardware devices. The BIOS is stored in read-only memory (ROM) so that it can be run when the computer is turned on. Although critical to performance, the BIOS is usually invisible to computer users.

See also: Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)   read-only memory (ROM)   x86   

basic storage

A storage method in MS-DOS and Windows for primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives.

See also: dynamic storage   extended partition   logical drive   

basic volume

A primary partition or logical drive that resides on a basic disk.

See also: basic disk   logical drive   primary partition   

batch program

An ASCII (unformatted text) file that contains one or more operating system commands. A batch program`s file name has a .cmd or .bat extension. When you type the file name at the command prompt, or when the batch program is run from another program, its commands are processed sequentially. Also called batch files.

See also: American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)   logon script   

baud rate

The speed at which a modem communicates. Baud rate refers to the number of times the condition of the line changes. This is equal to bits per second only if each signal corresponds to one bit of transmitted data. Modems must operate at the same baud rate in order to communicate with each other. If the baud rate of one modem is set higher than that of the other, the faster modem usually alters its baud rate to match that of the slower modem.

See also: bits per second (bps)   modem (modulator/demodulator)   

B-channel

A single channel of an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) line that is used to carry either voice or data information. ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) has 2 B-channels. ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI) in North America has 23 B-channels. ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI) in Europe has 23 B-channels. Also called bearer channel.

See also: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)   

BDC

See other term: backup domain controller (BDC)  

Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)

An implementation of Domain Name System (DNS) written and ported to most available versions of the UNIX operating system. The Internet Software Consortium maintains the BIND software.

See also: BIND boot file   Domain Name System (DNS)   

BGP

See other term: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)  

binary

A base-2 number system in which values are expressed as combinations of two digits, 0 and 1.

BIND

BIND boot file

A configuration file used by DNS servers running under versions of the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) software implementation. The BIND boot file is a text file, Named.boot, where individual lines in the file list boot directives used to start a service when the DNS server is started. By default, Microsoft DNS servers use DNS service parameters stored in the registry, but they allow the use of a BIND boot file as an alternative for reading boot configuration settings.

See also: Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)   DNS server   registry boot   

bindery

A database in Novell NetWare 3.x that contains organizational and security information about users and groups.

BIOS

See other term: basic input/output system (BIOS)  

B-ISDN

bit (binary digit)

The smallest unit of information handled by a computer. One bit expresses a 1 or a 0 in a binary numeral, or a true or false logical condition. A group of 8 bits makes up a byte, which can represent many types of information, such as a letter of the alphabet, a decimal digit, or other character. Also known as a binary digit.

See also: binary   

bits per second (bps)

The number of bits transmitted every second, used as a measure of the speed at which a device, such as a modem, can transfer data.

See also: modem (modulator/demodulator)   

blank password

A password that does not contain any characters. Also called a null password.

See also: password policy   strong password   weak password   

block inheritance

In Group Policy, the method of preventing a child container from inheriting the policy settings from all parent containers. Block inheritance does not apply to Group Policy object (GPO) links that are enforced.

See also: enforce   Group Policy Management console (GPMC)   Group Policy object link   inheritance   precedence   

boot

The process of starting or resetting a computer. When first turned on (cold boot) or reset (warm boot), the computer runs the software that loads and starts the computer's operating system, which prepares it for use.

boot files

The system files needed to start Windows. The boot files include Ntldr and Ntdetect.com.

See also: partition boot sector   

Boot Information Negotiation Layer service (BINLSVC)

A service that runs on a Remote Installation Services (RIS) server that acts on client boot requests. The display name of BINLSVC is Remote Installation.

See also: Remote Installation Services (RIS)   

Boot Logging

A process in which a computer that is starting (booting) creates a log file that records the loading of each device and service. The log file is called Ntbtlog.txt, and it is saved in the systemroot directory.

See also: systemroot   

boot partition

The partition that contains the Windows operating system and its support files. The boot partition can be, but does not have to be, the same as the system partition.

See also: partition   Primary disk   system partition   

boot volume

The volume that contains the Windows operating system and its support files. The boot volume can be, but does not have to be, the same as the system volume.

See also: system volume   volume   

bootable CD

A CD-ROM that can be used to start a computer. An automated installation uses a bootable CD to start a computer.

BOOTP

See other term: bootstrap protocol (BOOTP)  

BOOTP extensions

A set of optional information types defined originally in RFC 1497 for use with BOOTP service and later supported by DHCP. In DHCP, these extensions form the legacy core set of client parameters available and supported by most standard DHCP and BOOTP servers.

See also: bootstrap protocol (BOOTP)   Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)   Request for Comments (RFC)   

bootstrap protocol (BOOTP)

A protocol used primarily on TCP/IP networks to configure diskless workstations. RFCs 951 and 1542 define this protocol. DHCP is a later boot configuration protocol that uses this protocol. The Microsoft DHCP service provides limited support for BOOTP service.

See also: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)   Request for Comments (RFC)   Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)   

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

A routing protocol designed for use between autonomous systems. BGP is especially useful for detecting routing loops.

See also: autonomous system (AS)   routing   routing protocol   

bps

See other term: bits per second (bps)  

bridgehead server

In Active Directory replication, a single server in a site that is designated to perform site-to-site replication for a specific domain and transport. In a messaging system, a server that receives and forwards e-mail traffic at each end of a connection agreement, similar to the task a gateway performs.

See also: Active Directory   Active Directory replication   gateway   replication   site   

broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN)

An International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication [Standardization Sector] (ITU-T) communication standard for high-speed networking that provides new services, including voice, video, and data on the same network.

See also: International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication [Standardization Sector] (ITU-T)   

broadcast

The transmission of packets by an Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) host to all computers on the subnet.

See also: broadcast address   Internet Protocol (IP)   packet   subnet   

broadcast address

An Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address that is destined for all hosts on a particular network segment.

See also: broadcast   host   Internet Protocol (IP)   IP address   

broadcast and unknown server (BUS)

A multicast service on an emulated local area network (ELAN) that forwards broadcast, multicast, and initial unicast data traffic sent by a LAN emulation client (LEC).

See also: emulated local area network (ELAN)   LAN emulation client (LEC)   service   

broadcast message

A network message sent from a single computer that is distributed to all other devices on the same segment of the network as the sending computer.

broadcast network

A network that supports more than two attached routers and has the ability to address a single physical message to all of the attached routers (broadcast). Ethernet is an example of a broadcast network.

See also: router   

browsing

The process of creating and maintaining an up-to-date list of computers and resources on a network or part of a network by one or more designated computers running the Computer Browser service.

See also: Computer Browser service   

bucket brigade attack

See other term: man-in-the-middle attack  

buffer

An area of memory reserved for temporarily holding data before that data is used by a receiving device or application. Buffering protects against the interruption of data flow.

built-in groups

The default security groups installed with the operating system. Built-in groups have been granted useful collections of rights and built-in abilities. In most cases, built-in groups provide all the capabilities needed by a particular user. For example, members of the built-in Backup Operators group can back up and restore files and folders. To provide a needed set of capabilities to a user account, assign it to the appropriate built-in group.

See also: group   

bus

A communication line used for data transfer among the components of a computer system. A bus essentially allows different parts of the system to share data. For example, a bus connects the disk-drive controller, memory, and input/output ports to the microprocessor.

See also: expansion slot   universal serial bus (USB)   

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