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Windows 95: Server-Based Setup for Windows 95

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This chapter provides information about the Server-based Setup program, which is used to install Windows 95 source files on a server, and to prepare for installing Windows 95 to run as a shared copy on client computers.

Server-Based Setup: The Basics

Server-based Setup (NETSETUP.EXE) is used to prepare the server to run Windows 95 Setup (SETUP.EXE) on network client computers. Windows 95 provides improved support over Windows 3.x for installing and running a shared copy of Windows 95 (that is, "shared installations"). After installing Windows 95 source files on a server, Server-based Setup can be used to create and manage machine directories, which contain the specific configuration information for each computer on a shared installation. You can also use Server-based Setup to create setup scripts (which are batch files for automated setup), as described in Chapter 5, "Custom, Automated, and Push Installations." Windows 95 supports the following kinds of shared installations:

  • Computers that start from the local hard disk and then run a shared copy of Windows 95 from the server.

  • Computers that start locally from a floppy disk and then run a shared copy of Windows 95 from the server.

  • Diskless workstations that remote boot (sometimes called RIPL or remote IPL) from servers and run a shared copy of Windows 95.

    At the time of the release of Windows 95, the remote-boot option can be used only for diskless workstations on Novell® NetWare® version 3.x and 4.0 networks. Support for remote boot of Windows 95 workstations will be available in upcoming releases of Windows NT. For information about Windows NT support, contact your sales support representative.

Server-based Setup replaces the Administrative Setup process used for Windows 3.x and Windows for Workgroups. The following table compares the actions required on older versions of Windows to the Windows 95 methods.

Methods for Creating Network-based Setup and Shared Installations

Windows for Workgroups

Windows 95

Run setup /a to create a Windows distribution directory on the network

Run Server-based Setup under Windows 95 (netsetup)

Customize INF files for system, desktop, applications, and Program Manager

Create a setup script in MSBATCH.INF format

For shared installations, create network directories and configure shared files

Included automatically as part of Server-based Setup

For shared installations, create correct configuration files and startup disks for each workstation to define settings for MS-DOS, Windows, and networking software

Included automatically as part of the setup script and Windows 95 Setup

Run setup /n on each workstation

Run Windows 95 Setup with setup script (setupmsbatch.inf)

When you use Server-based Setup to create shared installations for computers that start from a floppy disk or for remote-boot workstations that use a disk image on a server, you need to run Setup only once for each type of computer. Server-based Setup can create machine directories for the other similar computers. So you only have to make copies of the startup disk (either the floppy disk or the boot image).

Therefore, for example, for shared installations of Windows for Workgroups on remote-boot workstations, users simply restart their workstations to upgrade to Windows 95. For upgrading shared installations that start from floppy disks, users can upgrade by simply restarting their computers with the new startup disk.

Server-Based Setup: The Issues

The Server-based Setup program is available only on the Windows 95 compact disc in the ADMIN\NETTOOLS\NETSETUP directory. Server-based Setup is not provided on the Windows 95 floppy distribution disks.

Important: Server-based Setup can be run only from a computer running Windows 95.

You cannot run Server-based Setup from Windows 3.1, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT, or MS-DOS.

Typically, shared installations are used where there might be users who need to access various computers for tasks such as point-of-sale data entry. Shared installations are also typically used on enterprise networks with many thousands of similar computers.

The most important consideration in deciding how to run Windows 95 in the corporate environment is the current configuration for workstations running Windows 3.x. If the largest portion of workstations currently run shared Windows, then the upgrade process is straightforward if you continue to use a shared configuration. If you decide to change a workstation to run Windows 95 from the local hard disk, applications must be reinstalled and desktop settings reconfigured in addition to installing the new operating system.

The basic benefits of installing Windows 95 on the local hard disk of a computer include the following:

  • Performance is superior

  • Less network traffic is generated

  • The system can start and continue running if the server is not available

  • The user has more freedom to customize the system, if system policies don't restrict this

The benefits of a shared installation include the following:

  • Little or no hard disk space is required on the local computer

  • Updating drivers for multiple computers is easier

  • The workstation is more secure and operation is safer for novice users, because network logon is required and access to system files is limited (although you can use system policies to enforce the same restrictions for local installations)

Although an entirely shared configuration makes it easy to maintain the system, a shared configuration also means more network traffic and requires larger servers.

The following sections provide some guidelines and summary information for planning the installation process for computers that will run a shared copy of Windows 95. This information supplements that planning and implementation information presented in Chapter 1, "Deployment Planning Guide."

Planning for Machine Directories

For a shared installation on each computer that starts from a floppy disk or a remote-boot disk image, the machine directory is a required network directory that contains the particular files required for that specific configuration. The machine directory contains WIN.COM, the full Registry, and startup configuration files such as SYSTEM.INI.

Both Windows 95 Setup and Server-based Setup can create machine directories automatically, as described in "Task 2: Creating Machine Directories" later in this chapter. For shared installations for floppy disk-based and remote-boot workstations, you need to run Windows 95 Setup only once for each type of computer configuration. Then you can use Server-based Setup to create machine directories for other computers. You can replicate the startup disks (or boot images) for other computers of the same type.

For computers that start from the hard disk, machine directories are optional; however, you must run Windows 95 Setup on each computer that has a hard disk, even if the computer will use a machine directory on the network.

The machine directory is for computer-specific settings. This is different from the individual user directories on Windows NT networks or the individual Mail directories on NetWare networks, which contain user-specific files such as login scripts or user profiles for individual users. Using machine directories offers several benefits:

  • Computer-specific settings are saved in a central location, rather than with user-specific settings. So the correct configuration is available for the particular computer, no matter which user logs on.

  • A single boot image on the network (or single version of the floppy startup disk) can be used to start several computers.

  • The administrator can easily create and replicate shared Windows 95 installations for new computers from a central location, often without having to run Windows 95 Setup repeatedly.

Windows 95 files for a shared installation are stored in the locations described in the following table.

File location

Description

Startup disk

Contains the real-mode software necessary to start the computer and connect to the shared Windows directory, including the mini Registry used to start the computer. The startup disk for a shared installation can be a local hard disk, a floppy disk, or a remote-boot disk image stored on a server.

Machine directory

Contains files specific to a particular computer (not a particular user), including the full Registry. This also includes the default USER.DAT file, which is updated with the user's personal USER.DAT if user profiles are enabled on the network. The machine directory can exist on any shared network resource. Machine directories must exist on the network for computers that start from a floppy disk or for remote-boot workstations, and are created locally by default for shared installations on computers that have hard disks.

Shared Windows 95 directory on a server

Contains all the shared Windows 95 files. This directory is marked read-only automatically during installation of the source files.

Planning for Shared Installations

This section summarizes some technical issues related to shared installations of Windows 95.

Technical issues for all network clients on shared installations.

Network logon is required before running Windows 95 on shared installations, because network connectivity is required before Windows 95 can run across the network. This can be a generic logon, rather than specific user logon. For more information, see "Configuring Shared Installations."

  • One Windows 95 software license is required for each computer that will run Windows 95.

  • Because most or all of the Windows 95 files are located on the server for shared installations, loading the shared Windows 95 components increases network traffic.

  • Each client computer must use all 32-bit, protected-mode networking components or all 16-bit, real-mode components, not a combination of real-mode and protected-mode components.

    Important: After Windows 95 installation is complete, all path statements in login scripts must specify Windows 95 locations, and not Windows 3.x or MS-DOS. Make sure that path variables are set correctly in login scripts to avoid unexpected behavior.

Technical issues for Microsoft protected-mode clients.

These issues are important in your planning for shared installations that use Microsoft Client for NetWare Networks or Client for Microsoft Networks:

  • Each client computer must use all 32-bit, protected-mode networking components. For example, a computer running a shared installation cannot run a network client such as Microsoft Client for NetWare Networks using ODI network adapter drivers.

  • Real-mode components are required for the first connection to the network during system startup. Microsoft TCP/IP in Windows 95 runs only in protected mode, so the computer must load an IPX/SPX or NetBEUI protocol to make the real-mode connection to the network. After the system loads and switches to protected mode, then Microsoft TCP/IP can be used. Real-mode versions of NetBEUI and IPX/SPX-compatible protocols are built into the real-mode software that is used to make the first connection to the server before Windows 95 starts.

  • You cannot use existing NDIS 2.x or ODI drivers to support protected-mode networking clients. For either Client for NetWare Networks or Client for Microsoft Networks, the network adapter must have an NDIS 3.1 driver (although an NDIS 2 driver is used for the first connection to the server during system startup).

  • For protected-mode network clients, you cannot use a PCI network adapter or ISA adapters on a PCI computer for system startup over the network. This is because PCI adapters do not start until the second booting of Windows 95. For shared installations, the adapter must start on the first boot.

    Note: If a computer has an IBM 16/4 token-ring adapter and has been using ODI drivers, Windows 95 Setup uses the existing ODI driver by default. To use this adapter with a 32-bit, protected-mode network client, you must remove the existing ODI driver and replace it with the Windows 95 NDIS 3.1 driver for the IBM 16/4 token-ring adapter. For information about the specific statements for installing the NDIS 3.1 driver for this adapter as part of a setup script, see Appendix D, "MSBATCH.INF Parameters."

Technical issues for other network clients.

Client computers can run a shared copy of Windows 95 from a server using real-mode network software other than the Microsoft real-mode networking software used for system startup. However, computers that don't use the Microsoft real-mode network software for system startup cannot use protected-mode network clients (such as Client for Microsoft Networks or Client for NetWare Networks).

Shared installation requirements.

Server-based Setup operates on one server at a time. You specify a particular server where Windows 95 files are to be installed and where related machine directories will be created for shared installations.

However, the machine directories do not need to be created on the same server where the Windows 95 files are installed. In fact, to balance the network load, you might prefer to designate specific servers to maintain the Windows 95 source files, and other servers to contain the machine directories and login scripts. Typically, you need to make Windows 95 source files available from multiple servers, both to provide fault tolerance and to reduce network traffic.

On the server, 90 MB of hard disk space is required for the Windows 95 source files. The following summarizes the disk space required for each machine directory on a shared installation, not including the swap file space requirements.

Startup type

Server space required for machine directory

Hard disk

1.5 MB (machine directories are optional)

Floppy

2 MB

Remote boot

2 MB

The following table summarizes the disk space and memory requirements for client computers running Windows 95.

Recommended Client System Configuration for Windows 95

Windows 95 location

Disk space

Memory

 

 

Protected-mode1

Real-mode2

Local hard-disk startup, local Windows 95

20 MB

8 MB (4 MB)3

8 MB (4 MB)

Local hard-disk startup, Windows 95 on a server

2 MB (1 MB4)

8 MB (4 MB)

8 MB (4 MB)

Floppy-disk startup, Windows 95 on a server

1.2 MB floppy drive

8 MB (4 MB)

8 MB (4 MB)

Remote-boot startup, Windows 95 on a server

0

8 MB (6 MB)

8 MB (4 MB)

1 Microsoft Client for NetWare Networks or Client for Microsoft Networks.

2 For example, Novell NetWare NETX real-mode client.

3 The first number indicates recommended memory; the second value is the minimum requirement.

4 If this configuration uses a machine directory on a server, only the Registry and basic files are local.

Swap file requirements for shared installations.

By default, the swap file for a shared installation is stored in the machine directory. For floppy-disk and remote-boot computers, this means that all paging occurs across the network. If computers configured for floppy-disk or remote-boot startup have hard disks, you will see noticeable performance improvements is the swap file is placed on the hard disk.

To change the location for the swap file, add the entry pagingfile=c:\win386.swp in the [386Enh] section of the SYSTEM.INI file stored in the machine directory. You can add this setting automatically using an [Install] section in the setup script, as described in Appendix D, "MSBATCH.INF Parameters."

The swap file size requirements vary, depending on the amount of RAM in the client computer, the number and kinds of applications that are run, and other factors. For guidelines on swap file size, see Chapter 17, "Performance Tuning."

Server-Based Setup: An Overview

To install Windows 95 source files on the network and create setup scripts, you must run Server-based Setup under Windows 95, and follow the instructions to do the following:

  • Copy the Windows 95 source files onto the server, as described in "Task 1: Copying Windows 95 Files to a Server" later in this chapter.

    This is the only step required to make Windows 95 source files available for running Windows 95 Setup from a network source.

  • For shared installations, create a machine directory for each computer, as described in "Task 2: Creating Machine Directories" later in this chapter. This step is required for floppy disk-based and remote-boot installations. For computers that start from the hard disk, you must run Windows 95 Setup on each computer, even if the computer will use a machine directory on the network.

  • Create setup scripts for automated installation of Windows 95 on client computers, as described in Chapter 5, "Custom, Automated, and Push Installations."

The following illustration summarizes the main tasks that are performed using Server-based Setup.

Cc751082.rk04_01(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

After you have completed these preliminary tasks, you can run Windows 95 Setup to complete the installation, as described in "Installing Windows 95 for Shared Installations" later in this chapter.

Note: Run Windows 95 Setup from the directory where SETUP.EXE is stored. In Windows 3.x, you had to switch to the directory you were setting up before running setup /n. This is no longer necessary in Windows 95.

The files that make up Server-based Setup are uncompressed files in the ADMIN\NETTOOLS\NETSETUP directory on the Windows 95 compact disc. The program can be run directly from the compact disc, which is the recommended method.

Task 1: Copying Windows 95 Files to a Server

To place the Windows 95 source files on a server, you must run the Server-based Setup program. Using netsetup replaces the setup /a method used for Windows 3.x and Windows for Workgroups.

Note: The procedures for Task 1 are the only steps you need to complete if you want to place Windows 95 source files on a server for installation on computers that will run Windows 95 from their local hard disks.

You can install the source files for shared Windows 95 installation on one of the following networks:

  • Banyan® VINES® 5.52

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server

  • Novell NetWare 3.x and 4.x

You can also place the Windows 95 source files on servers for installing Windows 95 locally on the following kinds of networks:

  • Artisoft® LANtastic® 5.x

  • DEC™ PATHWORKS™

  • IBM® OS/2® LAN Server 1.2 or greater

  • Microsoft LAN Manager 2.x

  • Microsoft Windows 95 peer server (for Microsoft or NetWare networks)

  • SunSoft™ PC-NFS® 5.0

To get ready to copy Windows 95 source files on to a server

  • From the network administrator's computer, log on to the network file server where you will place the Windows 95 source files.

    Make sure you log on with security privileges that allow you to create directories and copy files on the network file server.

To run Server-based Setup

  1. Run Windows 95.

  2. Insert the Windows 95 compact disc in the CD-ROM drive, and make sure that it is the active drive. Then switch to the ADMIN\NETTOOLS\NETSETUP directory.

  3. In Windows Explorer, double-click NETSETUP.EXE.

    The Server-Based Setup dialog box appears so that you can begin installing source files and other tasks.

The Server-Based Setup dialog box shows the currently selected server where source files are to be installed.

Cc751082.rk04_02b(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

The following procedure summarizes the steps for installing source files using Server-based Setup. The following sections provide details about the steps required to set up the server.

To install Windows 95 source files on a server

  1. In the Server-Based Setup dialog box, click the Set Path button, and then specify the server path. Then click OK.

    The button name becomes Change Path if a server path was defined previously.

    Click Install. Server-based Setup presents a series of dialog boxes so that you can complete these actions:

    • Set the server path where the source files are to be installed

    • Specify how users can install Windows 95 from the server — on a local hard disk, as a shared copy, or as the user chooses

    • Install Windows 95 source files in the shared directory you specify

    • Specify whether you want to create a default setup script, and then define the settings in the script, if you choose to create one

    • Provide a CD Key number for product identification

Tip After installing the Windows 95 source files in a network directory, make sure to copy any required VxDs or DLLs from other vendors into the appropriate Windows 95 subdirectory on the server. For information, see Chapter 5, "Custom, Automated, and Push Installations."

Selecting the Server

In the Server-Based Setup dialog box, the Set Server Install Path box shows the mapped drive or the UNC path for the selected server.

To define the path where source files will be installed

  1. In the Server-Based Setup dialog box, click Set Path (or Change Path, if a path has already been set).

  2. In the Server Path dialog box, type the drive letter for a mapped drive or the UNC path to the server where you want to install Windows 95 source files. Then click OK.

    For example, if the server where you want to install the files is named NWSVR1 and the share is WIN95SRC, type:

    \\nwsvr1\win95src
    

    Notice that you can specify a UNC path for a NetWare server if you are already attached to that server.

If you specify a subdirectory on the server and that directory does not already exist, Server-based Setup asks if you want to create the directory, and then completes this action if you confirm the message.

If you have insufficient privileges for connecting to or creating a directory on the specified server, a message warns you. You can specify another server, or quit Server-based Setup and log on using an account that has sufficient privileges on the specified server.

When Server-based Setup is set to a new path, it looks for the Registry file (NETSETUP.POL) that it uses to track which computers have been set up. Each time you use Server-based Setup to create a machine directory, an entry is added to this file. No entry is added when a user runs Windows 95 Setup from that shared directory.

Note: NETSETUP.POL is read only by Server-based Setup to create MSBATCH.INF. You cannot run System Policy Editor to read or modify NETSETUP.POL. Also, you cannot edit MSBATCH.INF using Server-based Setup; you must edit setup scripts using a text editor.

Setting the Destination Path and Installation Policy

After you set the server name, you can install the Windows 95 source files on that server. You must specify the source and destination paths for copying the source files, and set the installation policy that specifies whether users running Windows 95 Setup from this server are installing Windows 95 to run from their local hard disk or are preparing to run a shared copy from the server.

To set the destination path and installation policy for a server

  1. In the first Server-Based Setup dialog box, click the Install button to display the Source Path dialog box.

    Server-based Setup stores the settings made in this dialog box in the default MSBATCH.INF file created as part of the Server-based Setup process.

    Cc751082.rk04_04(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

  2. Select an installation policy option as described in the following table.

    Installation policy

    Resulting installation capability

    Server

    Allows only shared installation of Windows 95. Select this option if the source files on this server are to be used by client computers to run a shared copy of Windows 95.

    Local Hard Disk

    Allows installation only on a local hard disk. Select this option if all Windows 95 files are to be stored on each computer's local hard disk.

    User's Choice

    Prompts the user to specify either shared or local installation. Select this option if you are allowing users to choose whether to run a shared installation, or if you are using setup scripts to install different types of installations using the same source files.

    If you select either User's Choice or Local Hard disk, you will not be prompted to specify machine directories. If you do not define machine directories, Setup will use a default machine directory. For information about creating machine directories, see "Task 2: Creating Machine Directories" later in this chapter.

  3. In the Path To Install From box, type the path for the source of the Windows 95 distribution files.

    The first time you install the source files, this is the path to the CD-ROM drive and directory that contains the source files on the Windows 95 compact disc.

    If you subsequently install source files on other servers, you can specify the path to a network directory that contains the Windows 95 source files.

  4. In the Path To Install To box, type the path to the directory where the Windows 95 source files are to be installed.

    This must be a directory on the selected server where you want to copy the source files. (Server-based Setup will create the directory if it does not already exist on the server.)

    For both Path boxes, you can either type a drive and directory path or specify a UNC path name.

  5. Click OK to continue to the next part of Server-based Setup.

Creating a Default Setup Script

Server-based Setup can create a default setup script automatically by storing the setup options you specify in an MSBATCH.INF file that is placed with the Windows 95 source files on the server. This default setup script can be used to install Windows 95 on individual computers, or it can be used as a template to create other versions of the setup script.

This section summarizes the procedural steps related to creating a default script while installing Windows 95 source files on a server. For information about making a script based on choosing the Make Script button in the Server-Based Setup dialog box, see Chapter 5, "Custom, Automated, and Push Installations." For information about the specific settings in MSBATCH.INF, see Appendix D, "MSBATCH.INF Parameters."

When you click OK in the Source Path dialog box after specifying the destination path and installation policy option, Server-based Setup automatically prompts you to specify whether a default setup script should be created. If you choose to create a default script, it will be saved as MSBATCH.INF on the server.

The decision about whether to create a default setup script depends on the following:

  • Principally, whether you want to control installation settings for users who install Windows 95 from this server

  • Whether you want to use the default settings to create custom scripts

  • Whether you previously created a setup script and do not require a new default script

To continue with Server-based Setup without creating a default script

  • In the Source Path dialog box, click OK. Then, in the Create Default dialog box, click the Don't Create Default button to begin installing Windows 95 source files on the server.

Cc751082.rk04_05(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

To create a default script for automating Windows 95 Setup

  1. In the Create Default dialog box, click the Create Default button.

    Server-based Setup displays the SBS Default Policies page for creating an MSBATCH.INF file that contains the specific configuration settings.

  2. Click options to check all the components you want to define in the setup script and, where required, type values in the Settings box. After you have defined all components for the script, click OK.

    For information about the values defined in the setup script, see Appendix D, "MSBATCH.INF Parameters."

Some options require that you select or type additional information in the Settings box at the bottom of this dialog box.

Cc751082.rk04_06(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

Notice that although Server-based Setup uses the System Policy Editor user interface, this procedure does not create system policies. Only a setup script is created.

Installing Files on the Server

After you complete all choices for a default setup script, Server-based Setup prompts you to supply the CD Key identification number. You can find the 10-digit CD Key number on the yellow sticker on the Windows 95 compact disc case.

When Server-based Setup has all the information it needs, it installs Windows 95 source files on the selected server, performing the following tasks:

  • Windows 95 source files are copied to the server, using the same hierarchical directory structure used when files are copied to the hard disk.

  • An MSBATCH.INF file is created on the server, based on the default computer settings. This setup script is used whenever users run Windows 95 Setup from the shared directory on the server without specifying the filename for another setup script.

When Server-based Setup is finished, the server should have the following directory structure (rather than the flat directory structure created by the Windows 3.x setup /a command):

destination directory
Command
Config
Cursors
Fonts
Inf
Media
Progra~1
Access~1
Themic~1
Micros~1
Shellnew
System
Color
Iosubsys
Viewers
Vmm32

Note: Windows 95 source files and other shared system files are marked read-only automatically during installation of the source files. You do not need to use the NetWare FLAG command or any other procedure to set sharable attributes.

Task 2: Creating Machine Directories

When you run Windows 95 Setup to create a shared installation for a client computer, information is stored in the client computer's machine directory (not in individual users' home directories). The machine directory contains the following kinds of configuration information:

  • Appropriate initialization and configuration files (including WIN.INI and SYSTEM.INI)

  • SYSTEM.DAT and USER.DAT files, which make up the Registry for the shared installation

  • Files that define the Desktop, Start menu directories, and other programs

  • The spool directory for printing

For floppy disk-based and remote-boot computers, the swap file and TEMP directory are also placed in the machine directory. You must create machine directories on a server for floppy disk-based and remote-boot shared installations. Using machine directories is optional for computers with hard disks that are running a shared version of Windows 95.

You can set up the machine directory for a single computer or specify the filename of a text file that defines machine directories for multiple computer names.

To specify machine directories for multiple computers

  1. Create a text file that contains a list of computer names with the related location of machine directories that are to contain Windows 95 computer-specific files.

    In this text file, the entry for each machine directory must appear on a separate line, in the following format:

    computername,\\UNC_server_name\directory\machine_directory
    

    For example:

    machine1,\\nwsvr1\netsetup\machine1   
    machine2,\\nwsvr1\netsetup\machine2
    
  2. Save the file in text-only (ASCII) format, using any filename and storing it in any shared directory.

To create machine directories using Server-based Setup

  1. In the Server-Based Setup dialog box, click Set Path (or Change Path), and specify the path for the server that contains the Windows 95 source files. Then click OK.

  2. Click the Add button.

    Cc751082.rk04_07(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

    In the Set Up Machine dialog box, click an option to specify whether you are adding a single machine directory or multiple directories:

    • If you want to add a machine directory for a single computer, click Set Up One Machine. Then specify the name of the computer and the path to its machine directory.

    • If you want to add multiple machine directories using a batch file, click Set Up Multiple Machines. Then type the path and filename of the batch file that contains the list of computer names and machine directories. (This is the file created in the previous procedure.)

      If the file is stored on another server, type the UNC path to the directory.

  3. If you want Server-based Setup to create setup scripts based on the values set in this dialog box and the default script created in Task 1, make sure the related Generate Setup Script option is checked.

  4. If you want to create a shared installation based on the configuration in an existing machine directory, specify that directory in the box named Existing Machine Directory.

    You can see a list of the machine directories created in the currently selected server by clicking the View button in the Server-based Setup dialog box.

  5. After you have specified all the options you want, click OK.

Server-based Setup creates the specified machine directories and, if you specified that a setup script should be created, it stores a setup script in each machine directory.

Tip for Setting Up Machine Directories

The best way to take advantage of Server-based Setup for setting up multiple computers is to specify options and run Windows 95 Setup to create a shared installation for one computer. Then, for each group of computers that have the same network adapter and that will start a shared copy of Windows 95, you can use the Set Up Machine dialog box to automatically create machine directories for all computers of the same type.

By using Server-based Setup in this way, you only need to run Windows 95 Setup once for each type of computer configuration. Setup will automatically create machine directories and copy the main Windows 95 files, such as the Registry files, INI files, program groups, and so on, to each new machine directory. For each machine directory, Setup also updates the Registry to set the correct path to the machine directory and to prepare the Run-Once actions to convert program groups and complete other actions.

Installing Windows 95 for Shared Installations

Each computer that starts from a hard disk must run Windows 95 Setup. For remote-boot workstations or floppy disk-based computers, run Windows 95 Setup once for each class of computers — that is, workstations that have identical network adapter configurations. Similar computers can then use their own machine directories with the startup floppy disk or boot image to run Windows 95.

The setup script tells Windows 95 Setup what kind of installation is allowed, based on the installation policy specified in Server-based Setup. The script can force a local hard-disk installation or a shared installation, or allow either. If the script is set to allow either, Setup asks the user to specify a shared or local installation.

Notice, however, that Windows 95 can be installed for remote-boot workstations only by specifying RPLSetup=1 in the [Network] section of a setup script.

For shared installations, you can use the default version of MSBATCH.INF stored on the server plus a list of computer names and machine directories to generate a setup script for each client computer. You can also create custom setup scripts using the MSBATCH.INF format. Also, you can archive setup scripts, in case you need to run Setup again for a particular computer (for example, if the Registry becomes corrupted and cannot be restored).

The appropriate setup script is specified as a command-line parameter when running Windows 95 Setup. You can use the following basic approaches for installing Windows 95 with setup scripts, as described in Chapter 5, "Custom, Automated, and Push Installations":

  • Run Windows 95 Setup with a setup script from the command line; for example:

    setup n:\bob\bob.inf

  • Use a login script that includes a command line to run Setup with a setup script, automatically installing Windows 95 when the user logs on

  • Use Microsoft Systems Management Server or network management software from other vendors to run Windows 95 Setup with a setup script

When Windows 95 Setup runs with a setup script, Setup performs the following for both local hard-disk and shared installations:

  • Detects and configures the hardware, storing the configuration in the computer's machine directory

  • Prompts the user to specify or change any settings that are not defined in the setup script

For shared installations, the following additional installation tasks are performed:

  • If DisplayWorkstationSetup=1 is specified in the setup script, Setup prompts the user for the path to the machine directory, if a path isn't specified in the setup script

  • Setup creates the startup disk (or boot image), as described in "Configuring Shared Installations"

  • If a protected-mode network client is to be used, Setup configures the system for making the transition from real-mode networking

Configuring Shared Installations

The following sections present information about the specific configuration files for each type of shared installation.

The default settings defined in MSDOS.SYS will also affect system startup on shared installations. For information about these defaults and how to change settings, see Chapter 6, "Setup Technical Discussion."

Important: After Windows 95 is installed, make sure that all path statements in login scripts specify Windows 95 locations, and not Windows 3.x or MS-DOS. Unexpected behavior or system instability can occur when erroneous path variables are set in login scripts.

Configuring Shared Installations for Protected-Mode Clients

For shared installations, Windows 95 Setup adds the following basic kinds of entries in AUTOEXEC.BAT for computers that will run a shared copy of Windows 95 and use basic Microsoft networking for the first connection to the server:

snapshot
net start redir
net use drive: \\server\shared_source
net use drive: \\server\share\machine_dir
setmdir

If AUTOEXEC.BAT previously included net start or net init statements, Windows 95 Setup adds the commands for a shared installation at the same location. If AUTOEXEC.BAT included command lines for MS-DOS – based utilities before the net start entry, you must place these after net start for an AUTOEXEC.BAT file to be used with Windows 95.

For example, the earlier version of AUTOEXEC.BAT might contain these statements:

doskey
net start

Windows 95 Setup would change this AUTOEXEC.BAT to contain these statements:

drive:\sharreddir\doskey
net start basic
net logon /y

You must then manually edit AUTOEXEC.BAT to move the doskey statement after the net statements.

The SNAPSHOT.EXE utility called in AUTOEXEC.BAT is a real-mode program that prepares for the transition to protected-mode networking. A protected-mode counterpart (SNAPSHOT.VXD, stored in the shared Windows SYSTEM directory) uses this information to load the protected-mode network client. The following list shows command-line parameters that Setup might add in AUTOEXEC.BAT.

Snapshot Parameters

Parameter

Description

/B: n

Sets n as the boot drive, where n is a drive letter A through Z. Usually this is set to /b:c.

/M: n

Sets the amount of memory to reserve for the real-mode network, where n is a number in kilobytes. The default is 160K.

/S

Enables shutdown trapping, which causes Snapshot to intercept the Windows shutdown process and restart the workstation as soon as it is disconnected from the network. This parameter is used for floppy disk-based and remote-boot computers that use swap files on the network.

/R

Indicates that this is a diskless workstation has no floppy disk drives. (On some remote-boot computers, the BIOS reports drives A and B when these drives don't exist; this parameter solves that problem.)

/V

Sets verbose mode.

The net start command includes either the basic or nwredir parameter to start real-mode Microsoft networking. For either parameter (and any type of network), the net use command is then used to connect to make the initial network connection. The user is prompted for a user name and password for this real-mode connection. Otherwise, you can modify AUTOEXEC.BAT to use a generic logon for this first connection.

Note: If the computer uses more than one network client, the first client specified in the clients= entry in the setup script will be used to run Windows 95. If the first client specified in clients= is a Windows 95 protected-mode client, then that client is used with the net start command.

The net use entries in AUTOEXEC.BAT map drives for the shared Windows 95 files and the machine directory for the computer. The setmdir command (that is, Set Machine Directory) searches for MACHINES.INI in the shared Windows 95 directory to locate an entry that specifies the path to the machine directory that contains the full Registry for this computer. For more information, see "Technical Notes on MACHINES.INI and SETMDIR."

The startup disk for a shared installation contains all the software required to connect to the network and start Windows 95. One startup disk can be used for computers with the same kinds of network adapters and settings. The same configuration can be used to run a shared copy of Windows 95 on remote-boot workstations with similar hardware configurations.

For computers that start from floppy disks, the contents of the startup disk fit on a 1.2 MB floppy disk. After Setup, you should make sure that the startup disk is write-protected. The software on the disk does not require writing information to the startup disk.

Configuring a Computer that Starts from a Hard Disk

If you want to run a shared copy of Windows 95 on a computer that starts from its local hard disk, the setup script should contain the following entries:

[network]
WorkstationSetup=1
HDBoot=1

In this case, if there is a hard disk present on the computer with sufficient space for the required files, Windows 95 Setup creates the configuration required to start the computer from the Windows directory on the local hard disk and run a shared copy from the network.

Optionally, if the entry DisplayWorkstationSetup=1 is specified in the setup script, the user can choose to create a local installation or a shared installation of Windows 95. For a shared installation, the user must specify the path for the machine directory.

For a computer that starts from a hard disk and uses Client for Microsoft Networks, AUTOEXEC.BAT is set up as follows for a shared installation:

snapshot.exe 
net start basic
net logon /savepw:no /y
net use x: \\server\share

For computers running a NetWare-compatible client as the default network client, AUTOEXEC.BAT is as follows:

snapshot.exe 
net start nwredir 
net use drive: \\server\directory

The following shows an example of AUTOEXEC.BAT for a computer that starts from its local hard disk:

snapshot
c:\windows\net start nwredir
c:\windows\net use * /d
c:\windows\net use r: \\nwsvr\sys
path c:\windows;r:\sbsdist;r:\sbsdist\command
set tmp=c:\windows
set temp=c:\windows

Setup creates a machine directory and copies the following files to the machine directory:

  • WIN.COM

  • All initialization files, including WIN.INI and SYSTEM.INI

  • USER.DAT

    Notice that the USER.DAT portion of the Registry must be in the machine directory for user profiles to work. During network logon, Windows 95 copies the correct USER.DAT to use if user profiles are enabled.

    Setup places SYSTEM.DAT on the local hard disk.

Because all Windows 95 source files are on the server, Setup does not need to copy Windows 95 locally as it does for installation on a local hard disk. The File Copy step in Setup should only copy about 2 MB of files.

For shared installations on computers with hard disks, Setup modifies the Windows 95 startup disk by changing the boot sector and copying new IO.SYS, COMMAND.COM, and MSDOS.SYS files. The files in the following list are copied to the startup disk.

Files on Startup Disk for Shared Installations on Hard-Disk Computers

autoexec.bat
command.com
config.sys
himem.sys
ifshlp.sys
io.sys

msdos.sys
ndishlp.sys
net.exe
net.msg
neth.msg
protman.dos

protman.exe
protocol.ini
snapshot.exe
system.dat
NDIS 2 adapter driver

For a client computer that contains a hard disk, the swap file and TEMP directory are stored on the local hard disk. To change the location for the swap file in this configuration, add a pagingfile=path entry in the [386Enh] section of the SYSTEM.INI file that is stored in the machine directory.

Configuring a Computer that Starts from a Floppy Disk

If you want to run a shared copy of Windows 95 on a computer that starts from a floppy disk, the setup script should contain the following entries:

[network]
WorkstationSetup=1
HDBoot=0
RPLSetup=0

Windows 95 Setup creates the configuration required to start the computer from a floppy-based startup disk and run a shared copy from the network. Setup also creates this configuration if HDBoot=1 is specified but there is no hard disk present or there is insufficient space on the hard disk to install the required files.

Note: You must add an entry for the client computer in MACHINES.INI before that computer can start Windows 95.

For shared installations on floppy disk-based computers, Setup creates a mini Registry in a machine directory on the startup floppy disk. This reduced version of the computer's SYSTEM.DAT file contains only the information needed by IO.SYS and the real-mode network that makes the initial connection to the server. After connecting to the machine directory on the network, Windows 95 uses the full Registry stored there.

The swap file and TEMP directory are also stored in the machine directory for a client computer that starts from a floppy disk. To change the location for the swap file in this configuration, add a pagingfile=path entry in the [386Enh] section of the SYSTEM.INI file that is stored in the machine directory.

The following shows an example of AUTOEXEC.BAT for a computer that starts from a floppy disk to run Windows 95 from a NetWare server:

snapshot
net start nwredir
net use * /d
net use r: \\server\share
setmdir
path=sbsdist;r:\sbsdist\command

Note: Do not include the machine directory in the path. The setmdir command manages this requirement automatically.

Windows 95 Setup creates the startup floppy disk by modifying the boot sector and copying IO.SYS. After Setup, make sure that the startup disk for this configuration is write-protected. The following table lists the files on the startup disk for this configuration.

Files on the Startup Disk for a Shared Installation on a Floppy-Disk Computer

autoexec.bat
config.sys
command.com
himem.sys
ifshlp.sys
io.sys

msdos.sys
ndishlp.sys
net.exe
net.msg
neth.msg
protman.dos

protman.exe
protocol.ini
snapshot.exe
system.dat (mini version)
NDIS 2 adapter driver

Configuring a Remote-Boot Workstation for Client for NetWare Networks

Windows 95 can be installed on remote-boot workstations that start from Novell NetWare 3.x and 4.x servers. Remote-boot workstations contain a Remote Boot PROM that queries the network for instructions. Before installing Windows 95 to run on a remote-boot workstation, you should first make sure that the workstation successfully starts and runs with ODI drivers over RIPL.

If you want to run a shared copy of Windows 95 on a remote-boot workstation, the setup script should contain the following entries:

[network]
WorkstationSetup=1
HDBoot=0
RPLSetup=1

Windows 95 Setup creates the configuration required for starting and running a shared copy wholly from the network. Setup also creates this configuration on computers with NetWare-compatible clients if HDBoot=1 is specified but there is no hard disk or floppy drive present or there is insufficient space on the hard disk to install the required files.

At system startup for a remote-boot workstation that will run Microsoft Client for NetWare Networks, the network provides instructions to create a RAM drive and then copies a disk image from the server to the workstation's RAM drive. Then the workstation continues booting from the RAM drive. The RAM drive is removed from memory after the operating system switches to protected mode. Windows 95 Setup creates the disk image that is copied from the server to the workstation's RAM drive. For information about customizing boot images, see "Creating the Disk Image for RIPL" later in this chapter.

To accomplish these actions for remote-boot workstations, Setup adds the following line to the workstation's CONFIG.SYS to create the RAM drive:

device=a:\ramdrive.sys 1440

The following lines are added to AUTOEXEC.BAT:

@mkdir ramdrv:\
@copy a:\ ramdrv:\

When you run Windows 95 Setup on a remote-boot workstation, a mini Registry is created and copied to the RAM drive. Windows 95 Setup also copies other supporting startup files to the RAM drive. When Setup is finished, it creates a file containing a disk image of the workstation's RAM drive on the server. The startup disk image contains a reduced version of the computer's SYSTEM.DAT file, which contains the Registry information needed by IO.SYS and the real-mode network. After connecting to the workstation's machine directory, Windows 95 uses the full Registry stored there.

The following shows an example of AUTOEXEC.BAT created for a remote-boot workstation:

@copy a:\ c:\
c:

The following shows an example of WIN.BAT, which runs automatically after AUTOEXEC.BAT is run:

set comspec=c:\command.com
nwrpltrm
snapshot /R /S /B:C
net start nwredir
net use * /d
net use N: \\nwserverbasedsetup\sbsdist
path=n:\netsetup\rpl;n:\netsetup\rpl\command
setmdir
win.com

The machine directory is created on the server. Windows 95 Setup copies the files listed in the following table.

Startup Files for Remote-Boot Installations

autoexec.bat
bootdrv.com
config.sys
command.com
himem.sys
ifshlp.sys
io.sys

msdos.sys
ndishlp.sys
net.exe
net.msg
neth.msg
nwrpltrm.com1
protman.dos

protman.exe
protocol.ini
ramdrive.sys
rplboot.sys2
snapshot.exe
system.dat
NDIS 2 adapter driver

1 This file runs during system startup to terminate the connection to the disk image.

2 Users looking at the boot image cannot see this file.

For remote-boot workstations, the network adapter is considered the boot device, and the real-mode operating system files are stored with the disk image in the machine directory. The swap file and TEMP directory are also stored in the machine directory. To change the location for the swap file in this configuration, add a pagingfile=path entry in the [386Enh] section of the SYSTEM.INI file that is stored in the machine directory.

Configuring Shared Installations for Real-Mode Clients

All three types of shared installations can be used on computers that run real-mode network clients such as the Novell-supplied NETX or VLM workstation shells.

When a shared installation is created for a real-mode network, the system startup does not include a transition to 32-bit networking. After the initial connection to the network server, the networking software continues to run in real mode. This means that many performance and feature enhancements for Windows 95 are not available, but it also ensures that you can create shared installations on networks where 32-bit, protected-mode networking solutions are not yet available.

As for local installation of Windows 95, you should make sure that the real-mode networking software is installed and running correctly when you start Windows 95 Setup. Then run Windows 95 Setup, specifying the machine directory and other information required to create a shared installation.

The configuration settings created for shared installations using real-mode network clients does not include snapshot or net commands. Other configuration issues are described in the following notes.

Hard-disk computers with real-mode networking.

For computers that start from the hard disk, the configuration and system startup process are similar to that for computers that use protected-mode clients, except there is no transition to protected mode.

Floppy-disk computers with real-mode networking.

For computers that start from the floppy disk, Setup first asks for the old boot disk for the network, and then copies the information from the root directory on this disk to a temporary directory. Then Setup copies the required Windows 95 components to that directory. Finally, Setup copies the directory contents to the new startup disk for Windows 95. The startup disk still contains the original real-mode network software. This configuration uses setmdir (in the same way as configurations for protected-mode networking) in AUTOEXEC.BAT to find the correct machine directory, but the path is specified on the command line rather than in a MACHINES.INI file.

Remote-boot computers with real-mode networking.

This configuration uses setmdir (in the same way as configurations for protected-mode networking) in AUTOEXEC.BAT to find the correct machine directory, but the path is specified on the command line rather than in a MACHINES.INI file.

To prepare for running a remote-boot workstation using a NETX or VLM client with Windows 95, you must complete the following additional tasks:

  • You must include the entry SaveSuBoot=1 in the [Setup] section of the setup script.

  • You must manually copy the Novell-supplied files to the machine_dir\SUBOOT directory and then run RPLIMAGE again, as described in "Creating the Disk Image for RIPL" later in this chapter. For information about the required files, see your Novell documentation.

Creating the Disk Image for RIPL

Novell NetWare does not provide RIPL support with its basic networking software. To obtain the latest versions of RIPL software, you can contact your Novell dealer or download the self-extracting file RPLKT1.EXE from the NOVLIB forum on CompuServe®. Configuring a remote-boot workstation is governed by the terms of your Novell license agreement.

As with all NetWare software used with Windows 95, you should make sure that you have the latest MS-DOS and Windows supporting files, including ODI drivers, network shell, LSL, and other required DLLs.

To prepare for RIPL support on the server, you must load and bind the Novell-supplied RPL.NLM file in AUTOEXEC.NCF and copy all .RPL files to the SYS:LOGIN directory.

To use RIPL to support a diskless workstation, the workstation must have an RPL ROM Module (PROM) installed on the network adapter that can send the correct RPL frame sequence. You must also create a disk image file in the server's SYS:LOGIN directory, as described later in this section.

For more information, see your Novell documentation; see also the Novell-supplied document, RPLNLM.DOC, and IBM Remote Program Load User's Guide from the NOVLIB forum on CompuServe.

Notice that some older PROMs (such as NE2000 boot PROMs) use only 802.3 Ethernet frame types; RIPL.NLM cannot run with this frame type and usually binds to the 802.2 frame type. Such older PROMs also cannot use BOOTCONF.SYS. For information about determining whether your site is using such older PROMs, and to find the software solutions, see the Novell-supplied document RIPLODI.DOC, available from the NOVLIB forum on CompuServe.

To allow a remote-boot workstation to start from a Novell NetWare server, the following actions must be completed:

  1. Create a boot disk, and then create a disk image file using the boot disk.

    Windows 95 Setup installs a new disk image file, as described later in this section.

  2. Copy the remote-boot files to the server.

  3. Create a BOOTCONF.SYS file on the server.

  4. Install the Enhanced Remote Boot PROM on the network adapter.

  5. Install the network adapter in the remote-boot workstation.

  6. Add an entry for the workstation in MACHINES.INI, as described in "Technical Notes on MACHINES.INI and SETMDIR."

  7. Connect the remote-boot workstation to the network.

Note: Do not run RPLFIX.EXE or DOSGEN.EXE under Windows 95. These utilities are included with the Novell RIPL software. DOSGEN is used to create IMAGE.SYS (the disk image for startup) and NET$DOS.SYS to support RIPL on MS-DOS – based computers.

If you want to customize the disk images further using the Microsoft RPLIMAGE utility, first you must set SaveSUBoot=1 in the [Setup] section of MSBATCH.INF. The files to be included in the boot image will be saved in the SUBOOT subdirectory under the machine directory. Then, use the RPLIMAGE utility that is included in the ADMIN\NETTOOLS\NETSETUP directory on the Windows 95 compact disc.

Important: The RPLIMAGE utility creates a file name NET$DOS.SYS that consists of all the files in the current directory. You must then move NET$DOS.SYS from the machine directory to the server's SYS:\LOGIN directory.

You can use the following command-line parameters with RPLIMAGE.EXE to make a disk image of files and directories, including lower level directories:

rplimage [pathname1] [pathname2] [/t:n] [/n:n] [/sc:n] [/nf:n] [/fs:n] [/h:n] [/f:n] [/ss:n] [/e:n] [label:string] [/date:yyyy.mm.dd] [/time:hh.mm.ss] [/sort]

Parameters for Microsoft RPLIMAGE.EXE

Parameter

Description

/t

Specifies the number of tracks

/n

Specifies the number of sectors per track

/sc

Specifies the number of sectors per cluster

/nf

Specifies the number of FATs in the image

/fs

Specifies the size of FAT in sectors

/h

Specifies the number of heads

/f

Specifies one of the standard formats

/ss

Specifies the sector size in bytes

/e

Specifies the FAT type (12-bit or 16-bit)

/label

Specifies a volume label for the image

/date

Specifies the date to touch all files and directories

/time

Specifies the time to touch all files and directories

/sort

Sorts the image by filename.ext in ascending order

The following information describes how Windows 95 Setup installs a new disk image file. It also provides information to help you create a BOOTCONF.SYS file to support remote-boot workstations running a shared copy of Windows 95 from a NetWare server. For more information, see the Novell publication Installing Enhanced Remote Boot PROMs on Novell Ethernet Network Interface Cards. To obtain this document, contact your NetWare vendor.

When Windows 95 Setup is finished, it automatically creates a disk image on the server. This file contains a disk image of the RAM drive for the remote-boot workstation.

You can include the boot image filename plus the workstation's network address and node address in the BOOTCONF.SYS file on the NetWare server that is the repository for boot image files. BOOTCONF.SYS is stored in the SYS:LOGIN directory of the server, and is a text file that contains one record for each remote-boot workstation or group of workstations. Multiple workstations can be specified by using wildcards or question marks within the network address.

The following shows the format for each record in BOOTCONF.SYS. The parameters are defined later in this section.

0x[network_address,]node_address = image_filename.sys [ack] [frame=ff] [gns] [noack] [nogns] [noprotect] [notro] [protect] [ps=server] [tro] [wait time=sss]

Each record ends in a carriage return or linefeed character.

The NetWare server that contains the boot image files should have Novell RIPL.NLM loaded and bound to the appropriate network adapter. The following procedures summarize this process.

To load RPL on a NetWare 3.x or 4.x server

  1. At the command prompt, type load rpl

  2. Then type the following:

    bind rpl to board [ack] [frame=ff] [gns], [nodefault], [protect], [ps=server], [tro], [wait time=sss]

The parameters for BOOTCONF.SYS records and for binding RPL are not case-sensitive. The parameters can be entered in any order, and can be separated by either commas or blank spaces. The following table briefly defines these parameters. For more information, see your Novell-supplied documentation on BOOTCONF.SYS.

Novell NetWare Parameters for BOOTCONF.SYS and BIND Commands

Parameter

Description

ack

Requires a per-frame acknowledgment so slower workstations can pace RPL when it sends frames in burst mode.

bind board

Binds RPL to a board configured for 802.2 frames. The board can be specified by the name of the network adapter board number.

frame= ff

Configures RBOOT to use the following frame types: 802.2 (default), EII (Ethernet_II), or snap.

gns

Causes the workstation to use a Get Nearest Server request after RBOOT is downloaded. Use this parameter when the workstation should find a server other than the one containing RPL.

nodefault

Causes RPL to ignore remote-boot requests when the node address is not in BOOTCONF.SYS.

nogns

Overrides gns.

noprotect

Overrides protect specified with BIND.

notro

Overrides tro with BIND.

protect

Adjusts memory size in BIOS data area to reflect the amount of memory used by RBOOT, reducing available memory by 12K. Do not use unless absolutely necessary.

ps= server

Specifies that RBOOT attach to a preferred server other than the server where RPL is located.

tro

Causes the bootstrap program to perform This Ring Only Count Of 3 on all broadcast frames. Used in source routing environments.

wait time= sss

Specifies how many seconds (0000 to 665535) the workstation waits before selecting a Disk Image Name automatically, when multiple names are specified in BOOTCONF.SYS.

Technical Notes for Shared Installations

This section presents some technical notes related to running a shared copy of Windows 95.

System Startup and Networking for Shared Installations

For shared installations, the first access to the network must occur in real mode. For shared installations that use a Windows 95 protected-mode network client, Microsoft real-mode networking (NET.EXE) is used for the first network connection, even for connecting to a NetWare network. After Windows 95 is loaded, the protected-mode drivers take over if the computer is configured to use a Microsoft protected-mode client such as Client for NetWare Networks.

Real-mode versions of NetBEUI and the IPX/SPX-compatible protocols are built into NET.EXE. Real-mode networking includes only the basic redirector; there is no support for mailslots or named pipes. Microsoft TCP/IP cannot be used until after the system loads and switches to protected mode.

The following briefly summarizes the software portion of the startup process for a computer that starts from a floppy or hard disk to run a shared copy of Windows 95 from a server. For a general description of the Windows 95 startup process, see Chapter 6, "Setup Technical Discussion."

  • IO.SYS starts and reads the Registry to determine whether the computer is running Windows 95 over the network.

  • COMMAND.COM runs AUTOEXEC.BAT and NETSTART.BAT (if present), which starts the network.

  • During the first real-mode network connection, the system asks for a user name and password, and then logs on the user. If the administrator configures AUTOEXEC.BAT for logon using a generic user name, the user is not prompted to type a name and password.

  • The network connects to the shared Windows directory. For computers running Windows 95 protected-mode network clients with machine directories on the network, the network also connects to MACHINES.INI.

  • IO.SYS starts Windows.

  • If the computer is configured to run a Windows 95 protected-mode network client, the system completes the transition to protected-mode networking.

Because there is both a real-mode and protected-mode network logon, it is possible that the user will be prompted for logon information twice. To avoid this, you can configure the net logon statement in AUTOEXEC.BAT to use a generic user name, so that the user isn't prompted to enter information for the real-mode logon. To do this, use a statement in this format:

net logon generic_name password /y

Notice, however, that the network connection made during the original real-mode network logon remains throughout the work session, even when the system switches to protected-mode network components after the first connection. For example, if a generic login is used to make the first connection to \\NWSVR1\SYS, and in protected mode you subsequently log on under your own user name with a different logon server, the generic connection to \\NWSVR1\SYS still remains.

The following describes some configuration issues and hints related to the real-mode and protected-mode network logon:

  • For Windows NT networks, you can make sure that the generic logon in real mode uses the same domain as the user's actual logon in protected mode. This avoids the connection problem altogether.

  • For NetWare networks, if Client for NetWare Networks is configured to use the same preferred server as specified in the real-mode logon, Windows 95 automatically tries the same user name and password for protected-mode logon. If this is successful, the user will not see a second prompt for protected-mode logon.

Notice in all cases that for shared installations, if you make the user name and password the same for real-mode and protected-mode network logon and for Windows logon, the real-mode logon prompt always appears.

Technical Notes on MACHINES.INI and SETMDIR

MACHINES.INI is a file that lists, for each client, the location of the machine directory and other drive letters to connect. This file is stored on the server containing the shared Windows 95 files. The following shows the format of each entry in MACHINES.INI:

[Node_address]
sysdatpath=drive:\path
drive=\\server\share specified in sysdatpath

The Node_address section name is the 12-character address of the network adapter for a particular computer. You can find this address on NetWare networks by using the userlist/a command. On computers running Windows for Workgroups or Microsoft Workgroup Add-On for MS-DOS, you can find this address using the net diag /s command. If the node address you find is less than 12 characters long, you must add 0 (zero) characters at the front of the address. For example, if the node address is AA00578902, then the section name must be [00AA00578902].

The path defined in sysdatpath= must be a drive that is mapped to a drive letter in the same MACHINE.INI section.

In the following example, the machine directory is set to E:\DIR1\DIR2, and drives C, D, and E are set to network locations:

[00AA0051E4FB]
SysDatPath=e:\dir1\dir2
c=\\server1\share1
d=\\server2\share2
e=\\server3\share3

Note: A section entry must be included in MACHINES.INI for each remote-boot workstation or floppy-disk computer in order for the computer to be started.

The setmdir command is used to set the machine directory for the computer and load the full Registry.

The floppy startup disk or disk image for shared installations contains only a mini Registry large enough to start the real-mode network. The startup disk for shared installations does not contain the information to find the machine directory, so that a single boot image on the network (or floppy startup disk) can be used to start several computers. The setmdir command solves this problem.

For computers running Client for Microsoft Networks and Microsoft Client for NetWare Networks, the setmdir command connects to the directory that contains the shared Windows 95 files and looks for MACHINES.INI. When the setmdir command finds the computer entry in MACHINES.INI, it switches the Registry APIs to point to the full Registry.

For computers that use real-mode networking clients, the setmdir command-line includes the path to the machine directory, rather than using MACHINES.INI. This is because the system has no guaranteed way of finding node addresses on other networks.

Setmdir Parameters

Parameter

Description

/V

Sets verbose mode, so information is displayed while the program is running.

/R: path

Sets the current Registry and environment variables to the specified path. For example, setmdir /R:d:\users\anniep does the following:
• Sets the Registry to D:\USERS\ANNIEP\SYSTEM.DATA
• Adds D:\USERS\ANNIEP to the path
• Sets the following environment variables:
comspec=d:\users\anniep\command.com
temp=d:\users\anniep
tmp=d:\users\anniep

Other Notes on Shared Installations

MS-DOS Mode is disabled.

When the user starts a program that runs in MS-DOS Mode, Windows 95 shuts down and uses real-mode MS-DOS to run the program. When the program quits, Windows 95 starts again. This mode is available as a last resort mode for compatibility with existing software. Computers that run a shared version of Windows 95 lose their network when Windows 95 shuts down. Because of the related problems, MS-DOS Mode is not available for computers running Windows 95 over the network. When a user tries to run a program in this mode, Windows 95 warns that the mode has been disabled.

Hot docking for network adapters is not supported.

When Windows 95 starts over the network, real-mode drivers control the network adapter. If the network adapter is a Plug and Play card, the driver is responsible for setting the card to the active state. (You can use the setup program provided with the card to do this.) Computers that run over the network do not support hot Plug and Play disconnects, because the operating system is on the network.

Users cannot log off and log on as a different user.

For another user to log on to a shared installation, the computer must be shut down and restarted.

Safe Mode startup always runs configuration files.

To perform a Safe Mode system startup for a shared installation, the network must be started, so IO.SYS always runs AUTOEXEC.BAT, CONFIG.SYS, and NETSTART.BAT. Information in the machine directory controls how and when to perform a Safe Mode startup.

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