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Windows Server 2003 Glossary - M

Updated: March 7, 2008

Applies To: Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2003 with SP2

For more Windows Server terms, see the Windows Server 2008 Glossary.

Glossary - M

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machine-centric

A service model that requires specific computers and services be used to complete a task. If a user must connect to a specific computer to access a service, then that service is considered machine-centric.

See also: service   service-centric   

Macintosh-accessible volume

Storage space on the server used for folders and files of Macintosh users. A Macintosh-accessible volume is equivalent to a shared folder for Windows users. Each Macintosh-accessible volume on a computer running Services for Macintosh will correspond to a folder. Both Windows users and Macintosh users can be given access to files located in a folder that is designated as both a shared folder and a Macintosh-accessible volume.

See also: shared folder   volume   

Macintosh-style permissions

Folder and volume permissions that are similar to the access privileges used on a Macintosh.

See also: permission   privilege   volume   

majority node set server cluster

A cluster configuration that has two or more nodes and that is configured so that the nodes may or may not be attached to one or more cluster storage devices. The cluster configuration data is stored on multiple disks across the cluster, and the Cluster service makes sure that this data is kept consistent across the different disks. There are advantages and limitations for each cluster configuration (single node server cluster, single quorum device server cluster, and majority node set server cluster).

See also: cluster   cluster storage   node   single node server cluster   single quorum device server cluster   

Make Changes

The Macintosh-style privilege that allows you to change the contents of folders for which you have this privilege. If you have the Make Changes privilege, you can modify, rename, move, create, and delete files in folders for which you have that privilege. When Services for Macintosh translates Macintosh-style privileges into Windows permissions, you are granted Write and Delete permissions for any folders for which you have the Make Changes privilege.

See also: privilege   

malicious program

Any program that is created to do intentional harm to or compromise the security of a computer. Examples of malicious programs include trojan horses and computer viruses.

See also: Trojan horse   virus   

malicious user

(1) A user who intentionally accesses a system with the intent to cause harm to the system or to use it in an unauthorized manner. (2) A person who has legitimate access to a system and poses a security threat to it, such as someone who tries to elevate their user rights to gain access to unauthorized data.

managed volume

A local NTFS file system 5.0 volume whose disk space is managed by Remote Storage. Remote Storage frees up disk space by automatically moving infrequently accessed files to a remote storage device.

See also: local storage   NTFS file system   Remote Storage   volume   

Management and Monitoring Tools

Software components that include utilities for network management and monitoring, along with services that support client dialing and the updating of client phone books. Also included is the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

See also: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)   

management information base (MIB)

A set of objects that represent various types of information about a device, used by Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to manage the device. Because different network management services are used for different types of devices and protocols, each service has its own set of objects.

See also: service   Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)   

management system

A network-enabled host running Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) management software. This software requests information from SNMP agents. Also called a management console.

See also: host   Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)   

mandatory user profile

A user profile that is not updated when the user logs off. It is downloaded to the user's desktop each time the user logs on, and it is created by an administrator and assigned to one or more users to create consistent or job-specific user profiles. Only members of the Administrators group can change profiles.

See also: roaming user profile   user profile   

man-in-the-middle attack

A security attack in which an attacker intercepts and possibly modifies data that is transmitted between two users. The attacker pretends to be the other person to each user. In a successful man-in-the-middle attack, the users are unaware that there is an attacker between them, intercepting and modifying their data. Also referred to as a bucket brigade attack.

See also: security   

map

To translate one value into another. In virtual memory systems, a computer might map a virtual address into a physical address.

See also: virtual memory   

MAPI

See other term: Messaging API (MAPI)  

MARS

master boot record (MBR)

The first sector on a hard disk, which begins the process of starting the computer. The MBR contains the partition table for the disk and a small amount of executable code called the master boot code.

See also: partition boot sector   Recovery Console   

master file table (MFT)

An NTFS system file on NTFS-formatted volumes that contains information about each file and folder on the volume. The MFT is the first file on an NTFS volume.

See also: file allocation table (FAT)   NTFS file system   volume   

master server

In Network Information Service (NIS), a server that provides periodic updates of NIS maps to subordinate servers. A Windows-based master server running Server for NIS can push periodic updates to both UNIX-based and Windows-based subordinate (also known as slave) servers. Master servers running Server for NIS update Server for NIS subordinate servers through an Active Directory database shared with the subordinate server.

master server

An authoritative DNS server for a zone. Master servers can vary and are one of two types (either primary or secondary masters), depending on how the server obtains its zone data.

See also: authoritative   DNS server   primary master   zone   zone transfer   

maximize

To increase the size of a window as much as possible. To maximize a window, double-click the title bar, click the Maximize button (the middle button on the right side of the title bar), or press ALT+SPACEBAR and then press X.

See also: minimize   title bar   

maximum password age

The period of time a password can be used before the system requires the user to change it.

See also: password   

MBR

See other term: master boot record (MBR)  

MCS

See other term: multicast server (MCS)  

MD2

A hash algorithm that creates a 128-bit hash value and was developed by RSA Data Security, Inc.

See also: hash algorithm   

MD4

A hash algorithm that creates a 128-bit hash value and was developed by RSA Data Security, Inc.

See also: hash algorithm   

MD5

An industry-standard one-way, 128-bit hashing scheme, developed by RSA Data Security, Inc., and used by various Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) vendors for encrypted authentication. A hashing scheme is a method for transforming data (for example, a password) in such a way that the result is unique and cannot be changed back to its original form. The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) uses challenge-response with one-way MD5 hashing on the response. In this way, you can prove to the server that you know your password without actually sending the password over the network.

See also: Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)   hash algorithm   MD5   message digest   

media

Any fixed or removable objects that store computer data. Examples include hard disks, floppy disks, tapes, and compact discs.

media access control (MAC) address

The address that is used for communication between network adapters on the same subnet. Each network adapter has an associated MAC address.

See also: multicast media access control (MAC) address   network adapter   subnet   

media master

The original set of files that are copied to a tape or disk from local storage. Remote Storage can make up to three copies of the media master on different storage media. Each copy of the media master is called a copy set.

See also: copy set   media   Remote Storage   

media pool

A logical collection of removable media that have the same management policies. Media pools are used by applications to control access to specific tapes or discs within libraries managed by Removable Storage.

See also: backup media pool   media   Removable Storage   

media sensing

A feature that, when it detects a network cable connection failure, removes the bound protocols from the failed network adapter until the cable connection is reestablished. Without these bound protocols, the network interface connected through the failed network adapter is not available for cluster communication.

See also: network adapter   protocol   

member

For DFS Replication, a server that is part of a replication group.

member server

A server that is joined to a domain but is not a domain controller. Member servers typically function as file servers, application servers, database servers, Web servers, certificate servers, firewalls, or remote access servers.

See also: domain   domain controller   stand-alone server   Web server   

membership

Defines the relationship between each replicated folder/member pair. Each membership has a status, either enabled or disabled.

memory address

A portion of computer memory that can be allocated to a device or used by a program or the operating system. Devices are usually allocated a range of memory addresses.

See also: device   

Memory Usage

In Task Manager, the current working set of a process, in kilobytes. The current working set is the number of pages currently resident in memory. On the Task Manager Processes tab, the column heading is Mem Usage.

See also: Task Manager   

Memory Usage Delta

In Task Manager, the change in memory, in kilobytes, used since the last update.

See also: Task Manager   

message

For Message Queuing, a unit of information sent between computers running Message Queuing. The message can contain text or binary data as defined by the sending application. All messages, including status messages, are stored in queues on Message Queuing computers.

See also: Message Queuing   

Message Authentication Code (MAC)

An algorithm that ensures the quality of a block of data.

message digest

See other term: hash  

Message Queuing

A message queuing and routing system for Windows that enables distributed applications running at different times to communicate across heterogeneous networks and with computers that may be offline. Message Queuing provides guaranteed message delivery, efficient routing, security, and priority-based messaging. Formerly known as MSMQ.

See also: Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MS DTC)   MSMQ   

Message Queuing resource

A resource type that can use Message Queuing in a cluster.

See also: cluster   Message Queuing   resource types   

Message Queuing server

For Message Queuing (formerly known as MSMQ), a computer that can provide message queuing, routing, and directory services to client computers. Message Queuing servers can be used to provide message routing and session concentration for independent clients, provide message routing between sites over routing links, create queues and store messages for dependent clients, and access information in Active Directory (if installed on a Windows domain controller).

See also: Active Directory   dependent client   independent client   MSMQ   routing link   routing services   session concentration   

Messaging API (MAPI)

The application programming interface (API) for which Active Directory provides support for backward compatibility with Microsoft Exchange applications. New applications should use Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI) for accessing Active Directory.

See also: Active Directory   Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI)   application programming interface (API)   

Messenger service

A service that sends and receives messages sent by administrators or by the Alerter service.

See also: Alerter service   performance alert   service   

metadata

Data about data. For example, the title, subject, author, and size of a file constitute the file`s metadata.

metric

A number used to indicate the cost of a route in the Internet Protocol (IP) routing table that enables the selection of the best route among possible multiple routes to the same destination.

See also: Internet Protocol (IP)   routing   

MFT

See other term: master file table (MFT)  

MIB

See other term: management information base (MIB)  

Microcom Networking Protocol Five (MNP5)

A data-compression standard that allows modems to increase throughput by compressing data before transmission. Data can be compressed with a ratio of up to 2:1. MNP5 sometimes expands data that has already been compressed, resulting in poorer performance in those cases. If you have an MNP5 modem, do not turn on modem compression and software compression at the same time. To turn on MNP5 compression, you must also turn on MNP4 error control.

See also: Microcom Networking Protocol Four (MNP4)   

Microcom Networking Protocol Four (MNP4)

An industry-standard communication protocol that allows modems to automatically retransmit corrupted data, assuring that only error-free data passes through the modem. MNP2 and MNP3 standards are included in MNP4.

See also: Microcom Networking Protocol Five (MNP5)   

Microsoft Digest

A security support provider (SSP) that implements the Digest Access protocol. Microsoft Digest provides a simple challenge response mechanism for authenticating clients, and it is intended for use by client/server applications that use communications that are based on Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL).

Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MS DTC)

A transaction manager that coordinates transactions that span multiple resource managers, such as Message Queuing and Microsoft SQL Server. MS DTC is automatically installed when Message Queuing is installed.

See also: Message Queuing   transaction   

Microsoft Management Console (MMC)

A framework for hosting administrative tools called snap-ins. A console might contain tools, folders or other containers, World Wide Web pages, and other administrative items. These items are displayed in the left pane of the console, called a console tree. A console has one or more windows that can provide views of the console tree. The main MMC window provides commands and tools for authoring consoles. The authoring features of MMC and the console tree itself might be hidden when a console is in User Mode.

See also: console tree   details pane   snap-in   

Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE)

A 128-bit key or 40-bit key encryption algorithm using RSA RC4. MPPE provides for packet confidentiality between the remote access client and the remote access or tunnel server, and it is useful where Internet Protocol security (IPSec) is not available. MPPE 40-bit keys are used to satisfy current North American export restrictions. MPPE is compatible with Network Address Translation.

See also: remote access server   tunnel server   

Microsoft Reserved (MSR) partition

A required partition on every GUID partition table (GPT) disk. System components can allocate portions of the MSR partition into new partitions for their own use. For example, when you convert a basic GPT disk to dynamic, the system allocates a portion of the MSR partition to be used as the Logical Disk Manager (LDM) metadata partition. The MSR partition varies in size based on the size of the GPT disk. For disks smaller than 16 GB, the MSR partition is 32 MB. For disks larger than 16 GB, the MSR partition is 128 MB. The MSR partition is not visible in Disk Management, and you cannot store data on the MSR partition or delete it.

See also: GUID partition table (GPT)   partition   

MIDI

MIDI setup

The setup that specifies the type of Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) device you are using, the channel settings needed to play MIDI files, and the port your device is using.

See also: Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)   

minimize

To reduce a window to a button on the taskbar. To minimize a window, click the Minimize button (leftmost button on the right side of the title bar) or press ALT+SPACEBAR and then press N.

See also: maximize   title bar   

minimum password length

The fewest characters a password can contain.

See also: password   

minimum TTL

In DNS, a default Time to Live (TTL) value that is set in seconds and used with all resource records in a zone. This value is set in the start of authority (SOA) resource record for each zone. By default, the DNS server includes this value in query responses. It is used to inform recipients how long they can store and use resource records, which are provided in the query answer, before they must expire the stored records data. When TTL values are set for individual resource records, those values override the minimum TTL.

See also: DNS server   Domain Name System (DNS)   resource record (RR)   start-of-authority (SOA) resource record   Time to Live (TTL)   zone   

mirror

One of the two volumes that make up a mirrored volume. Each mirror of a mirrored volume resides on a different disk. If one mirror becomes unavailable (due to a disk failure, for example), Windows can use the remaining mirror to gain access to the volume`s data.

See also: fault tolerance   mirrored volume   volume   

mirrored volume

A fault-tolerant volume that duplicates data on two physical disks. A mirrored volume provides data redundancy by using two identical volumes, which are called mirrors, to duplicate the information contained on the volume. A mirror is always located on a different disk. If one of the physical disks fails, the data on the failed disk becomes unavailable, but the system continues to operate in the mirror on the remaining disk. You can create mirrored volumes only on dynamic disks on computers running the Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 families of operating systems. You cannot extend mirrored volumes.

See also: dynamic disk   dynamic volume   fault tolerance   RAID-5 volume   volume   

mixed mode

In a Windows 2000 domain, the default domain mode setting. Mixed mode enables Windows NT-based backup domain controllers to coexist with Windows 2000-based domain controllers. Mixed mode does not support universal groups or the nesting of groups. You can change the domain mode setting to native mode when all Windows NT-based domain controllers are removed from a domain. In Windows Server 2003 domains, mixed mode is referred to as "Windows 2000 mixed," and it is one of three domain functional levels available.

See also: Active Directory   backup domain controller (BDC)   domain functionality   native mode   universal group   

MMC

MNP4

MNP5

modem (modulator/demodulator)

A device that enables computer information to be transmitted and received over a telephone line. The transmitting modem translates digital computer data into analog signals that can be carried over a telephone line. The receiving modem translates the analog signals back to digital form.

See also: modem compression   null modem cable   port   Telephony API (TAPI)   Waiting for Call   

modem compression

A technique used to reduce the number of characters transmitted without losing data content. The transmitting modem compresses the data and the receiving computer or modem decompresses the data back to its original state.

See also: modem (modulator/demodulator)   

modulation standards

Protocols that determine how modems convert digital data into analog signals that can be transmitted over telephone lines. Initially, Bell created modulation standards used in the United States, and the CCITT created international recommendations. The ITU-T (formerly called the CCITT) now makes recommendations generally adopted by modem manufacturers both internationally and in the United States. The ITU-T V series recommendations (such as V.34 and V.90) define data communication over the telephone network. The suffixes -bis and -ter (for example, V.32bis) indicate later versions.

See also: International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication [Standardization Sector] (ITU-T)   modem (modulator/demodulator)   protocol   V.34   V.90   

mount

To place a removable tape or disc into a drive.

See also: dismount   library   mounted drive   

mounted drive

A drive attached to an empty folder on an NTFS volume. Mounted drives function the same as any other drive, but are assigned a label or name instead of a drive letter. The mounted drive`s name is resolved to a full file system path instead of just a drive letter. Members of the Administrators group can use Disk Management to create mounted drives or reassign drive letters.

See also: drive   mount   NTFS file system   volume   

MPIO

See other term: Multipath I/O (MPIO)  

MPPE

MPR

See other term: MultiProtocol Routing (MPR)  

MS DTC

MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)

A Microsoft computer operating system with a command-line interface that is used to control many internal computer functions, such as running programs and organizing and maintaining files.

See also: Command Prompt window   MS-DOS-based program   

MS-DOS-based program

A program that is designed to run with MS-DOS and therefore may not be able to take full advantage of all Windows features.

See also: MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)   program information file (PIF)   

MSMQ

The message queuing and routing system for Windows NT 4.0, Windows 95, and Windows 98. For Windows 2000, Windows XP, and the Windows Server 2003 family, this feature is called Message Queuing.

See also: Message Queuing   

multibyte

A character set that may consist of both one-byte and two-byte characters. A multibyte-character string may contain a mixture of single-byte and double-byte characters. Windows Server 2003 DNS uses the Unicode Transformation Format 8 (UTF-8) encoding scheme described in RFC 2044 to interpret and transform multibyte characters into single-byte characters of 8-bit length.

See also: Domain Name System (DNS)   UCS Transformation Format 8 (UTF-8)   

multicast address resolution service (MARS)

A service for resolving multicast IP addresses to the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) addresses of the clients that have joined that multicast group. MARS can work in conjunction with the multicast server (MCS) and clients to distribute multicast data through point-to-multipoint connections.

See also: asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)   IP address   multicast server (MCS)   multicasting   

multicast datagram

An Internet Protocol (IP) datagram sent to a select multicast group of hosts. Each datagram is sent from a single host source for transmission and delivery to multiple host destinations using the Class D IP address reserved for a specified multicast group.

See also: datagram   host   Internet Protocol (IP)   multicasting   

Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)

A protocol used by Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) hosts to report their multicast group memberships to any immediately neighboring multicast routers.

See also: multicasting   protocol   

multicast media access control (MAC) address

A type of media access control address used by multiple, networked computers to receive the same incoming network frames concurrently. Network Load Balancing uses multicast MAC addresses to efficiently distribute incoming network traffic to cluster hosts.

See also: media access control (MAC) address   multicasting   Network Load Balancing   

multicast scope

A range of multicast group IP addresses in the Class D address range that are available to be leased or assigned to multicast DHCP clients by DHCP.

See also: address class   Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)   IP address   lease   multicasting   

multicast server (MCS)

A service that manages zero or more multicast groups and distributes multicast data sent to it by clients of those multicast groups through point-to-multipoint connections.

See also: multicasting   nonhubbed mode   service   

multicasting

The process of sending a message simultaneously to more than one destination on a network.

See also: multicast server (MCS)   

multihomed computer

A computer that has multiple network adapters or that has been configured with multiple IP addresses for a single network adapter.

See also: IP address   network adapter   virtual IP address   

multilink dialing

The combination of two or more physical communications links` bandwidth into a single logical link to increase your remote access bandwidth and throughput by using remote access Multilink. Based on the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard RFC 1990, Multilink combines analog modem paths, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) B-channels, and mixed analog and digital communications links on both your client and server computers. This increases your Internet and intranet access speed and decreases the amount of time you are connected to a remote computer.

See also: bandwidth   B-channel   Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)   

multimaster replication

A replication model in which any domain controller accepts and replicates directory changes. This model differs from single-master replication models, in which one domain controller stores the single modifiable copy of the directory and other domain controllers store backup copies.

See also: domain controller   replication   

multimedia streaming

Playing audio and video immediately as it is downloaded from a network, rather than storing it in a file first.

Multipath I/O (MPIO)

A Microsoft multipathing solution that enables more than one read/write path to a logical unit number (LUN). With MPIO, multipathing is achieved by assigning multiple Fibre Channel host bus adapter ports or multiple iSCSI initiator adapters on a server to the same LUN, and then configuring that server to use MPIO.

multipathing

In storage technologies, a solution that increases availability and path failover by providing multiple paths from a server or cluster to a storage subsystem. In the event that the path being used fails, multipathing logic uses an alternate path for I/O so that applications can still access their data.

multiple boot

A computer configuration that runs two or more operating systems.

See also: dual boot   startup environment   

MultiProtocol Routing (MPR)

A protocol that enables routing over Internet Protocol (IP) and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) networks by connecting local area networks (LANs) or by connecting LANs to wide area networks (WANs).

See also: Internet Protocol (IP)   Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)   local area network (LAN)   wide area network (WAN)   

Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)

A serial interface standard that allows for the connection of music synthesizers, musical instruments, and computers. The MIDI standard is based partly on hardware and partly on a description of the way in which music and sound are encoded and communicated between MIDI devices. The information transmitted between MIDI devices is in a form called a MIDI message, which encodes aspects of sound, such as pitch and volume, as 8-bit bytes of digital information. MIDI devices can be used for creating, recording, and playing back music. Using MIDI, computers, synthesizers, and sequencers can communicate with each other, either keeping time or actually controlling the music created by other connected equipment.

See also: MIDI setup   

My Documents

A folder that provides you with a convenient place to store documents, graphics, or other files you want to access quickly. When you save a file in a program such as WordPad or Paint, the file is automatically saved in My Documents, unless you choose a different folder.

See also: home folder   

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