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Phases of the Setup Process

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This chapter provides technical information about Windows 95 Setup, including background information about Safe Recovery and detailed descriptions of the Setup and system startup processes. You will find this technical information helpful if you are responsible for troubleshooting Windows 95.

Windows 95 Setup is divided into the following logical phases:

  • Startup and information gathering

  • Hardware detection

  • File copy

  • Final system configuration

The following sections provide technical details about what happens in each of these phases.

On This Page

Startup and Information Gathering Phase for Windows 95 Setup
Hardware Detection Phase
File Copy Phase
Final System Configuration Phase
Safe Detection, Safe Recovery, and Verification
Windows 95 Startup Process
System Startup Files
Windows 95 Setup with Other Operating Systems
Removing Windows 95 from a Computer
Troubleshooting Setup and System Startup

Startup and Information Gathering Phase for Windows 95 Setup

When you start Windows 95 Setup, the following steps occur:

  1. If you started Windows 95 Setup from MS-DOS, Setup searches the local hard disks for previous versions of Windows. If a version of Windows is found, the program prompts you to quit and run Setup from Windows. You can, however, bypass this warning.

  2. Setup runs ScanDisk and performs system checks to confirm that the computer is capable of running Windows 95 (enough CPU, memory, and disk space; the correct version of MS-DOS; and so on). If there are insufficient resources, Setup informs you of the problem. For a description of system requirements, see Chapter 3, "Introduction to Windows 95 Setup."

  3. If you started Windows 95 Setup from MS-DOS, Setup checks for an extended memory specification (XMS) provider and installs one if one is not present. Windows 95 Setup looks for existing disk caching and automatically loads SMARTDrive if no other caching is found. The cache size varies, depending on available XMS memory.

  4. Setup checks for the existence of certain TSR applications and device drivers that are known to cause problems. If any of these applications are running, Setup warns you before proceeding.

  5. If you started Windows 95 Setup from MS-DOS, your Setup installs the minimal Windows 3.1 components and starts these components by using the shell=setup.exe command.

    The Windows graphical user interface appears. In a normal installation, this is the first thing you see. Up to this point, the processor is operating in real mode.

  6. If you started Windows 95 Setup from MS-DOS, Setup switches the processor to standard mode and makes extended memory available.

Windows 95 Setup begins gathering installation information to determine the components to be installed, including the directory for Windows 95 files, user information, and specifics about the devices and software to be installed. For more information, see Chapter 3, "Introduction to Windows 95 Setup."

Hardware Detection Phase

During the hardware detection phase, Windows 95 Setup analyzes installed computer components, and detects installed hardware devices and connected peripherals. Windows 95 Setup also identifies the hardware resources that are available (for example, IRQs, I/O addresses, and DMAs), identifies the configuration of installed hardware components (for example, IRQs in use), and builds the hardware tree in the Registry.

Windows 95 Setup uses several mechanisms to detect installed hardware devices:

  • For a non-Plug and Play-compliant computer (called a legacy computer), Windows 95 checks for known hardware devices by checking I/O ports and specific memory addresses to attempt to identify whether they are being used by known devices. Windows 95 also checks for Plug and Play peripherals connected to legacy computers, which return their own device identification codes.

  • For a computer with a Plug and Play BIOS, Windows 95 queries the computer for installed components and their configuration. Windows 95 also checks the computer for connected Plug and Play peripheral devices.

During this phase, Windows 95 Setup tries to identify and resolve hardware conflicts.

Setup uses the Windows 95 hardware detection module to detect hardware components. If a Plug and Play device is detected, its configuration information is added to the Registry. Device drivers are installed based on the Registry settings. Plug and Play ensures that the correct files are installed and that the configuration options are set properly each time Windows 95 is started. For information about Plug and Play, see Chapter 18, "Introduction to System Configuration" and Chapter 31, "Windows 95 Architecture."

Windows 95 uses the same hardware detection procedures when you run the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel, when you use the PCMCIA wizard to enable protected-mode support, and the first time you start a computer using a new docking state.

For more information about how detection works, see "Safe Detection, Safe Recovery, and Verification" later in this chapter.

File Copy Phase

After you identify and confirm the components to install, Windows 95 Setup begins copying files from the Windows 95 installation disks, compact disc, or network server (whichever was specified). If you selected the option to create a startup disk, this disk is created before the files are copied.

After the necessary files are copied to the computer, Windows 95 Setup prompts you to remove any disks in floppy disk drives and restart the computer to proceed with the final phase of Setup. The following topics describe what happens during the file copy phase.

Creating the Startup Disk

A startup disk is a bootable floppy disk contains utilities that you can use to troubleshoot a malfunctioning system. The startup disk loads the operating system and presents an MS-DOS command line. It is strongly recommended that you create a startup disk for every computer you install Windows 95 on. You can create a Windows 95 startup disk during the file copy phase of Windows 95 Setup, or you can create or update a disk after Windows 95 has been installed by using the Add/Remove Programs option in Control Panel. For information about using the startup disk, see Chapter 35, "General Troubleshooting."

In general, the startup disk does not provide the following:

  • Real-mode support for disk-management software such as ATDOSXL.SYS or Stacker® 4.0

  • Access to the network

  • Access to CD-ROM drives

  • Access to compressed drives from other vendors

To create a startup disk, Windows 95 formats the floppy disk in drive A, and then copies files to the disk in drive A. The files that are copied are described in the following table.

Filename

Description

attrib.exe

File attribute utility

command.com

Core operating system file

drvspace.bin

Disk compression utility

ebd.sys

Utility for the startup disk

edit.com

Text editor

fdisk.exe

Disk partition utility

format.com

Disk format utility

io.sys

Core operating system file

msdos.sys

Core operating system file

regedit.exe

Real-mode Registry Editor

scandisk.exe

Disk status and repair utility

scandisk.ini

Disk status utility configuration file

sys.com

System transfer utility

For recovery purposes, you might want to copy the following files into a subdirectory on the startup disk: SYSTEM.DAT, CONFIG.SYS, AUTOEXEC.BAT, WIN.INI, and SYSTEM.INI, plus any CD-ROM or other device drivers. (If you do not place these files into a subdirectory, you'll have to rename them to prevent problems with the startup disk.)

Creating Directories and Copying Files

Windows 95 Setup creates a list of files to copy, depending on the components selected during the information gathering phase. Then various Setup DLLs run to install the network and other components. These DLLs determine exactly which files should be copied from the installation source and which additional directories should be created.

Creating Registry Entries

The Setup DLLs for installing various system components also create appropriate entries in the Registry and change INI file settings as required. (The Registry is created during the hardware detection phase.)

The SYSTEM.1ST file in the root directory is a copy of the Registry created when Setup is complete. To restore a damaged Registry, you can change the file attributes on this file and copy it to SYSTEM.DAT.

Final System Configuration Phase

During the final system configuration phase, Windows 95 Setup upgrades the existing configuration of Windows and replaces the existing version of MS-DOS with the new Windows 95 operating system (if you are upgrading an existing version of Windows). During this process, Setup restarts the computer running Windows 95.

When Windows 95 Setup completes this phase, it displays a message to indicate that the installation was successful and it prompts you to restart the computer. After you click OK but before Windows 95 Setup restarts the computer, Setup modifies the boot sector of the boot drive by adding a new system file (IO.SYS) that takes the place of the MS-DOS files IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS. The old files are renamed to IO.DOS and MSDOS.DOS.

After the files are updated and the operating system is configured, Windows 95 Setup uses wizards to guide you through a process to configure peripheral devices (such as printers) connected to the computer. More files might also be copied here, and you might be asked to restart the computer again.

Initializing the System after Setup

After first restarting the computer during the final system configuration phase, Windows 95 Setup updates configuration files by performing the following steps:

  • WININIT.EXE processes three sections in WININIT.INI to combine all the virtual devices (VxDs) intoVMM32.VXD and to rename files initially used by Setup, including ARIAL.WIN, USER32.TMP, and LOGO.SYS.

  • SYSTEM.DAT is renamed to SYSTEM.DA0, and SYSTEM.NEW is renamed to SYSTEM.DAT.

  • A flag is set in the Registry that indicates this is the first time Windows 95 is being run after a new installation. Hardware manufacturers can also add specific entries to the Run-Once Registry key.

  • The Run-Once module is run to complete the initial configuration of PCMCIA and MIDI devices, to set up printers (if you are not installing in an existing Windows directory), and to run custom hardware manufacturers' setup programs.

    Important: If the system fails when running these first-time programs, restart Windows 95 rather than rerunning Windows 95 Setup.

  • The Program Group converter (GRPCONV) adds existing Windows 3.x .GRP files to the PROGRAMS directory and renames the files using long filenames.

Windows 95 installation is now complete.

Modifying the Boot Drive after Setup

Windows 95 places the real-mode operating system files named IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and COMMAND.COM in the root directory of the computer's boot drive. The real-mode files needed to connect to the network are also placed on the computer's boot drive or device. (These filenames vary, depending on the network you use.)

Windows 95 detects boot drives and compression drivers, and writes certain startup files to the boot device.

Verifying the Installation

Setup has an option for verifying the installation, as described in "Safe Detection, Safe Recovery, and Verification" later in this chapter. So, Windows 95 Setup can install files on your disk without actually having to transfer all of the file data from the floppy disk drive, network, or other source. As a part of this process, Windows 95 rebuilds VMM32.VXD or recopies any files it finds to be damaged.

For Safe Recovery, Windows 95 Setup places the following two lines in AUTOEXEC.BAT during installation:

@if exist c:\wininst0.400\suwarn.bat call C:\wininst0.400\suwarn.bat
@if exist c:\wininst0.400\suwarn.bat del C:\wininst0.400\suwarn.bat

The SUWARN.BAT file is run only once after a failed installation. These lines are removed when Windows 95 Setup is complete.

Safe Detection, Safe Recovery, and Verification

This section provides technical details about the features that ensure safe hardware detection, recovery from Setup problems, and configuration verification in Windows 95 Setup.

Safe Detection in Windows 95 Setup

Devices and buses are grouped as classes in Windows 95 for purposes of detecting and installing device drivers and managing system resources. Windows 95 differentiates between devices and drivers that comply with the Plug and Play specification and earlier versions of devices and drivers (which are referred to in this book as legacy devices). Because of this differentiation, Windows 95 Setup detects hardware components and devices in two ways:

  • Using an interactive query detection process for legacy devices and peripherals

  • Using Plug and Play detection to identify Plug and Play-compliant devices and peripherals

After Setup detects a device, it adds configuration information to the Registry and installs the appropriate device drivers. The same procedures used during Setup for detecting Plug and Play or legacy hardware devices are also used to detect or configure new devices after Windows 95 is installed.

Windows 95 supports detection for base computer components such as communications ports and processor type, and provides more robust detection of computer devices, such as display adapters, pointing devices, hard-disk controllers, floppy-disk controllers, and network adapters.

Windows 95 Setup also tries to detect any hardware resource conflicts early in the installation process. This helps to avoid the problems that occur when hardware resources such as IRQs, I/O addresses, or DMAs are used by more than one device.

To avoid computer failure during the detection process, Windows 95 uses a safe detection method to search for hints from configuration files, read-only memory (ROM) strings, or drivers loaded in memory to determine whether the computer contains each class of hardware. If no such hints are found, the detection process skips detecting the entire class. If hints are found, then the detection process seeks information from specific I/O ports.

Windows 95 automatically reads the command lines in CONFIG.SYS to find hints for device class detection. Then Windows 95 loads detection modules based on information in the MSDET.INF file, which lists the hardware to be detected and points to specific INF files for each device class (for example, SCSI.INF for SCSI host adapters). Device information from the INF files is written to the Registry. For more information about the format of these files, see Appendix C, "Windows 95 INF Files."

Windows 95 can also read a particular CONFIG.SYS device= line for resource information to be avoided (that is, protected) during the detection process. This is useful if Windows 95 Setup cannot detect or support a certain device when it's known that the detection process can cause such a device to fail. For example, the detection process could render a fax modem inoperative because scanning the I/O port might confuse the device driver. Windows 95 can read the device= line in CONFIG.SYS for this model and protect the associated I/O region from other detection modules.

Windows 95 Setup asks you to confirm which classes should be skipped in the detection process. If you know that the computer has a device in one of those classes, Setup can be forced to detect that device class.

Safe detection exists for four classes of devices:

  • Network adapters

  • SCSI controllers

  • Proprietary adapters for CD-ROM

  • Sound cards

Safe Detection for Network Adapters

Windows 95 Setup performs the following kinds of steps for safe detection of network adapters:

  • Find LSL.COM in memory and, if present, inquire for network adapter settings.

  • Find IPX.COM in memory and, if present, inquire for network adapter settings.

  • Search the Windows, Windows for Workgroups, and LAN Manager directories for PROTOCOL.INI; if present, read the file to find network adapter settings.

Safe Detection for SCSI Controllers

When trying to detect SCSI adapters, Windows 95 Setup checks for device drivers in CONFIG.SYS, and then scans ROM strings from the SCSI adapter for manufacturer names. If known drivers or known strings are found, then the corresponding detection procedure for that class is used; otherwise, the entire class is skipped. A list of the known strings and drivers that Windows 95 Setup checks is stored internally in a detection DLL. (For more information about the SCSI devices and drivers that Windows 95 supports, see the Manufacturers and Models lists in the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel.)

Different SCSI devices require different methods for safe detection. For example, a SCSI card typically is used with a combination of hard disks, CD-ROM drives, tape backup drives, scanners, and similar devices. For everything to work (except the hard disk), some sort of device driver must be loaded in CONFIG.SYS.

For hard disk drives, however, the driver usually is not loaded in CONFIG.SYS, but INT 13 ROM are enabled. Therefore, safe detection for SCSI class devices looks for a ROM string with a manufacturer's name.

Safe Detection for Proprietary Adapters for CD-ROM

Windows 95 supports Mitsumi, SONY, and Panasonic proprietary adapters for CD-ROM. Because drivers for these devices are loaded in CONFIG.SYS, safe detection first scans CONFIG.SYS for the drivers that are present. If a device= line for such a driver is found, the corresponding detection module is loaded for that type of device.

Safe Detection for Sound Cards

Safe detection scans CONFIG.SYS and reads SYSTEM.INI for hints about sound cards. If known drivers are not found, the entire class is skipped.

If Windows 95 doesn't have detection code for certain hardware, the equipment manufacturer can force a device to be detected by adding information about it in the MSDET.INF file. Windows 95 detection behaves as if it has detected the device and installs the device according to the INF information provided by the equipment manufacturer.

Windows 95 Setup does not detect sound cards by scanning I/O ports; instead, it checks only CONFIG.SYS and SYSTEM.INI and performs detection prescribed in MSDET.INF. Detection of sound cards by scanning I/O ports can cause the computer to stall. This is because detection calls a driver specific to a device class to send a signal to an I/O port. The driver expects a predetermined response, such as a signature from the adapter's ROM. If the wrong driver sends a signal to an I/O port address occupied by a different device class, the computer can stall.

Safe Recovery with Setup Log Files

Windows 95 Setup creates several log files: BOOTLOG.TXT, DETLOG.TXT, NETLOG.TXT, and SETUPLOG.TXT, plus DETCRASH.LOG if Setup fails. The following sections describe these files.

Basically, there are three points at which the computer might stop or stall during Windows 95 Setup: before, during, or after hardware detection.

  • If Setup fails before hardware detection, Windows 95 Setup recovers by reading SETUPLOG.TXT to determine where the system stalled, what to redo, and what to skip.

  • If Setup fails during hardware detection, the DETCRASH.LOG file is created, containing information about the detection module that was running and the I/O port or memory resources it was accessing when the failure occurred.

    When the detection process finds this file, it automatically runs in Safe Recovery mode to verify all the devices already in the Registry and then skips all detection modules up to the failed module. Safe Recovery then skips detection and any attempts to configure the failed module, in effect skipping the action that caused the failure. Then, Safe Recovery continues the detection process, starting with the next module. If the detection process is completed successfully, DETCRASH.LOG is deleted.

    DETCRASH.LOG can be read only by Setup. For information about the text equivalent of this information, see "DETLOG.TXT: The Hardware Detection Log File" later in this chapter.

  • Sometimes the detection process causes some devices to quit working (such as a CD-ROM drive or a network connection). If you rerun Setup, Safe Recovery recognizes that the detection process has already been completed successfully and assumes that all the necessary hardware information is in the Registry. Therefore, it skips the detection process completely at this point and continues the installation process.

SETUPLOG.TXT: The Setup Log File

The SETUPLOG.TXT file is an ASCII text file that contains Windows 95 Setup information created during the installation process. While Windows 95 is being installed, corresponding entries are written to SETUPLOG.TXT, listing information about the specific steps, their sequence, and the error conditions encountered. This file is used by Setup for recovery in case of setup failure, and it can also be used for troubleshooting errors that occur during the installation process.

Setup uses the information in SETUPLOG.TXT to ensure that the installation does not fail twice because of the same problem. If you restart Windows 95 Setup after a setup process fails, Setup reviews the contents of SETUPLOG.TXT to determine which steps completed successfully. If SETUPLOG.TXT indicates that a process started but does not indicate that the process completed, then that part of the installation process is skipped and the next part is processed. Even if Setup encounters devices that cause several installation attempts, the installation process will always progress and skip the modules that failed.

SETUPLOG.TXT is stored on the computer's root directory. Information is added to the file according to the order of the steps of the installation process. If an error occurs during installation, you can determine the probable cause of the error by examining the entries at the end of SETUPLOG.TXT.

Information in SETUPLOG.TXT is divided into the following basic categories:

  • Selected Setup sections, including [OptionalComponents], [System], [NameAndOrg], and [batch_settings]

  • Setting up of system startup parameters

  • Selecting the directory

  • Beginning of installation process

  • Queuing of needed files

  • Copying of needed files

  • Preparing for restarting the system

Tip The [OptionalComponents], [System], and [NameAndOrg] sections can be copied from SETUPLOG.TXT on a computer with a complete installation of Windows 95 and then added to equivalent sections in MSBATCH.INF, as described in Chapter 5, "Custom, Automated, and Push Installations." Notice, however, that these sections in SETUPLOG.TXT do not include networking information.

The following table shows entries in SETUPLOG.TXT file to check for information about the Setup process. Because entries are added to SETUPLOG.TXT in the order that the related actions occur during Setup, you might be able to find a probable cause of any error by examining the entries at the end of the file.

SETUPLOG.TXT entry

Description

InstallType

Type of installation

InstallDir

Directory where Windows 95 is installed

detection

Detection status

RunningApp

Applications running during installation

RootFilesRenamed

Files renamed in the root directory

error

Errors logged during installation

failed

Failures that occurred during installation

[OptionalComponents]

Optional components installed

[System]

System hardware configuration

batch settings

Installation parameters (that is, MSBATCH.INF settings)

Registry

Registry initialization status

filename

Verification that a specific file was loaded during Setup

[Choose Directory]

Location and type of Windows files

[FileCopy]

Files copied during Setup

[Restart]

Issues to be completed after the computer is restarted

Tip for Verifying System Files

With Windows 3.x, it was not easy to recover files, such as a component file that was accidentally deleted or a system file that was corrupted. You either had to use the Expand utility to copy the file, or you had to reinstall Windows 3.x to restore the lost file. SETUPLOG.TXT is part of the Windows 95 solution to verifying the integrity of installed components.

If you run Windows 95 Setup after Windows 95 is already installed, Setup prompts you either to reinstall Windows 95 or simply to verify installed components. If you want to verify installed components, Setup examines SETUPLOG.TXT and reruns the installation process without completely copying all operating system components. Windows 95 verifies the integrity of files installed during Setup with the files on the Windows 95 installation disks. If the integrity check fails due to a missing or corrupted file on the computer, Setup automatically reinstalls that file.

DETLOG.TXT: The Hardware Detection Log File

The DETLOG.TXT file contains a record of whether a specific hardware device was detected and identifies the parameters for the detected device.

During Windows 95 Setup, after the information gathering phase, Setup begins hardware detection, which can also occur when you use the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel to add a new device. Both Windows 95 Setup and Device Manager use SYSDETMG.DLL, which contains all the detection modules for each device class and specific devices.

Windows 95 loads detection modules based on information in MSDET.INF that points to specific INF files for each device class, from which information is retrieved and written to the Registry. The device class installers are DLLs that work with Device Manager to install, configure, and remove devices or classes of devices in the system. Device Manager generates a list of compatible drivers for the device from the appropriate INF file. For information about using Device Manager to configure device drivers, and for information about the device classes used to identify logical device types, such as display, keyboard, and network adapters, see Chapter 19, "Devices."

By creating an updated DETLOG.TXT file every time the detection process runs, the detection module tracks the detected devices and the I/O port addresses used. Any existing DETLOG.TXT is renamed DETLOG.OLD. If the detection process causes Setup to stall or the computer to lock up, then a binary file named DETCRASH.LOG is created. DETLOG.TXT is an ASCII text file created only for users to read; Windows 95 Setup reads the binary information in DETCRASH.LOG. Any changes made to DETLOG.TXT are not passed to DETCRASH.LOG.

The DETLOG.TXT file can be found in the root directory of the startup drive after Windows 95 is installed. The entries in DETLOG.TXT are placed in the order of the hardware information discovered as each step of the detection process is carried out. The following table briefly describes entries that appear in DETLOG.TXT.

Summary of DETLOG.TXT Entries

Entry

Description

Beginning of DETLOG.TXT:

 

Parameters="xxxxxx"

Shows the switches specified in the Setup command line (that is, setup /pxxxxxx). For example:
Parameters "", Flags=01002233

WinVer = ########

Shows that environment detection is run. The MS-DOS version is in the high word and the Windows version is in the low word. For example:
WinVer=0614030b,

AvoidMem=
#####h-#####h

If present, indicates the address range specified as upper memory blocks (UMB), which detection avoids. For example:
AvoidMem=cd4a0-cd50f

DetectClass: Skip Class Media

Indicates that detection found no hints that the computer might have a particular device, so it skipped that class. For example, DetectClass: Skip Class Media indicates that no sound entries appear in the configuration files, so detection skips all the sound card detection modules. For DetectClass: Skip Class Adapter, detection skips searching for proprietary CD-ROM adapters such as SONY, Mitsumi, and Panasonic. DetectClass: Skip Class Net indicates that detection was skipped for network adapters.

DetectClass Override:

If one or more skip class entries appear in DETLOG.TXT, the Analyzing Your Computer screen appears in Setup to confirm skipping those classes, so you can override the decision. Related DetectClass Override lines appear in DETLOG.TXT for the classes checked.

Custom Mode:

Describes your selection for the devices you tell Windows 95 not to detect. For example:
CustomMode: resetting class ADAPTER
; Don't detect EtherLinkIII
CustomMode: DETECTELNK3=0

Devices verified =

Indicates the number of devices verified from the Registry. If the number is 0, it usually means there was no existing Registry or the Registry was empty.

Detecting system devices:

 

Checking for:

Specifies that detection began looking for that device. The entry is followed by description of the device or class being sought. When detection is checking for a device such as the Programmable Interrupt Controller, the Checking for: entry is followed by a QueryIOMem: entry specifying the Caller, rcQuery, and I/O range checked. If a device is detected, then a Detected: entry is added, specifying the device resource information. For example:
Checking for: Programmable Interrupt Controller
QueryIOMem: Caller=DETECTPIC, rcQuery=0
IO=20-21,a0-a1
Detected: *PNP0000\0000 =
[1] Programmable Interrupt Controller
IO=20-21,a0-a1
IRQ=2

Detecting network adapters:

 

Checking for:

This section lists the attempts to detect network adapters. For example:
Checking for: Network Cards using Novell
ODI Driver
Checking for: EISA Network Cards

PROTOCOL.INI Section

If detection finds PROTOCOL.INI, it saves the [net_card] section in DETLOG.TXT. For example:
Checking for: Network Cards using
Microsoft Windows For Workgroups
; path to WFW protocol.INI
WFW: path=d:\w311\protocol.ini
; protocol.ini mac driver section
Protocol.ini: [MS$EE16]
Protocol.ini: DriverName=EXP16$

NCD: detecting network adapter

Indicates that detection has found a network adapter using safe detection (usually PROTOCOL.INI), but the system has information for verifying this adapter. If this adapter is verified, a Detected line follows. For example:
NCD: detecting network adapter *pnp812d
QueryIOMem: Caller=DETECTWFW, rcQuery=0
IO=300-30f

The hardware detection process continues examining computer hardware. The "|" symbol in the IO= line (for example, IO=200-201 | 3e0-3e1) indicates a range of I/O entries that are checked during the detection process. In the DETLOG.TXT file, you will find a QueryIOMem: and an IO= line for each I/O address checked.

For most devices, multiple I/O addresses are checked, which can result in a detailed and redundant device detection list. The I/O address ranges checked during detection are grouped on one I/O line. Multiple addresses on an IO= line are separated by commas. For example:

Checking for: ATI Ultra Pro/Plus (Mach 32) Display Adapter
QueryIOMem: Caller=DETECTMACH32, rcQuery=0
   IO=3b0-3bb,3c0-3df
QueryIOMem: Caller=DETECTMACH32, rcQuery=0
   Mem=a0000-affff

If the system stalls during hardware detection, you can determine the probable cause of the error by examining the last entries in DETLOG.TXT. You can use the information in this file to determine specific error conditions occurring in the hardware detection, and reconfigure or replace the specific adapter or device. The following table shows specific kinds of entries to check in DETLOG.TXT for information about the results of the hardware detection process.

DETLOG.TXT Entries to Check for Troubleshooting

Entry

Description

detected

Detected devices

AvoidMem

Address ranges of UMBs avoided during detection

error

Errors logged during system detection

WinFlags

Setup mode used

PROTOCOL.INI

PROTOCOL.INI information that was saved during system upgrade

CustomMode

Hardware that was removed from detection in the custom Analyzing Your Computer dialog box

Devices verified

Devices found in Registry; if the value is 0, then there was no existing Registry or the Registry was empty

Some additional notes on DETLOG.TXT and hardware detection:

  • Detection does not detect enumerated devices such as ISA Plug and Play devices, PCI devices, and PCMCIA devices. For information about these devices, see Chapter 18, "Introduction to System Configuration."

  • If the computer stalls during detection, and you rerun Windows 95 Setup and choose Safe Recovery, new detection information is appended to the previous DETLOG.TXT file. The previous version of DETLOG.TXT is saved as DETLOG.OLD, overwriting any previous DETLOG.OLD files.

The hardware that has been tested and shown to be compatible with Windows 95 appears in the Manufacturers and Models lists in the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel.

NETLOG.TXT: The Network Setup Log File

This file describes the detection results for network components during Windows 95 Setup. For information about NETDET.INI, the file that Setup uses to determine how to install networking components on computers running NetWare clients, see Chapter 9, "Windows 95 on NetWare Networks."

The following table describes typical entries in a NETLOG.TXT file after you run Windows 95 Setup for the first time. In this example, Client for Microsoft Networks is installed with the IPX/SPX-compatible protocol, and both are bound to an Intel® EtherExpress™ network adapter.

NETLOG.TXT entry

Description

ClassInstall (0x6) on Intel EtherExpress 16 or 16TP at Enum\Root\*PNP812D\0000

Network installation begins.

Examining class NET

Network detection is searching for network software of four class types: NET (network adapters), NETTRANS (protocols), NETCLIENT (clients), and NETSERVICES (services such as File and Printer Sharing).

Upgrade 2.00025000=VREDIR

A network client was found on the computer.

Upgrade to: VREDIR

The version of the network client was upgraded to the version included in Windows 95.

NdiCreate (Client for Microsoft Networks) OK

Setup successfully created an internal object representing the network client.

NdiCreate (Intel EtherExpress 16 or 16TP)

Setup successfully created an internal object representing the network adapter.

CreateNetwork, Batch=0

Setup referenced a batch file.

NdiCreate (IPX/SPX-compatible Protocol)

Setup successfully created an internal object representing the IPX/SPX-compatible protocol.

ClassInstall (0x6) end

 

ClassInstall (0x9) on Intel EtherExpress 16 or 16TP at Enum\Root\*PNP812D\0000

Protocols are about to be bound to the network adapter.

Validating IPX/SPX-compatible Protocol at Enum\Network\NWLINK\0000, rc=0x0

The IPX/SPX-compatible protocol is added to the Registry and bound to the network adapter.

ClassInstall (0x9) on Intel EtherExpress 16 or 16TP at Enum\Root\*PNP812D\0000

Clients are about to be bound to the network adapter.

Validating Client for Microsoft Networks at Enum\Network\VREDIR\0000, rc=0x0

Client for Microsoft Networks is added to the Registry and bound to the network adapter.

ClassInstall (0x9) end

Setup has finished binding the protocol to the network adapter.

ClassInstall (0xa) on Intel EtherExpress 16 or 16TP at Enum\Root\*PNP812D\0000

The network setup process is concluded.

ClassInstall (0xa) end

 

ClassInstall (0xc) on Intel EtherExpress 16 or 16TP at Enum\Root\*PNP812D\0000

 

ClassInstall (0xc) end

 

Windows 95 Startup Process

Windows 95 includes new system files, Plug and Play mechanisms, and various options for starting the operating system. This section describes the Windows 95 system startup sequence.

During the real-mode startup process, devices use only static configurations; that is, no dynamic resource allocation or arbitration is provided. When the system startup process switches to protected mode, Configuration Manager ensures all devices are configured properly, as described in Chapter 31, "Windows 95 Architecture."

The system startup includes four phases:

  • Bootstrapping the system with BIOS in control

  • Loading MS-DOS drivers and TSRs for compatibility

  • Initializing static VxDs in real mode

  • Putting the protected-mode operating system in control and loading the remaining VxDs

Bootstrapping in the BIOS Phase

Microsoft worked with several hardware manufacturers to define a new Plug and Play BIOS specification, which defines the interactions among a Plug and Play BIOS, Plug and Play devices, and option ROMs (sometimes called adapter ROMs). The Plug and Play BIOS enables and configures Plug and Play boot devices. The Plug and Play BIOS also passes configuration information to Configuration Manager in Windows 95 for configuring the remaining adapters and devices.

Booting with a Legacy BIOS

For legacy computers that do not have Plug and Play BIOS, the BIOS enables all devices on the ISA bus. A Plug and Play ISA card that has an option ROM must start up when the computer is turned on with the option ROM enabled.

Booting with a Plug and Play BIOS

A Plug and Play BIOS accesses nonvolatile RAM to determine which Plug and Play ISA cards should be enabled, where their option ROMs should be mapped, and what I/O, DMA, and other assignments are to be given to the cards.

The BIOS then programs the Plug and Play cards before the power-on self-test (POST). All cards that do not have configurations stored in the BIOS are disabled completely, reducing the chance of a conflict.

The Plug and Play BIOS also configures all devices on the motherboard. Some devices might have been disabled or assigned to different I/O addresses, IRQ settings, and so on, by Configuration Manager.

Loading Hardware Profiles and Real-Mode Drivers

After BIOS initialization, the operating system attempts to determine the current configuration, including whether the computer is a docking station. This is done by using a hardware profile that Windows 95 selects before CONFIG.SYS is processed. The hardware profile is built by a detection process that collects information about interrupt usage, BIOS serial and parallel ports, BIOS computer identification, Plug and Play BIOS docking-station data, and, if possible, docking-station data that is unique to each OEM. Then the detection process builds a 2-byte value known as the current hardware profile (or the current configuration).

Each hardware profile has a name that matches a top-level menu item in a multiconfigured CONFIG.SYS file (that is, the long text in the menu, not the section name enclosed in square brackets). Windows 95 automatically selects that multiconfiguration menu item and processes the corresponding section of CONFIG.SYS.

CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT are processed at this point. Although these files are not required for Windows 95, they are used for backward compatibility with applications created for MS-DOS or Windows 3.x. In Windows 95, CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT are processed much like they are processed under MS-DOS 6.x. Drivers and TSRs specified in these files are loaded in real mode.

For more information, see "System Startup Files" later in this chapter.

Note: The real-mode MS-DOS errors are standard, as documented in the MS-DOS 6.0 Programmer's Reference.

Initializing Static VxDs at Startup

Windows 95 supports static VxDs that load during system startup in the same way as Windows 3.x VxDs, and it also supports dynamically loaded VxDs. VMM32.VXD includes the real-mode loader, the executable Virtual Machine Manager, and common static VxDs. Notice, however, that if a VxD file is in the Windows SYSTEM\VMM32 directory, Windows 95 loads it in addition to the combined VxDs in MRCI2.VXD.

Note: If you want to update a VxD that has been bound into the monolithic VMM32.VXD, place the VxD file in the SYSTEM\VMM32 directory. Windows 95 always checks that directory and uses any individual VxDs it finds instead of loading those bound in VMM32.VXD.

The following list shows the VxDs typically combined to create VMM32.VXD. (A custom list is built for each computer.) These drivers used to be specified in the [386enh] section of SYSTEM.INI.

Typical VxDs Combined to Create VMM32.VXD

*biosxlat
*configmg
*dynapage
*ebios
*ifsmgr
*int13

*ios
*parity
*reboot
*vcache
*vcomm
*vcond

*vdd
*vdef
*vfat
*vfbackup
*vkd
*vmcpd

*vmouse
*vmpoll
*vsd
*vtdapi
*vwin32
*vxdldr

VMM32 loads VxDs in three steps:

  • VMM32 loads base drivers specified in the Registry, which contains entries for every VxD not directly associated with any hardware. VxDs are located in this branch of the Registry:

    Hkey_Local_Machine \System \CurrentControlSet \Services \VxD 
    
  • If VMM32 finds a value StaticVxD= in any Registry key, it loads that VxD and runs its real-mode initialization. For example, the following entry loads *V86MMGR:

    SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\VxD\V86MemoryManger
    Description=MS-DOS Virtual 8086 Memory Manager
    Manufacturer=Microsoft
    StaticVxD=*V86MMGR
    EMMEXCLUDE=E000-EFFF
    
  • VMM32 loads the static VxDs specified in the device=*VxD lines in the [386enh] section of SYSTEM.INI. These VxDs are actually loaded from VMM32, and appear in SYSTEM.INI only for backward compatibility.

If a specific device conflicts with a device loaded from the Registry, the device specified in SYSTEM.INI takes precedence. However, if the device specified in SYSTEM.INI cannot be found, an error will occur.

Many Windows 95 driver models, such as IOS (for disk drivers) and the network, support dynamically loaded device drivers. These VxDs are not loaded by the VMM32 real-mode loader, but are loaded by a device loader that is responsible for loading and initializing the drivers at the correct time and in the correct order.

For example, for SCSI adapter miniport drivers, the device loader is *IOS. The entries for a SCSI adapter are found in this Registry key:

Hkey_Local_Machine \System \CurrentControlSet \Services \Class

Because there is no StaticVxD=xxx line in this Registry entry, the VMM32 real-mode loader does nothing when Windows 95 identifies this device.

Configuration Manager attempts to find any device node that has a DevLoader= entry in the Registry. The device loader (in the previous example, *IOS) examines the Registry, finds the PortDriver= entry, loads the driver and any associated support drivers, and initializes the adapter.

Loading the Protected-Mode Operating System at Startup

In the previous phase, these elements of the operating system were loaded:

  • WIN.COM, which controls the initial checks and loading of the core Windows 95 components

  • VMM32.VXD, which creates virtual machines and initiates VxD loading

  • SYSTEM.INI, which is read for entries that differ from Registry entries

After all static VxDs are loaded, VMM32.VXD switches the processor to operate in protected mode, and the last phase of the boot process begins. This phase involves loading the protected-mode components of the operating system.

Loading Protected-Mode VxDs at Startup

The protected-mode Configuration Manager is initialized for importing configuration information from a Plug and Play BIOS (if available); otherwise, it develops the Plug and Play hardware tree by enumerating devices and loading dynamically loadable device drivers. These device drivers are identified by loading drivers from a specific directory.

The next phase resolves device resource conflicts for every device in the tree and then informs the devices of their configuration. When all devices have been enumerated, all conflicts have been resolved, and all devices have been initialized, Windows 95 is ready to be used.

Loading the Final System Components at Startup

The remaining Windows 95 system components are loaded in the following sequence:

  • KERNEL32.DLL provides the main Windows components, and KRNL386.EXE loads the Windows device drivers

  • GDI.EXE and GDI32.EXE provide the graphic device interface code

  • USER.EXE and USER32.EXE provide the user interface code

  • Associated resources, such as fonts, are loaded

  • WIN.INI values are checked

  • The shell and desktop components are loaded

At this point, a prompt appears so that you can log on by typing a user name and a password. After you log on, Windows 95 can process user-specific configuration information. If you do not log on, default settings are used. If Windows 95 is configured for network logon, the unified Windows 95 logon can be used to log on to the network during this process.

After Windows 95 is loaded and you log on, the STARTUP directory is processed.

System Startup Files

This section describes the following files involved in Windows 95 system startup:

  • IO.SYS, which is the real-mode operating system that replaces the MS-DOS version; VMM32 and Windows 95 device drivers take control from IO.SYS

  • MSDOS.SYS, which contains special information for Windows 95 and is also created for compatibility with applications that require this file to be present before they can be installed

  • CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT

  • SYSTEM.INI and WIN.INI

  • BOOTLOG.TXT, the log file that describes the system startup processes

The following table summarizes how Setup renames the system files for the previous operating system when Windows 95 is installed. (The Windows 95 files are renamed with .W40 filename extensions when you start the computer with the other operating system.)

Original MS-DOS filename

Renamed file under Windows 95

autoexec.bat

autoexec.dos

command.com

command.dos

config.sys

config.dos

io.sys (or ibmbio.com)

io.dos

mode.com

mode_dos.com

msdos.sys (or ibmdos.com)

msdos.dos

IO.SYS: The Real-Mode Operating System

Windows 95 uses a new system file, IO.SYS, which replaces the MS-DOS system files (IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS). This real-mode operating system file contains the information needed to start the computer. Your computer no longer needs CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT to start the Windows 95 operating system (although these files are preserved for backward compatibility with certain applications and drivers).

Note: The Windows 95 IO.SYS file is automatically renamed to WINBOOT.SYS if you start the computer using your previous operating system.

The drivers loaded by default in IO.SYS include the following, if these files are found on the hard disk:

  • HIMEM.SYS

  • IFSHLP.SYS

  • SETVER.EXE

  • DBLSPACE.BIN or DRVSPACE.BIN

Most of the common functionality provided by the various CONFIG.SYS file entries are now provided by default in IO.SYS. The following table lists the common entries in CONFIG.SYS that are now incorporated into IO.SYS for Windows 95.

CONFIG.SYS Settings Incorporated in Windows 95 IO.SYS

Setting

Description

dos=high

Specifies that MS-DOS should be loaded in the high memory area (HMA). Also, the umb value is included if EMM386 is loaded from CONFIG.SYS. (IO.SYS does not load EMM386.)

himem.sys

Enables access to the HMA. This line loads and runs the real-mode Memory Manager. HIMEM.SYS is loaded by default in Windows 95.

ifshlp.sys

Installable File System Helper, which loads device drivers. This allows the system to make file system calls. Until this is loaded, only the minimal file system from IO.SYS is used. After this point, the full file system is available.

setver.exe

Optional TSR-type device. It is included for compatibility reasons. Some MS-DOS–based applications require a specific version of MS-DOS to be running. This file responds to applications that query for the version number and sets the version number required.

files=

Specifies the number of file handle buffers to create. This is specifically for files opened using MS-DOS calls and is not required by Windows 95. It is included for compatibility with older applications. The default value is 60.

lastdrive=

Specifies the last drive letter available for assignment. This is not required for Windows 95 but is included for compatibility with older applications. If Windows 95 Setup finds this entry, it is moved to the Registry. The default value is z.

buffers=

Specifies the number of file buffers to create. This is specifically for applications using IO.SYS calls and is not required by Windows 95. The default value is 30.

stacks=

Specifies the number and size of stack frames. This is not required for Windows 95 but is included for compatibility with older applications. The default value is 9,256.

shell=command.com

Indicates what command process to use. By default, the /p switch is included to indicate that the command process is permanent and should not be unloaded. If the /p switch is not specified, AUTOEXEC.BAT is not processed and the command process can be unloaded when quitting the operating system.

fcbs=

Specifies the number of file control blocks that can be open at the same time. You should use a fcbs= line in CONFIG.SYS only if you have an older program that requires such a setting. The default value is 4.

To override default values in Windows 95 IO.SYS

  • Place an entry in CONFIG.SYS with the value you want.

The values in IO.SYS cannot be edited. If CONFIG.SYS contains switches or other parameters for any of the drivers or settings created by IO.SYS, the CONFIG.SYS entries override the IO.SYS defaults. Entries for files=, buffers=, and stacks= must be set in CONFIG.SYS to at least the default values in IO.SYS.

Note: : IO.SYS does not load EMM386.EXE. If any of your applications requires expanded memory or loads data into the high memory area, EMM386 must be loaded in CONFIG.SYS. For details about using EMM386, see Appendix A, "Command-Line Commands Summary."

MSDOS.SYS: Special Startup Values

Windows 95 Setup creates a hidden, read-only system file named MSDOS.SYS in the root of the computer's boot drive. This file contains important paths used to locate other Windows files, including the Registry. MSDOS.SYS also supports an [Options] section, which you can add to tailor the startup process.

The following example shows a typical file with default values:

[Options]
BootGUI=1

[Paths]
WinDir=C:\WINDOWS
WinBootDir=C:\WINDOWS
HostWinBootDrv=C

Most values in the [Options] section are Boolean — that is, the value can be 1 (enabled) or 0 (disabled). The following table describes entries in MSDOS.SYS, using the typical default values.

MSDOS.SYS Values

Entry

Description

[Paths] section:

 

HostWinBootDrv=c

Defines the location of the boot drive root directory.

WinBootDir=

Defines the location of the necessary startup files. The default is the directory specified during Setup; for example, C:\WINDOWS.

WinDir=

Defines the location of the Windows 95 directory as specified during Setup.

[Options] section:

 

BootDelay=n

Sets the initial startup delay to n seconds. The default is 2. BootKeys=0 disables the delay. The only purpose of the delay is to give the user sufficient time to press F8 after the Starting Windows message appears.

BootFailSafe=

Enables Safe Mode for system startup. The default is 0. (This setting is enabled typically by equipment manufacturers for installation.)

BootGUI=

Enables automatic graphical startup into Windows 95. The default is 1.

BootKeys=

Enables the startup option keys (that is, F5, F6, and F8). The default is 1. Setting this value to 0 overrides the value of BootDelay=n and prevents any startup keys from functioning. This setting allows system administrators to configure more secure systems. (These startup keys are described in Chapter 35, "General Troubleshooting.")

BootMenu=

Enables automatic display of the Windows 95 Startup menu, so that the user must press F8 to see the menu. The default is 0. Setting this value to 1 eliminates the need to press F8 to see the menu.

BootMenuDefault=#

Sets the default menu item on the Windows Startup menu; the default is 3 for a computer with no networking components, and 4 for a networked computer.

BootMenuDelay=#

Sets the number of seconds to display the Windows Startup menu before running the default menu item. The default is 30.

BootMulti=

Enables dual-boot capabilities. The default is 0. Setting this value to 1 enables the ability to start MS-DOS by pressing F4 or by pressing F8 to use the Windows Startup menu.

BootWarn=

Enables the Safe Mode startup warning. The default is 1.

BootWin=

Enables Windows 95 as the default operating system. Setting this value to 0 disables Windows 95 as the default; this is useful only with MS-DOS version 5 or 6.x on the computer. The default is 1.

DblSpace=

Enables automatic loading of DBLSPACE.BIN. The default is 1.

DoubleBuffer=

Enables loading of a double-buffering driver for a SCSI controller. The default is 0. Setting this value to 1 enables double-buffering, if required by the SCSI controller.

DrvSpace=

Enables automatic loading of DRVSPACE.BIN. The default is 1.

LoadTop=

Enables loading of COMMAND.COM or DRVSPACE.BIN at the top of 640K memory. The default is 1. Set this value to 0 with Novell® NetWare® or any software that makes assumptions about what is used in specific memory areas.

Logo=

Enables display of the animated logo. The default is 1. Setting this value to 0 also avoids hooking a variety of interrupts that can create incompatibilities with certain memory managers from other vendors.

Network=

Enables Safe Mode With Networking as a menu option. The default is 1 for computers with networking installed. This value should be 0 if network software components are not installed.

Tip for Starting an Earlier Version of MS-DOS

If you installed Windows 95 in its own directory, the earlier version of MS-DOS is preserved on your hard disk. If you set BootMulti=1 in the [Options] section in the Windows 95 version of MSDOS.SYS, you can start the earlier version of MS-DOS by pressing F4 when the Starting Windows message appears during system startup.

CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT

For Windows 95, both the content and method have changed for handling CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT during system startup. Windows 95 automatically loads drivers and sets defaults by using IO.SYS, the Registry, and other mechanisms, rather than CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT.

However, computers that require certain real-mode drivers or TSRs will continue to require that software be loaded from these configuration files. Also, CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT might be required to enable certain software options. However, some options, such as long command lines, can also be enabled by using the COMMAND.COM program properties, as shown in the following illustration.

Cc751084.rk06_02(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

CONFIG.SYS Processing

CONFIG.SYS defaults are implemented by IO.SYS, as described in the previous section. However, CONFIG.SYS can contain application-specific entries in addition to information stored in IO.SYS. These are processed in the sequence they are listed. After the base CONFIG.SYS file has been read, all devices are loaded, and COMMAND.COM is running.

Windows 95 loads memory managers supplied by other vendors if they are present in CONFIG.SYS; however, some might cause errors. Similarly, Windows 95 allows the use of command shells from other vendors, but, for example, long filenames are disabled, which might also indicate that other problems can occur using these command shells.

CONFIG.SYS Changes for Windows 95

Windows 95 has predefined settings built in for most common CONFIG.SYS settings, so Windows 95 Setup removes many of these lines (such as settings for files, buffers, and stacks) if they are equivalent to the default values, by using REM to comment out the line.

Tips for Editing CONFIG.SYS

If you edit CONFIG.SYS in Windows 95, observe the following basic guidelines:

  • Do not include the smartdrv command. Windows 95 includes built-in disk-caching, and double-buffering is now provided by DBLBUFF.SYS.

  • Remove any device=mouse.sys lines or similar lines. Windows 95 includes built-in mouse support.

The following tables describe the changes that Setup makes to CONFIG.SYS.

Device Entries Deleted from CONFIG.SYS if Found

cmd640x.sys
ifshlp.sys
fastopen

fastopen.exe
rambios.sys
share.exe

share.com
share
smartdrv.sys

smartdrv.exe

Lines Removed from CONFIG.SYS for Non – MS-DOS Operating Systems

delwatch.exe
delpurge.exe
diskmap.exe
diskopt.exe
dpms.exe
emmxma.sys

hidos.sys
lock.exe
login.exe
memmax.exe
nwcache.exe
password.exe

pckwik.sys
rendir.exe
script.exe
superpck.exe
taskmax.exe
taskmgr.exe

touch.exe
vdisk.sys
xdel.exe
xdir.exe

Miscellaneous Lines Removed from CONFIG.SYS

biling.sys
country
cpqcm.sys
display.sys
dos-up.sys
dosdata.sys
doshost.exe
driver.sys
dwcfgmg.sys
ega.sys
extrados.max
isl850.sys
isl861.sys

island.sys
jdisp.sys
jfont.sys
jkeyb.sys
kkcfunc.sys
kkfunc.sys
memdrv.exe
mirror
mirror.com
mirror.exe
msime.sys
msimek.sys
nav.drv

nav_.sys
navtsr.exe
nemm.dos
nfs-ndis.sys
pcnfs.sys
pcshel.exe
pcshell
protman.sys
rambios.sys
redirect.sys
sockdrv.sys
st-dbl.sys
st-dspc.sys

tcpdrv.dos
ubxps.dos
undelete.exe
vaccine.exe
vdefend.com
vdefend.sys
virstop.exe
vsafe.com
vsafe.sys
vwatch.com
wbide
workgrp.sys

Lines Removed from CONFIG.SYS That Start Disk Caches

cache-at.sys

Golden Bow Systems software

cacheclk.exe

 

cache-em.sys

Golden Bow Systems software

cache.exe

Disk cache utility

faste.exe

 

fastx.exe

 

fast512.sys

 

flash.exe

Flash disk cache utility

hyper286.exe

Hyper disk cache utility

hyper386.exe

Shareware disk cache

hyperdkc.exe

Hyper disk cache utility

hyperdke.exe

Hyper disk cache utility

hyperdkx.exe

Hyper disk cache utility

ibmcache.sys

 

icache.sys

 

l.com

Lightning disk cache

mcache.sys

Paul Mace utilities

ncache.exe

Norton Utilities® disk cache utility

pc-cache.com

PC Tools™ disk cache utility

pckkey.exe

MultiSoft Super PC-Kwik Windows driver

pckscrn.exe

MultiSoft Super PC-Kwik Windows driver

pc-kwik.exe

PC-Kwik disk cache utility

pckwin.sys

Multisoft Super PC-Kwik Windows driver

poweron.bat

Batch file that turns on Super PC-Kwik

qcache.exe

386MAX® disk cache utility

qcache.win

386MAX/BlueMAX™ disk cache utility

scpcdext.exe

Norton CD-ROM Cache

scplus.exe

SpeedCache for disks and CD-ROM

sdcdext.exe

Norton CD-ROM Cache

speedrv.exe

Norton Speed Drive

super.exe

Super PC-Kwik

superon.bat

Batch file that turns on Super PC-Kwik

superpck.exe

Multisoft Super PC-Kwik disk cache

zcache.sys

Zenith Data Systems OEM disk cache from DOS 3.3 and 4.01

Lines Removed from CONFIG.SYS for Previous Versions of OEM-DOS

astcache.sys

AST® 3.30

cache.sys

COMPAQ® 3.20, Dell® 3.30

cacher.sys

AST 3.30, Olivetti® 3.30

cemm.exe

MS-DOS 3.20, 3.21, 3.30, 3.31, 4.00

cemmp.exe

MS-DOS 3.20, 3.21, 3.30, 3.31, 4.00, COMPAQ 5.00

enhdisk.sys

COMPAQ 3.20, 3.31, 4.00

emmdrv.sys

NCR® 3.30

fastdisk.sys

AST 3.30

hardrive.sys

HP® 3.20, 3.30, 4.00

hpdcache.sys

HP 4.0

kboard.sys

Toshiba® 3.20

mlpart.sys

Tandy® 3.20, 3.30

olicache.sys

Olivetti 3.30

ramboost.exe

IBM 6.3

shelldrv.sys

NCR 3.30

spooler.sys

Tandy 3.20, 3.30

xdisk.sys

Unisys® 3.20

xma2ems.sys

MS-DOS 4.00

xmaem.sys

MS-DOS 4.00

zspool.sys

Zenith Data Systems 3.20, 3.21

AUTOEXEC.BAT Processing

AUTOEXEC.BAT is not required for Windows 95, but it is included for compatibility purposes. If the computer has an AUTOEXEC.BAT file, each line is processed in sequence during system startup. AUTOEXEC.BAT can contain additional application-specific entries that are run in the sequence they are listed.

Windows 95 passes the initial environment to COMMAND.COM with the correct Windows and Windows COMMAND directories already in the path and with the environment variables PROMPT, TMP, and TEMP already set. (TEMP= and TMP= indicate locations for temporary directories; both are specified for compatibility reasons.)

The following AUTOEXEC.BAT commands have equivalent default settings created in IO.SYS for Windows 95.

AUTOEXEC.BAT Equivalents for Windows 95 IO.SYS Default Settings

Command

Meaning

net start

Loads the real-mode network components and validates the binding. Any errors received are placed in the NDISLOG.TXT file. (SYSINIT or COMMAND.COM performs the necessary net start command.)

set path

Sets the path as specified.

The default Windows 95 environment includes the following:

tmp=c:\windows\temp
temp=c:\windows\temp
prompt=$p$g
path=c:\windows;c:\windows\command
comspec=c:\windows\command\command.com

AUTOEXEC.BAT Changes for Windows 95

Windows 95 Setup makes the following basic changes to AUTOEXEC.BAT:

  • Updates the path= line statement

  • Uses rem to comment out incompatible TSRs

  • Deletes any win statement (or equivalent) and SHARE.EXE

  • Copies the original AUTOEXEC.BAT to AUTOEXEC.DOS

  • Sets the TEMP directory

For diskless workstations, if the TEMP and TMP environment variables are not set, Windows 95 Setup creates a TEMP directory in the home directory (which can be on the local hard disk or on the network), and adds set tmp= and set temp= entries in AUTOEXEC.BAT that point to the new directory.

Tips for Editing AUTOEXEC.BAT in Windows 95

If you edit AUTOEXEC.BAT, observe the following basic guidelines:

  • Do not include other versions of Windows in your path.

  • Start the path with C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND (using the name for the Windows 95 directory on your hard disk if it is not WINDOWS).

  • Windows 95 Setup leaves your previous MS-DOS directory in the path. Do not change this.

  • Do not add SMARTDrive or other disk caches. Windows 95 includes built-in caching.

  • Do not include any statements for loading mouse support software. Windows 95 includes built-in mouse support.

  • If it is necessary to connect to a network server when you start Windows 95, create a batch file, and run it from the STARTUP directory, rather than placing an entry in AUTOEXEC.BAT.

The following tables describe changes that Setup makes to AUTOEXEC.BAT. For entries that are removed, Setup uses rem to comment out the line.

Commands Removed from AUTOEXEC.BAT

dosshell
fastopen

setcfg
share

UnSet=comspec
win

=ascsi

Commands Removed from AUTOEXEC.BAT for Non – MS-DOS Operating Systems

delpurge
delq
delwatch
diskmap
diskopt

dpms
eraq
lock
login
memmax

nwcache
password
ramboost
rendir
script

taskmax
taskmgr
touch
xdel
xdir

Miscellaneous Lines Removed from AUTOEXEC.BAT

3C503ban
3C507ban
3C523ban
3C603ban
6510ban
8023ban
acinfo
arcban
arcmcban
asyncban
attstban
call
csiban
dblspace,1
dellmenu,1
diag5210
diag9210
diagarc
diage503
diage523
diage603
diagethr

diagintr
diagipa
diagiso
diagomni
diagpcnt
diagpro4
diagtokn
diagungr
diagvlan
diagwd
dnr
doshost
drvspace,1
emsbfr
etherban
expban
hughsban
i92ban
intelban
interban
intr2ban
ipaban

irmban
isoban
mirror
navtsr.exe
ndarcban
nddgban
neban
net
netbind
netbind
nicmcban
nmtsr
oliban
omniban
pcnetban
pcshell
pro16ban
pro4ban
proban
probanmc
redirect
rin

rinAsync
script
snban
sockets
tcptsr
tinyrfc
tokbanmc
toknban
tokuiban
trban
ubniuban
umb
undelete,1
ungerban
vaccine
vdefend
virstop.exe
vlanban
vsafe.com
vwatch.com
wbide
wdban

Lines Removed from AUTOEXEC.BAT That Start Disk Caches

Command line

Disk cache

cache-at

Golden Bow Systems software

cacheclk

Helix Multimedia Cloaking version 1.0

cache-em

Golden Bow Systems software

cache

 

fast

 

faste

 

fastx

 

fast512

 

flash

Flash disk cache utility

hyper286

Hyper disk cache utility

hyper386

Shareware disk cache

hyperdkc

Hyper disk cache utility

hyperdke

Hyper disk cache utility

hyperdkx

Hyper disk cache utility

ibmcache

 

icache

 

l

Lightning disk cache

mcache

Paul Mace utilities

ncache

Norton Utilities disk cache utility

ncache2

Norton Utilities disk cache utility

pc-cache

PC Tools disk cache utility

pckkey

Multisoft Super PC-Kwik Windows driver

pckscrn

Multisoft Super PC-Kwik Windows driver

pc-kwik

PC-Kwik disk cache utility

pckwin

Multisoft Super PC-Kwik Windows driver

poweron.bat,1

Super PC-Kwik

qcache

386MAX disk cache utility

scpcdext

Norton CD-ROM cache

scplus

SpeedCache for disks and CD-ROM

sdcdext

Norton CD-ROM cache

smartdrv

Microsoft SMARTDrive disk utility

speedrv

Norton Speed Drive

super

Super PC-Kwik

superon

Batch file that turns on Super PC-Kwik

superpck

Multisoft Super PC-Kwik disk cache

zcache

Zenith Data Systems OEM from DOS 3.3 and 4.01

SYSTEM.INI and WIN.INI

This section describes changes related to system startup made by Windows 95 Setup to SYSTEM.INI and WIN.INI. Mappings for other changes between Windows 3.x and Windows 95 are described in Chapter 33, "Windows 95 Registry."

Changes to SYSTEM.INI

Most configuration options for Windows 95 are now stored in the Registry and are no longer required in SYSTEM.INI. The following options have been moved to the Registry or are no longer valid in Windows 95:

  • All parameters are moved from the [Network drivers] section of SYSTEM.INI to the Registry.

  • The lanabase= parameter is moved from the [nwnblink] section of SYSTEM.INI to the Registry.

The following tables describe other changes made in SYSTEM.INI.

comm.drv=comm.drv
dibeng.drv=dibeng.dll

gdi.exe=gdi.exe
sound.drv=sound.drv

user.exe=user.exe

Entries Added to the [386Enh] Section of SYSTEM.INI

device=*vshare
device=*vcd

device=*int13
device=*dynapage

 

Entries Deleted in the [386Enh] Section of SYSTEM.INI

device=*vfd
device=*configmg
device=serial.386

device=lpt.386
device=pagefile.386
timercriticalsection=

device=isapnp.386
device=wshell.386
maxbps=

Entries Moved from the [386Enh] Section of SYSTEM.INI to the Registry

Network=
Network3=

SecondNet=
Transport=

V86ModeLANAs=

Entries Moved from the [Network] Section of SYSTEM.INI to the Registry

AuditEnabled=
AuditEvents=
AuditLogSize=
AutoLogon=
Comment=
ComputerName=
DirectHost=
EnableSharing=

FileSharing=
LANAs=
LMAnnounce=
LMLogon=
LogonDisconnected=
LogonDomain=
LogonValidated=
Multinet=

PasswordCaching=
PrintSharing=
Reshare=
SlowLanas=
Winnet=
Workgroup=

The following list summarizes where you should set the related parameters using Windows 95 tools:

  • Set all memory-related parameters by using the System option in Control Panel. For information, see Chapter 17, "Performance Tuning."

  • Set parameters for hardware devices by using Device Manager in the System option in Control Panel. For information, see Chapter 19, "Devices."

  • Set all networking and resource sharing parameters by using the Network option in Control Panel. For information, see Part 3, "Networking."

Changes to WIN.INI

The font and desktop information in WIN.INI is transferred to the Registry, as described in the following lists.

Entries Moved from the [Windows] Section of WIN.INI to the Registry

Beep
BorderWidth
CursorBlinkRate
DoubleClickSpeed

KeyboardDelay
KeyboardSpeed
MouseThreshold1
MouseThreshold2

MouseSpeed
ScreenSaveActive
ScreenSaveTimeOut
SwapMouseButtons

Entries Moved from the [WindowMetrics] Section of WIN.INI to the Registry

BorderWidth
CaptionHeight
CaptionWidth
MenuHeight
MenuWidth

MinArrange
MinHorzGap
MinVertGap
MinWidth

ScrollHeight
ScrollWidth
SmCaptionHeight
SmCaptionWidth

In addition, Setup always adds ATMWorkaround=1 to the [Pscript.Drv] section in WIN.INI.

The following list summarizes where you should set the related parameters using Windows 95 tools:

  • Set all mouse parameters by using the Mouse option in Control Panel. For information, see Chapter 19, "Devices."

  • Set parameters for the keyboard by using the Keyboard option in Control Panel. For information, see online Help.

  • Set all screen and window display parameters by using the Display option in Control Panel. For information, see Chapter 19, "Devices."

BOOTLOG.TXT: The Startup Process Log

The BOOTLOG.TXT file contains a record of the current startup process for starting Windows 95. This file is created during Setup when the Windows 95 operating system is first started from Windows 95 Setup. This file shows the Windows 95 components and drivers loaded and initialized, and the status of each.

When you use the F8 option for interactive system startup, you can choose to create a boot log during system startup. You can also use the /b switch to create a boot log when running WIN.COM from the command line to isolate configuration problems. For information, see Chapter 35, "General Troubleshooting."

The information in BOOTLOG.TXT is written in sequence during startup, in roughly five major sections. Depending upon a specific error condition, you might need to examine multiple sections. Notice, however, that a loadfailed= entry means only that the related VxD refused to load. For example, loadfailed=ebios indicates that the EBIOS driver did not detect EBIOS in the computer and so reported that it should not be loaded. The following table shows the sections to examine, and describes the possible errors and methods for correcting those errors.

Section and errors

Corrective action

Loading real-mode drivers:

 

No XMS memory

Verify that the section contains this entry:
loadsuccess=c:\windows\himem.sys
If not, verify the file and entry in CONFIG.SYS

Incorrect MS-DOS version (message appears when driver loads)

If this error appears when loading drivers or programs that worked before, verify that the section contains this entry:
loadsuccess=c:\windows\setver.exe.

Windows 95 doesn't start on a SCSI hard drive

Verify that the section contains this entry:
loadsuccess=c:\windows\dblbuff.sys

IFSHLP.SYS message occurs

Verify that the section contains this entry:
loadsuccess=c:\windows\ifshlp.sys

Loading VxDs:

 

 

Verify the loading, system, and device initialization of all VxDs by checking the section for these entries:
loading vxd = ios
loadsuccess = ios

Cannot access D??SPACE drives

Verify that the section contains this entry:
loadsuccess = c:\dblspace.bin

Sharing violations occur

Might be due to failure of the Vshare VxD to load. The section might contain an entry such as:
loadfailed = vshare

System-critical initialization of VxDs:

 

System-critical initialization error occurs

Verify that this section contains entries such as:
syscritinit=ios
syscritinitsuccess=ios

Device initialization of VxDs:

 

 

Verify that the section contains entries such as:
deviceinit=ios
deviceinitsuccess=ios

Successful VxD initialization:

 

 

Verify that the section contains entries such as:
initcomplete=ios
initcompletesuccess=ios

The following table shows the kinds of entries in BOOTLOG.TXT to examine for information about the system startup process.

BOOTLOG.TXT entry

Description

Error

Errors that were logged during startup

Fail

Failures that occurred during startup

Dynamic load success

Dynamically loaded VxDs

INITCOMPLETESUCCESS

Loaded VxDs

LoadStart, LoadSuccess, Loading Device, Loading Vxd

Indication of loading processes

LoadFailed

Indication that component failed to load

SYSCRITINIT, SYSCRITINITSUCCESS

System initialization actions

DEVICEINIT, DEVICEINITSUCCESS

Device initialization actions

Dynamic load device, Dynamic init device

Dynamic loading and initialization of devices

Initing, Init Success, INITCOMPLETE, Init, InitDone

Initialization actions

Status

Current status indicator

For example, if you see an entry such as DynamicInitDevice=PPPMAC but there is no matching entry such as DynamicInitSuccess=PPPMAC, then that VxD failed to load. If a driver in the Windows SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS directory stalls when it is being initialized, you can sometimes successfully start the system by renaming that file.

The following shows a sample BOOTLOG.TXT file:

Loading Device = C:\WINDOWS\HIMEM.SYS
LoadSuccess    = C:\WINDOWS\HIMEM.SYS
Loading Device = C:\WINDOWS\EMM386.EXE
LoadSuccess    = C:\WINDOWS\EMM386.EXE
Loading Device = C:\WINDOWS\SETVER.EXE
LoadSuccess    = C:\WINDOWS\SETVER.EXE
Loading Device = C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\ANSI.SYS
LoadSuccess    = C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\ANSI.SYS
Loading Device = C:\WINDOWS\IFSHLP.SYS
LoadSuccess    = C:\WINDOWS\IFSHLP.SYS
Loading Vxd = VMM
LoadSuccess = VMM
Loading Vxd = nwlink.vxd
LoadSuccess = nwlink.vxd
Loading Vxd = vnetsup.vxd
LoadSuccess = vnetsup.vxd

Windows 95 Setup with Other Operating Systems

This section presents technical details related to installing Windows 95 over an existing operating system, including changes made to system files by Windows 95 Setup and configuring for dual-booting with the previous operating system.

The following table summarizes some of the available options for upgrading with Windows 3.x, MS-DOS, and Windows NT, and how you should install Windows 95 to take advantage of these options.

Upgrade versus New Installation Options

Feature

Install Windows 95 in a new directory

Upgrade existing Windows 3 . x installation with Windows 95

Migrate existing Windows application settings and files

X

Dual boot Windows 95 and MS-DOS

X

Dual boot Windows 95 and Windows NT1

X

1 Windows 95 and Windows NT can work together properly if the computer is configured for dual booting between MS-DOS and Windows NT. However, you must install Windows 95 in a new directory.

The issues discussed in this section include the following:

  • Installing Windows 95 over Windows 3.x, plus installing for dual booting with Windows 3.x

  • Installing Windows 95 over MS-DOS, including running on multiple-configuration computers

  • Installing Windows 95 for dual-booting with Windows NT

  • Installing Windows 95 over Novell® DR DOS®

  • Installing Windows 95 over IBM® OS/2®

Installing Windows 95 over Windows 3.x

If you have Windows 3.x or Windows for Workgroups 3.x, you can either upgrade the current installation to Windows 95 (the preferred method) or install this version of Windows 95 in a new directory.

If you choose to upgrade your existing Windows installation, Windows 95 Setup uses existing configuration information to set installation defaults and to set other configuration options. Windows 95 Setup converts all Windows 3.x Program Manager groups to folders inside the Programs directory, so they appear on the Windows 95 Start menu. These folders can be opened or explored to find the applications previously contained in them. Windows 95 automatically creates a shortcut for each original icon you had under the previous version of Windows.

Windows 95 Setup checks for the following files to determine whether the current installation is an upgrade to Windows 3.x: WINVER.EXE, USER.EXE, WIN.COM, SYSTEM.INI, and WINI.INI, plus PROTOCOL.INI for Windows for Workgroups 3.x. When searching for these files, Windows 95 Setup also checks the files for version information. (False files with the same name won't work.)

To upgrade from Windows 3.1 or Windows for Workgroups to Windows 95

  1. Start Windows 3.1 or Windows for Workgroups on your computer.

  2. Insert the first Windows 95 Setup floppy disk or the compact disc in the appropriate disk drive.

    – Or –

    Connect to the shared network resource that contains the Windows 95 source files.

  3. In File Manager, select the disk drive you used in step 2.

  4. Click the File menu, click Run, and then type setup

All of your current system settings (such as program groups and desktop preferences) are moved automatically to Windows 95. Windows 95 Setup also saves settings so that you can continue to use the network configuration that you had previously.

To upgrade from Windows 3.0

  1. Start your computer with MS-DOS. Do not run Windows 3.0.

  2. Insert the first Windows 95 Setup floppy disk or the compact disc in the appropriate disk drive.

    – Or –

    Connect to the shared network resource that contains the Windows 95 source files.

  3. Switch to the directory that contains the Windows 95 source files. At the command prompt, type setup and follow the directions on screen.

Installing Windows 95 for Dual Booting with Windows 3.x

To install Windows 95 with dual-boot capabilities for MS-DOS, the computer must already be running version 5.x or 6.x of MS-DOS or PC-DOS.

Important: In order to take advantage of the Windows 95 dual-boot capabilities, the entry BootMulti=1 must be set in the Windows 95 MSDOS.SYS file in the root directory. For more information, see "MSDOS.SYS: Special Startup Values" earlier in this chapter.

To set up dual-boot capabilities for a new installation of Windows 95

  • During Windows 95 Setup, when you are installing Windows 95 for the first time, make sure you specify a new directory that does not already have another version of Windows in it.

Windows 95 Setup makes all of the necessary changes to preserve your existing version of MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, or Windows for Workgroups 3.x, and your current AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files.

If you have already installed Windows 95 without dual-boot capabilities, you can follow these steps to allow MS-DOS to dual boot with Windows 95. However, you will not be able to dual boot with your previous version of Windows.

To set up dual-boot capabilities after Windows 95 has been installed

  1. On a bootable floppy disk that starts MS-DOS 5.0 or greater, rename the IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS files on the disk to IO.DOS and MSDOS.DOS. Then copy these files to the root directory of your boot drive (usually drive C).

    These files must be placed in the root directory. Usually these files are marked with the hidden, system, and read-only attributes, so you might need to use the MS-DOS attrib command on these files while they are on the floppy disk, to view and copy them (for example, type attrib -h -s -r io.sys).

    Caution: You must rename the MS-DOS versions of these files before copying them to the root directory. Otherwise, you will destroy your Windows 95 installation.

  2. On a bootable floppy disk that starts MS-DOS 5.0 or greater, rename the COMMAND.COM file on the disk to COMMAND.DOS. Then copy this file to the root directory of your boot drive.

    Note: If you are using disk compression software, you need to copy IO.DOS, MSDOS.DOS, COMMAND.DOS, CONFIG.DOS, and AUTOEXEC.BAT to your host drive also.

  3. Use a text editor to create CONFIG.DOS and AUTOEXEC.DOS files that are appropriate for the MS-DOS version that you are using and store them in the root directory.

  4. To use Windows 95 or the earlier version of MS-DOS in the usual way, restart the computer.

Installing Windows 95 over MS-DOS

The versions of MS-DOS supported for installing Windows 95 are versions 3.2 or greater (for partitions that are greater than 32 MB), 4.x, 5.x, and 6.x.

Tip for Running MS-DOS After Windows 95 Is Installed

If you install Windows 95 in a different directory from the one containing your previous Windows 3.x version, you can start the computer by using the previous version of MS-DOS. To do this, make sure the entry BootMulti=1 is in the Windows 95 MSDOS.SYS file, and then press F8 during system startup and choose the related option.

Files Deleted by Windows 95 Setup

This section lists MS-DOS and other files that are deleted by Windows 95 Setup. Notice, however, that these files are deleted from the old MS-DOS directory only if you install Windows 95 in the existing Windows 3.x directory. Otherwise, the old MS-DOS files are all preserved so that you can start the computer using the older version of MS-DOS.

The Windows 95 command-line commands are stored in the COMMAND subdirectory of the Windows directory. Deleting the related MS-DOS command file will not affect your ability to use the command under Windows 95. The versions that are deleted by Setup are known to be incompatible with Windows 95; for example, many of these MS-DOS commands do not support long filenames.

MS-DOS and Windows 3.x Files Deleted by Windows 95 Setup

ansi.sys
attrib.exe
chkdsk.exe
choice.exe
country.sys
debug.exe
defrag.exe
deltree.exe
diskcopy.exe
display.sys
doskey.com
d??space.bin1

d??space.exe1
d??space.sys1
edit.com
edit.hlp
ega.cpi
emm386.exe
fc.exe
fdisk.exe
find.exe
format.com
help.com
help.hlp

keyb.com
keyboard.sys
label.exe
mem.exe
mode.exe
more.com
move.com
mscdex.exe
msd.exe
networks.txt
nlsfunc.exe
os2.txt

ramdrive.sys
readme.txt
scandisk.exe
scandisk.ini
setver.exe
share.exe
smartdrv.exe
sort.exe
start.exe
subst.exe
sys.com
xcopy.exe

1 DRVSPACE.* or DBLSPACE.*

COMPAQ DOS 5.0 Files Deleted by Windows 95 Setup

cache.exe
cemm.exe
cemmp.exe

dos5help.chd
fastart.exe

fsedit.exe
help.exe

tu.exe
upcu.exe
Non – MS-DOS Operating System Files Deleted by Windows 95 Setup

delpurge.exe
delwatch.exe
diskmap.exe
diskopt.exe
dosbook.exe

hidos.sys
lock.exe
login.exe
memmax.exe
password.exe

rendir.exe
setup.exe
sys.com
taskmax.exe
taskmax.ini

touch.exe
uninstal.exe
xdel.exe
xdir.exe

Pre – MS-DOS 5.0 Files Deleted by Windows 95 Setup

append.com
asgnpart.com
backup.exe
bootf.com
cache.sys
cemm.exe
cemmp.exe
chkdsk.exe
cmpqadap.com
compact.exe
configur.com
debug.exe
detect.com
diskcomp.exe
diskcopy.exe
diskinit.com
diskinit.exe
dosutil.meu
dskscan.exe
dsksetup.com
edlin.exe
emm386.sys

enhdisk.sys
fastopen.exe
fastart.exe
fdisk.com
filesys.exe
for150.exe
format.exe
gdu.exe
graftabl.exe
graphics.exe
hardrive.sys
hpcache.com
hpdcache.com
ifsfunc.exe
indskbio.sys
install.exe
keyb32.com
keybchf.com
keybchg.com
keybda.com
keybfr.com

keybfr.exe
keybgk.com
keybgr.com
keybgr.exe
keybit.com
keybit.exe
keybno.com
keybsp.com
keybsv.exe
keybsw.com
keybuk.com
keybuk.exe
keybus.com
label.exe
mode.exe
mvbuild.exe
pamcode.com
paminstl.com
part.exe
password.exe
prep.exe

print.exe
recover.exe
restore.exe
select.com
select.dat
select.exe
select.hlp
select.prt
select1.dat
select2.dat
setup.exe
shell.clr
shell.hlp
shell.meu
shellb.com
shellc.exe
tree.exe
vdisk.sys
xmaem.sys
zcache.sys
zspool.com

System Startup with MS-DOS Multiple Configurations

Windows 95 supports multiple configurations for the same computer, and it dynamically determines which configuration is being used. If Windows 95 cannot determine the specific configuration used during system startup before processing CONFIG.SYS, then it presents a menu of available configurations as listed in the Registry, and it prompts you to select the configuration you want.

If you have a multiple configuration established in CONFIG.SYS, that menu is presented next. However, if you use a multiple configuration to switch between different versions of Windows, you must edit CONFIG.SYS manually to repair this configuration after Windows 95 is installed. For information about how to create multiple configurations for the same computer under Windows 95, see Chapter 19, "Devices."

Installing Windows 95 for Dual Booting with Windows NT

You can install Windows 95 to dual boot with Windows NT on a computer. This section provides some notes for installing Windows 95 with Windows NT.

Important: In order to take advantage of the Windows 95 dual-boot capabilities, the entry BootMulti=1 must be set in the Windows 95 version of MSDOS.SYS file in the root directory of your startup drive. For more information, see "MSDOS.SYS: Special Startup Values" earlier in this chapter.

To install Windows 95 to dual boot with Windows NT

  1. Ensure that the computer is configured to dual boot between Windows NT and MS-DOS. Check your Windows NT documentation for details.

  2. Start the computer by using the MS-DOS operating system.

  3. Run Windows 95 Setup as described in Chapter 3, "Introduction to Windows 95 Setup."

Remember that if your computer has any Windows NT file system (NTFS) partitions, they are not available locally from within Windows 95.

If you run MS-DOS from a floppy disk in order to install Windows 95, you will not be able to start Windows NT afterward. You can restore the multi-boot configuration by starting the computer with your Windows NT emergency repair disk and selecting the Repair option.

To run MS-DOS after Windows 95 has been installed, you must select the MS-DOS option from the Windows NT multiboot menu. Then, from the Windows 95 Startup menu, select the Previous Version of MS-DOS option.

To install Windows NT on a computer where Windows 95 is installed

  • At the command prompt, switch to the directory that contains the Windows NT source files, and then type winnt /w

The WINNT program is an MS-DOS – based application that creates the Windows NT Setup startup files and copies the system files to the hard disk from the source files. The /w switch allows WINNT to run under Windows. Using this switch also causes Windows NT Setup to skip the CPU detection process and the automatic restart at the end of Setup. You can also include the /b switch to copy the required startup files for Setup so that you do not have to create floppy disks for Setup.

For more information about the Windows NT operating system and about running computers with Windows 95 on a Windows NT network, see Chapter 8, "Windows 95 on Microsoft Networks."

Installing Windows 95 over DR DOS

DR DOS is a disk operating system manufactured by Novell. The latest version of Novell DOS™ available at the release of Windows 95 was version 7.

You cannot configure dual-boot capabilities for Windows 95 and DR DOS.

Windows 95 Setup checks for the following DR DOS files that could cause conflicts.

DR DOS Files That Cause Conflicts

delwatch.exe
delpurge.exe
diskmap.exe
diskopt.exe

fastopen.exe
lock.exe
memmax.exe
password.exe

rendir.exe
script.exe
superpck.exe

taskmax.exe
touch.exe
xdel.exe

DR DOS is upgraded in the same way as versions of MS-DOS (as described earlier in this section). However, these additional changes are made during Windows 95 Setup:

  • Some DR DOS utilities can cause compatibility problems with the Windows 95 real-mode kernel; Windows 95 Setup uses rem to comment out any command lines in the configuration files that start such utilities.

  • If you use DR DOS password protection, Windows 95 Setup warns that this should be removed; otherwise, Windows 95 Setup cannot use the protected volume.

Installing Windows 95 over OS/2

You can install Windows 95 on a computer running any version of OS/2 as long as a FAT partition is available. If the computer has any HPFS partitions, these partitions are not available from within Windows 95. Setup reminds you of this when it detects an HPFS partition.

The following notes apply to installing Windows 95 on a computer running OS/2:

  • You must install Windows 95 in a new directory.

  • Windows 95 Setup cannot migrate desktop or other settings from OS/2.

  • You might have to reinstall any Windows-based applications to run under Windows 95.

Windows 95 Setup cannot run from within either OS/2 or OS/2 for Windows. You must start the computer by using MS-DOS and then run Windows 95 Setup from an MS-DOS command prompt. If your OS/2 system is not configured to dual boot with MS-DOS, install MS-DOS first, and then start Windows 95 Setup from MS-DOS.

If your computer has OS/2 Boot Manager, a message warns you that continuing with Windows 95 Setup will disable Boot Manager. If you choose to continue, Windows 95 Setup removes the OS/2 Boot Manager partition information because Windows 95 Setup cannot determine which operating system or configuration Boot Manager will use to restart the computer. This ensures that Windows 95 starts during the installation process.

Windows 95 Setup leaves all other OS/2 files intact and does not remove any files from the OS/2 directory.

Tip for Restoring Boot Manager After Windows 95 Is Installed

Windows 95 runs normally with Boot Manager after installation is complete. After Windows 95 is installed, you can make Boot Manager active again by using the OS/2 boot disk to run the OS/2 Fdisk utility.

Removing Windows 95 from a Computer

Windows 95 can be removed from a computer by using the procedures described in the following section. If the computer is configured for dual booting, you will be left with the previous versions of MS-DOS and Windows 3.x intact. If you upgraded Windows 3.x, then you will need to reinstall Windows 3.x after Windows 95 is removed.

The recommended method for removing Windows 95 is to start the computer and use the F8 key to get to a command line, as described in the following procedure. When this is done, real-mode Windows 95 operating system files start the computer. If you encounter problems starting Windows 95 in this way, start your computer from the previous operating system (which may require using a floppy disk).

Removing Windows 95 with Command-Line Startup

Before you begin this process, make sure you have a system startup disk that contains an earlier version of MS-DOS and the SYS.COM file. You need this startup disk because the Windows 95 startup files (real-mode operating system files) must be deleted, so the process for removing Windows 95 makes your hard disk temporarily unbootable.

Note: The MS-DOS 6.x disk #1 is bootable, but the retail MS-DOS 5.0 disk #1 is not, and OEM versions might vary. To make a startup disk with MS-DOS 6.x, run setup /f from disk #1.

To remove Windows 95 when the computer is started to the command line

  1. Start the computer and press F8 when the Starting Windows message appears.

    If you have problems starting the computer in this way, you can use the procedure entitled "Removing Windows 95 with Your Previous Operating System" later in this chapter.

  2. Select the Command Prompt Only option.

  3. To make it easier to delete files and directories, copy the Windows 95 version of DELTREE.EXE to the boot drive. At the command prompt, type:

    copy \windows\command\deltree.exe c:\

  4. To use the Windows 95 version of ScanDisk to clear invalid entries and long filenames, copy the ScanDisk files from the Windows COMMAND directory to the root directory. At the command prompt, type:

    copy \windows\command\scandisk.* c:\

    Use Notepad or a similar text editor to edit SCANDISK.INI in the Windows directory. Change the entries controlling whether ScanDisk looks for invalid characters in filenames and volume labels:

    • Set labelcheck=on to specify that ScanDisk should check volume labels for invalid characters.

    • Set spacecheck= on to specify that ScanDisk should check for invalid spaces in filenames.

    For information about the entries in SCANDISK.INI, see that file in the Windows directory.

  5. To remove all entries that your earlier version of MS-DOS might see as invalid, at the command prompt, type scandisk followed by the letter identifying the drive containing the Windows 95 installation. For example:

    scandisk c:

    If you receive error messages during the ScanDisk process, refer to the online Help for information to help you resolve the error.

  6. To delete the Windows 95 directory, in the root directory of the drive containing the Windows 95 installation, type:

    deltree windows

    In this command, windows is the name of the directory containing the Windows 95 files.

    Caution: All subdirectories of the Windows 95 directory will be deleted by this command. Before performing this step, make sure that the Windows 95 directory tree does not contain any critical data that has not been backed up.

    This step will also require that you reinstall all Windows-based programs at the end of this procedure, so that the correct drivers and settings will be available in the restored Windows directory.

  7. To delete the Windows 95 CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files, in the root directory of the boot drive, type:

    deltree config.sys

    deltree autoexec.bat

  8. To delete the WINBOOT.INI file and the WINBOOT directory, if present, type:

    deltree winboot.*

  9. To delete the setup, boot, and detection log files, type:

    deltree setuplog.*

    deltree bootlog.*

    deltree detlog.*

  10. To delete the real-mode operating system files IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS, in the root directory of the boot drive (or from the root directory of the host drive, if the boot drive is compressed), type:

    deltree io.sys

    deltree msdos.sys

  11. If you are using STAC Electronics Stacker® version 3.1, either skip this step or back up the STAC DBLSPACE.BIN file before completing this step.

    To delete the Windows 95 compression drivers (DBLSPACE.BIN and DRVSPACE.BIN), if present, in the root directory of the boot drive (or from the root directory of the host drive, if the boot drive is compressed), type:

    deltree d??space.bin

  12. To delete the Windows 95 command processor (COMMAND.COM), in the root directory of the boot drive (or both from the C drive and from the root of the host drive, if the boot drive is compressed), type:

    deltree command.com

  13. Put a bootable floppy disk with your earlier version of MS-DOS into drive A, and then restart the computer. After the computer starts from the floppy disk, put your earlier version of MS-DOS back on the boot drive (or the host drive, if the C drive is compressed) by typing sys followed by the letter identifying the boot or host drive and a colon. For example:

    sys c:

  14. If you have MS-DOS version 6.0 and are using compression, copy DBLSPACE.BIN from the DOS directory to the root directory of the boot drive. Also, for all versions of MS-DOS, if you have a shell= statement referencing COMMAND.COM from a different directory, copy COMMAND.COM to the root directory. Then remove the floppy disk, and restart the computer from the hard disk.

To start the system with previous configuration files, copy CONFIG.DOS to CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.DOS to AUTOEXEC.BAT.

If you remove Windows 95 from a dual-boot installation, Windows 95 will be removed completely, and the computer will start the same way it did before installing Windows 95.

If you removed Windows 95 from an upgraded Windows 3.x installation, drivers that were located in the Windows directory (such as HIMEM.SYS, IFSLHLP.SYS, and EMM386.EXE) will be missing until you reinstall Windows 3.x. Then the computer will start the same way it did before Windows 95 was installed.

You might need to reinstall the previous version of MS-DOS, if needed files were removed by Windows 95 Setup.

Removing Windows 95 with Your Previous Operating System

Use this procedure if you cannot start a computer in Windows 95 real mode, as described in the preceding section.

Before you begin this process, make sure you have a bootable floppy disk that contains an earlier version of MS-DOS and the SYS.COM file. The process for removing Windows 95 makes your hard disk temporarily unbootable, and the Windows 95 startup files (real-mode operating system files) must also be deleted.

Note: The MS-DOS 6.x disk #1 is bootable, but the retail MS-DOS 5.0 disk #1 is not, and OEM versions might vary. To make a startup disk with MS-DOS 6.x, run setup /f from disk #1.

To remove Windows 95 when the computer is started with the previous operating system

  1. Start the computer and press the F8 key when the Starting Windows message appears.

  2. Select the Previous Version Of MS-DOS option.

  3. To make it easier to delete files and directories, copy the Windows 95 version of DELTREE.EXE to the boot drive. At the command prompt, type:

    copy \windows\command\deltree.exe c:\

  4. To copy the Windows 95 version of ScanDisk files from the Windows COMMAND directory to the root directory, type:

    copy \windows\command\scandisk.* c:\

    Use Notepad or a similar text editor to edit SCANDISK.INI. Change the entries controlling whether ScanDisk looks for invalid characters in filenames and volume labels:

    • Set labelcheck=on to specify that ScanDisk should check volume labels for invalid characters.

    • Set spacecheck=on to specify that ScanDisk should check for invalid spaces in filenames.

  5. To remove all entries that your earlier version of MS-DOS might see as invalid, at the command prompt, type scandisk followed by the letter identifying the drive containing the Windows 95 installation. For example:

    scandisk c:

    If you receive error messages during the ScanDisk process, refer to the online Help for information to help you resolve the error.

  6. To delete the Windows 95 directory, in the root directory of the drive containing the Windows 95 installation, type:

    deltree windows

    In this command, windows is the name of the directory containing the Windows 95 files.

    Caution: All subdirectories of the Windows 95 directory will be deleted by this command. Before performing this step, make sure that the Windows 95 directory tree does not contain any critical data that has not been backed up.

  7. To delete the Windows 95 real-mode operating system file named WINBOOT.SYS, which was renamed from IO.SYS when you started the computer with your previous operating system, type the following command from the boot drive (or from the root directory of the host drive, if the boot drive is compressed):

    deltree winboot.*

  8. Delete the Windows 95 files MSDOS.W40, COMMAND.W40, CONFIG.W40, and AUTOEXEC.W40 files. (The renaming of these operating system files occurred when you used F8 to start the previous operating system.) To do this, type the following command at the command prompt (if the boot drive is not compressed):

    deltree *.w40

    If the boot drive is compressed, you must delete MSDOS.W40 from the root directory of the host drive and COMMAND.W40 from the root directories of both the host drive and the boot drive.

  9. To delete the setup, boot, and detection log files, type:

    deltree setuplog.*

    deltree bootlog.*

    deltree detlog.*

  10. If you are using Stacker version 3.1, either skip this step or back up the STAC DBLSPACE.BIN file before completing this step. To delete the Windows 95 compression drivers (DBLSPACE.BIN and DRVSPACE.BIN), in the root directory of the boot drive (or from the root directory of the host drive, if the boot drive is compressed), type:

    deltree d??space.bin

  11. Put a bootable floppy disk with the earlier version of MS-DOS into drive A, and then restart the computer. After the computer starts from the floppy disk, put the earlier version of MS-DOS back on the boot drive (or the host drive, if the C drive is compressed) by typing sys followed by the letter identifying the drive and a colon. For example:

    sys c:

  12. If you have MS-DOS version 6.0 and are using compression, copy DBLSPACE.BIN to the root directory of the boot drive. Also, for all versions of MS-DOS, if you have a shell= statement referencing COMMAND.COM from a different directory, copy COMMAND.COM to the root directory. Then remove the floppy disk, and restart the computer from the hard disk.

If you remove Windows 95 from a dual-boot installation, Windows 95 will be removed completely, and the computer will start the same way it did before installing Windows 95.

If you removed Windows 95 from an upgraded Windows 3.x installation, you might need to reinstall your previous version of MS-DOS if some of the necessary files were removed by Windows 95 Setup. Drivers that were located in the Windows directory (such as HIMEM.SYS, IFSLHLP.SYS, and EMM386.EXE) will be missing until you reinstall Windows 3.x into the Windows directory. After you have reinstalled Windows 3.x, the computer will start the same way it did before Windows 95 was installed.

To remove Windows 95 from a computer with Windows NT installed

  1. Follow the steps in the procedure named "To remove Windows 95 when the computer is started with the previous operating system" earlier in this section.

  2. Use the Windows NT Setup disk #1 to restart your computer.

  3. When prompted, choose Repair. Then insert the Windows NT Emergency Repair Disk and choose the option to repair the boot files.

  4. Restore your original MS-DOS and Windows 3.x configuration.

Troubleshooting Setup and System Startup

This section provides information about solving problems that might occur during Setup or system startup. For specific information about troubleshooting procedures and the tools provided with Windows 95 (including details about using the Startup menu and Safe Mode for troubleshooting), see Chapter 35, "General Troubleshooting."

Note: If you have MS-DOS – based applications that require complete access to system resources, see the information about using MS-DOS Mode in Chapter 22, "Application Support."

Troubleshooting Specific Setup Errors

This section describes Setup problems and how to diagnose and correct them.

You can also get useful troubleshooting information from the SETUPLOG.TXT log file that Setup creates in the root directory of your startup drive, as described earlier in this chapter.

If Setup fails, attempt to restart it by using the following procedure.

To restart Setup after a failure

  1. Press F3 or click the Exit button.

    If the system does not respond, restart the computer by pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL. If this fails, turn off the computer, wait 10 seconds, and then turn it on again.

  2. Start Setup again. Setup prompts you to use Safe Recovery to recover the failed installation. Choose the Safe Recovery option and click the Continue button. Setup will skip the portion that caused the initial failure.

  3. If the computer stops again during the hardware detection process, restart Setup again, and repeat the process until the hardware detection portion of Setup is completed.

You can use the information in SETUPLOG.TXT and DETLOG.TXT to check for the device or devices that caused the problems. Also review any messages added by Setup in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file for instructions on correcting setup problems.

The following sections describe specific setup problems and how to resolve them.

Setup fails to start.

If Setup fails to start, you should check memory, check for hardware detection conflicts, and check the access to the source for the Windows 95 installation files. Use the following checklist and procedures to find a solution.

  • Check the computer for viruses.

  • Check for sufficient conventional memory.

    Windows 95 requires 420K. If this is not available, check for unnecessary drivers or TSRs, remove them and then try again. You can also run the MS-DOS MEMMAKER utility to optimize conventional memory.

  • Check the RAM configuration in CONFIG.SYS.

    For MS-DOS 4.x or earlier, settings should contain the following:

    device=himem.sys
    

    For MS-DOS 5 or later, settings should contain the following:

    device=himem.sys
    device=emm386.exe noems
    dos=high,umb
    

    Note: The path to these drivers is not specified in the preceding example. If you don't specify the path, you need to copy the drivers to the root of the startup drive. Using emm386 and dos=high,umb enables UMBs, but it is optional.

  • Check for adequate XMS memory. Windows 95 requires at least 3 MB of XMS. If you are using MS-DOS 6.xx, press F4 when you start the computer and the Starting MS-DOS message appears. Choose Step-by-Step Confirmation to verify that HIMEM.SYS is loading. If not, make sure that verify the startup file syntax.

  • At the command prompt, use mem /c /p to check for free conventional and XMS memory.

  • If installing from a floppy disk or compact disc, check access to the drive. For more information, see "Troubleshooting Specific Setup Errors" earlier in this chapter.

  • Remove all extra entries in CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT, except those required to start the system and, for a networked computer, to start the network. It is especially helpful to remove any entries related to non-Microsoft disk caching software.

Setup starts but an error is reported during the installation process.

  • Restart Windows 95 Setup and use Safe Recovery.

  • Check the SETUPLOG.TXT or DETLOG.TXT files.

  • Check the computer for viruses. This is an especially important step if Setup fails on disk 2 with floppy disk source files, or if it fails when the Windows 95 Startup wizard is preparing to run.

  • Verify that all system and networking components function normally. Run virus detection software and scandisk (specifying a Thorough Type of Test) to identify system problems that might cause errors.

  • Check the content of the error message. Windows 95 Setup errors contain additional information about the condition causing Setup to fail. Examine the device or condition that the error describes.

  • Verify that system hardware is compatible. If Setup repeatedly fails, or if you suspect hardware conflicts with the Setup process, verify that the system components are supported. You might want to skip hardware detection. To do this, see "Troubleshooting Specific Setup Errors" earlier in this chapter.

  • Check for a missing or damaged file. If a driver or system component file is referenced in the error, check to see if the file exists, if it is in the expected location, and if it has the correct file size, date, and version. For more information, see Chapter 35, "General Troubleshooting."

Setup fails when run from floppy disks.

When Setup fails when it is being run from floppy disks, you might see a message asking you to insert a disk in the floppy drive when a disk is already in the drive. Or, you might use the dir command to examine a Setup floppy disk and find that it fails or that garbled characters appear on the screen.

To solve this problem, first disable any BIOS-enable virus checking routine. Then check your computer hardware documentation or check with the manufacturer to ensure that the computer's CMOS settings are correct. If changing settings as advised by the manufacturer does not solve the problem, you can use the DRIVPARM utility.

To use DRIVPARM to solve floppy-disk hardware problems

  1. Start the computer using the most basic configuration files possible, loading no additional hardware drivers or other software in CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT.

  2. Insert a standard disk in drive A or drive B. At the command prompt, switch to that drive and type dir

  3. If this works, insert a disk from the Windows 95 floppy disks in the same drive, and type dir

  4. If this fails, garbled characters appear on the screen, or subsequent attempts to read the floppy disk fail, insert one of the following statements at the end of CONFIG.SYS.

    For a 1.44-MB A drive, add:

    drivparm=/d:0 /f:7
    

    For a 1.44-MB B drive, add:

    drivparm=/d:1 /f:7
    
  5. If CONFIG.SYS contains an entry for DRIVER.SYS, disable it by adding rem before the related command line.

  6. Save the CONFIG.SYS file, and restart the computer. Then repeat steps 2 and 3. If these steps are successful, leave the drivparm statement in CONFIG.SYS so that you can run Windows 95 Setup.

    If this procedure is not successful, the problem is related to the CMOS settings on the computer. For information and assistance, contact your computer manufacturer.

You cannot access the server when installing from the network.

  • Verify that the network domain is validating the user account.

  • Check the user name, password, and access rights.

  • Check basic network functionality.

  • Check conventional and XMS memory.

  • Check for and remove unnecessary drivers and TSRs.

  • If using a login script, check that the login script runs properly.

For more information, see Chapter 7, "Introduction to Windows 95 Networking."

The network connection fails when you are installing from the network.

  • Try to reconnect to the network share.

  • If you cannot reconnect, restart the computer, and try again.

  • Use another computer on the network to verify the installation server is working.

  • Check the basic network connection.

Setup stops during hardware detection.

When Setup stalls during hardware detection, you might need to disable hardware detection for a device or class of devices. Before you do this, wait until at least three minutes have passed with neither disk nor screen activity (that is, the mouse pointer cannot be moved). Some detection routines take long enough that the computer might appear to stop temporarily.

To skip hardware detection in order to avoid problems

  1. Run Windows 95 Setup from MS-DOS and, if this is not the first attempt to install, select Safe Recovery.

  2. To disable the specific device detection during Setup, in the Hardware Detection dialog box, select the option to specify the hardware devices to detect. Then make sure the check box next to the device is not checked.

Setup cannot communicate with a device.

If Setup cannot communicate with a specific hardware device on the system during the installation of Windows 95, a message states that Setup has found a hardware device on your computer that is not responding and prompts you to try this device again. For persistent problems, the message provides instructions on how to exit Setup and restart the computer.

This error message can be caused by one of the following:

  • The network has stopped responding

  • A CD-ROM drive has stopped responding

  • A floppy disk drive has stopped responding

  • Setup can no longer access the hard drive to complete the installation process

Follow the recommendation in the message to turn off the computer, turn it back on, and then rerun Setup with Safe Recovery. If the problem persists, identify the problem from the preceding list and correct it.

Setup fails with error B1.

A B1 error message indicates that Setup has detected an older 80386 processor that is not supported and instructs you to upgrade your processor. Intel 80386 microprocessors dated before April 1987 are known as B1 stepping chips. These chips introduce random math errors when performing 32-bit operations, thus making them incompatible with Windows 95. If your 80386 chip was manufactured before April 1987 or has a label on it that reads "For 16-bit operations only," contact your hardware manufacturer about an upgrade.

Problems occur during the file-copying phase of Setup.

If this occurs, exit Setup, restart your computer, and then rerun Setup. When prompted, select the Safe Recovery option and click Continue. The installation process should complete successfully.

If your computer stalls after all files have been copied, or if you receive an error at this point, it might be due to virus-protection software. Some computers have virus protection built into the ROM BIOS. You should disable the virus protection software or run your computer's configuration program to disable virus checking and then restart Setup. Select the Safe Recovery option, and the installation process should complete successfully.

An "Incorrect MS-DOS version" error message appears.

When starting Setup from MS-DOS, you might receive an error stating that MS-DOS 3.1 or greater is required. MS-DOS versions earlier than 3.1 are not compatible with Windows 95.

This error can also occur when starting Setup from MS-DOS if you are using the 386MAX software utility. If this error occurs, temporarily disable the 386MAX commands from the startup files, and then run Setup again.

A "Standard Mode: Fault in MS-DOS Extender" error message appears.

When running Windows 95 Setup from MS-DOS you might receive this error, indicating there might be a conflict in the upper memory region. To resolve this, either disable UMBs or remove EMM386 statements from CONFIG.SYS and rerun Setup. Or run Setup from Windows 3.x.

A "Cannot open file *.INF" error message appears.

If you receive an error that states that an *.INF file cannot be opened, you might need to free memory by disabling SMARTDrive in AUTOEXEC.BAT, or by closing any applications running in Windows.

Setup requests a new source path.

If this occurs, check the file source (the floppy disk drive or the CD-ROM drive).

  • In Windows File Manager, click the floppy disk drive, and verify that the drive and files are accessible by viewing directories and loading readable text files.

    – Or –

    At the MS-DOS command prompt, use the dir and type commands to verify that the drive and files are accessible by viewing directories and loading readable text files.

  • If the floppy disk drive is inaccessible, try reading a different disk. If that doesn't work, shut down and restart the computer. Check CMOS settings for the floppy disk drive using the hardware manufacturer's diagnostic routine (consult your hardware documentation).

  • If installing from a compact disc, verify that MSCDEX and the CD-ROM drivers are loaded and configured properly.

Setup is unable to find a valid boot partition.

A valid MS-DOS partition must exist in order for Setup to install Windows 95. If Windows 95 Setup is unable to find a valid boot partition during installation, it displays an error message. If you receive an error message, there might be an actual partition error, but it is more likely that disk compression software or network components are mapping over the boot drive. This might occur if you are mapping a network drive to E, but E is the hidden host drive for your disk compression software, or you are using a LANtastic network and drive C is being mapped or shared.

To resolve the invalid partition error:

  • Verify the drive is not mapped over (or logically remapped).

  • Verify a valid, active partition using Fdisk. If no valid partition exists, take appropriate drive or data recovery efforts. If no active partition exists, use Fdisk to mark an appropriate partition as active.

  • Remove interfering drivers from the startup configuration files, and run Setup again.

  • If you are using disk compression software, ensure that none of your mapped network drive letters conflict with the host drive for disk compression.

Setup finds insufficient disk space.

If Setup does not find sufficient space to install Windows 95, check for space on the destination and boot drives, and if you are using compression, check actual free space.

Setup error occurs on a system with OS/2.

Setup disables OS/2 Boot Manager to ensure that Windows 95 can restart the computer and complete its installation. Therefore, if you are using OS/2 Boot Manager to choose operating systems at startup, OS/2 Boot Manager must be reset after Windows 95 is installed. Boot Manager can be reactivated by starting the computer with an OS/2 boot disk and by using the OS/2 Fdisk utility.

If you are not using Boot Manager, you should configure the computer to use Boot Manager, and then follow the preceding instructions. If you start MS-DOS from a floppy disk and run Setup, you will no longer be able to start OS/2 after Windows 95 has been installed. To avoid this, rename or delete the AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files that OS/2 uses before running Windows 95 Setup.

Setup fails automated installation from MSBATCH.INF.

If the automated installation fails, check the following:

  • Verify the network connection if source files are on the network

  • Check errors messages, if any

  • Check the MSBATCH.INF file contents and syntax

  • Check the network validation of user logon

  • Check for enough memory

  • Check for and remove unnecessary drivers and TSRs

  • If using a login script, verify that the script ran properly

Troubleshooting Specific Startup Errors

This section describes specific conditions that might interfere with starting a Windows 95 computer and how to fix them.

In general, for system startup problems, the first problem-solving method is to start Windows 95 in Safe Mode. For information about how to start in Safe Mode and use BOOTLOG.TXT for troubleshooting, see Chapter 35, "General Troubleshooting."

Windows 95 stalls during the first restart after installation.

Usually this occurs because of legacy hardware that was configured incorrectly before Windows 95 was installed. Remove settings for hardware services in CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT. Also, ensure that any SCSI devices are terminated correctly. You might also need to disable the ISA enumerator. This software detects a new type of adapter that can be configured from the operating system. The detection sequence requires the ISA enumerator for I/O processes on some ports. Although every effort has been made to avoid ports commonly in use, you might have hardware that is also trying to use these I/O ports.

To disable the ISA enumerator

  • Remove the following line from the [386Enh] section of SYSTEM.INI:

    device = ISAPNP.386
    

Bad or missing file error occurs on startup.

If you receive a "Bad or missing filename" message when the system is starting (where filename might contain HIMEM.SYS, IFSHLP.SYS, and so on), do the following:

  • Check the syntax of the entry in CONFIG.SYS or other startup file.

  • Verify the existence, location, version, and integrity of the file.

If the filename to which the message refers is a device driver the computer needs for accessing the drive where Windows 95 is installed, you need to move the device= line that contains the device driver to the beginning of CONFIG.SYS to allow access to the drive when CONFIG.SYS tries to load files from the Windows directory.

Windows 95 has damaged or missing core files.

When Windows 95 loads, it counts on key files being available and undamaged. If a system file is damaged or missing, it might prevent loading or normal operation. If VMM32.VXD or other core files are missing or damaged, you might need to run Windows 95 Setup and select the Verify option in Safe Recovery to replace the files.

System Registry file is missing.

The Windows 95 Registry file is required for operation. This is contained in SYSTEM.DAT and USER.DAT, which are backed up as .DA0 files. If only the SYSTEM.DAT Registry file is missing, Windows 95 does one of the following:

  • Windows 95 automatically replaces SYSTEM.DAT from the backup Registry .DA0 file.

    – Or –

  • Windows 95 automatically uses Safe Mode to start Windows 95 and displays the Registry Problem dialog box. Click the Restore From Backup And Restart button to restore the Registry, which copies SYSTEM.DA0 and USER.DA0 to .DAT files.

If both SYSTEM.DAT and SYSTEM.DA0 files are missing (or if the WinDir= entry in MSDOS.SYS is not set), a message informs you that the Registry file is missing and that Registry services are not available for this session. (This means that most operations in Windows 95 will fail.) After this message appears, Windows 95 automatically starts in Safe Mode and displays another message offering an option to restore the Registry. However, if there is no .DA0 file, the Registry cannot be restored. To resolve this problem, either restore SYSTEM.DAT from backup or run Windows 95 Setup.

For information about backing up and restoring the Registry, see Chapter 33, "Windows 95 Registry."

BIOS or a BIOS setting is incompatible.

A ROM BIOS setting might prevent Windows 95 from installing or loading, because some computers have a feature that prevents applications from writing to the boot sector. This is usually in the form of anti-virus protection set through your computer's CMOS. If this is enabled, Windows 95 cannot complete the installation or cannot start properly.

If boot sector protection is enabled in the computer's BIOS, one of the following symptoms occurs:

  • Windows 95 Setup stalls.

  • Windows 95 stalls while starting.

  • The anti-virus software prompts you to overwrite the boot sector. Choosing Yes might allow you to complete the Setup procedure, but Windows 95 stalls when it attempts to load.

To correct this problem, disable the Boot Sector protection feature through your computer's CMOS, then reinstall Windows 95. For information about disabling this feature, consult your hardware documentation or service center.

VxD error returns you to the command prompt.

If a VxD is missing or damaged, Windows 95 displays an error message that indicates which VxD is involved. If the VxD is critical to the operation of Windows 95, then Windows 95 does not start and the screen displays the command prompt. You might need to run Windows 95 Setup and select Verify or Safe Recovery to replace the missing VxD.

You can selectively override a VxD that is included within VMM32.VxD. If the same VxD is loaded twice, the second instance intercepts all the calls to that particular VxD. There are two ways to override this:

  • Copy the related .VXD file into the Windows SYSTEM\VMM32 directory.

  • Edit SYSTEM.INI to add the entry device= filename.vxd in the [386enh] section.

You cannot use dual boot to run a previous operating system.

To take advantage of the dual-boot support in Windows 95, you cannot install Windows 95 into an existing Windows 3.x directory, and the value BootMulti=1 must be defined in the Windows 95 version of MSDOS.SYS.

DR DOS and versions of MS-DOS earlier than 5.0 do not support Windows 95 dual-boot functionality. To return to your previous operating system, you have to remove Windows 95 and reinstall your previous operating system, as described earlier in this chapter.

"Previous MS-DOS files not found" message appears.

When trying to dual-boot to the previous version of MS-DOS, you might receive an error message stating that your previous MS-DOS files were not found. It is probable that either the files are missing, or that your previous version of MS-DOS was not version 5.0 or higher.

You must have MS-DOS 5.0 or higher in order to start to a previous version of MS-DOS. Any version of MS-DOS earlier than 5.0 looks for the first three sectors of the IO.SYS file in the first three sectors of the data area of the drive. In MS-DOS 5.0 or higher, IO.SYS is designed to allow itself to be located outside the first three sectors of a drive's data area. In this situation, the only way to start to a version of MS-DOS prior to 5.0 is from a startup floppy disk.

Drivers, such as DBLSPACE.SYS, that are loaded when you start the computer using the earlier version of MS-DOS might not be available.

Required real-mode drivers are missing or damaged.

The previous operating system might have required certain real-mode drivers (compression, partitioning, hard disk drivers, and so on), and does not start correctly without them.

  • At system startup, press F8 and select Step-By-Step Confirmation to verify the correct loading of all specified drivers.

  • Verify that any drivers required to support your hardware are all specified in the appropriate startup file.

Windows 95 doesn't recognize a device.

In some cases, Windows 95 is unable to recognize an installed device, and the device resources are unavailable to Windows 95. If Windows 95 doesn't recognize an installed device, remove it in Device Manager, and reinstall it by using the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel. You can also use Device Manager to check resource conflicts. For information, see Chapter 19, "Devices." Or see the hardware conflict troubleshooting information in online Help.

Installing drivers causes Windows 95 system startup to fail.

If you try to install drivers for Windows 3.x from other vendors over Windows 95 (such as sound or video drivers), running the provided installation program can cause Windows 95 to fail to start or operate correctly.

To recover, when using a device that is supported by Windows 95

  1. Remove all entries in SYSTEM.INI that were added by the installation software from another vendor.

  2. Delete the device in Device Manager in the System properties, as described in Chapter 19, "Devices."

  3. Shut down and restart Windows 95.

  4. Use the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel to reinstall the device by using the Windows 95 drivers.

The wrong applications run after Windows 95 starts.

  • In Windows Explorer, double-click the Windows Start Menu\Programs\Startup directory, and then delete any items that you do not want to run when Windows 95 starts.

  • If the programs that are running do not appear in the Start Menu folder in Windows Explorer, run Registry Editor and find this key:

    HKey_Current_User \Software \Microsoft \Windows \CurrentVersion \Explorer
    \Shell Folders
    

    The value of Startup= should be Windows\Start Menu\Program\Startup, where Windows is the drive and directory containing the Windows 95 files.

Converting Windows 3.x Program Groups

Windows 95 uses folders and links to provide the same functionality as groups and items in previous versions of Windows. As part of the upgrade from Windows to Windows 95, the GRPCONV.EXE utility provides the translation of groups and group items to folders and links.

GRPCONV runs automatically after Setup has copied most of the files needed for a complete installation and restarted the computer. It searches through all .GRP files listed in the PROGMAN.INI file, and then creates shortcuts for those entries in the Applications folder. GRPCONV also searches the SETUP.INI file and creates shortcuts in the Programs folder for all the items currently specified on the Windows Setup tab in Add/Remove Programs.

GRPCONV uses information from the Registry to track changes in group files that have occurred since the last time GRPCONV.EXE was run. There are no entries in either the SYSTEM.INI or WIN.INI file that take precedence over these Registry entries. The last modified date and time of the PROGMAN.INI file and all group files are stored in the following Registry key:

Hkey_Current_User \Software \Microsoft \Windows \CurrentVersion \GrpConv

You can also run GRPCONV manually to recreate default folders or to convert other Windows 3.x program groups. Notice that .GRP files are unique to earlier versions of Windows. If you install an application after Windows 95 is installed, no .GRP file is created in the PROGMAN.INI file. Therefore, running GRPCONV after Windows 95 is installed recreates only those groups that existed before you installed Windows 95.

To re-create the default folders provided with Windows 95

  • From the Start button, click Run and then type grpconv /s

    This command rebuilds the default Windows 95 folders. A status dialog box titled Start Menu Shortcuts appears during the rebuilding process. When it is complete, you are returned to the desktop.

You can manually convert one group at a time using GRPCONV.

To manually convert existing Windows groups to Windows 95 format

  1. From the Start button, click Run and then type grpconv /m

    Click the group you want to convert, then do one of the following:

    • Click Open, then click Yes in the Program Manager Group Converter dialog box, and complete entries in the Start Menu Shortcuts dialog box.

      – Or –

    • Convert the group by double-clicking the group name. For example, if you have a group called MYGROUP.GRP, you can double-click MYGROUP.GRP to convert it to the Windows 95 folder format.

The following presents some additional notes on GRPCONV:

  • The first time GRPCONV runs, the search path criteria for finding existing groups is based on the contents of the PROGMAN.INI file in the current Windows directory (if it exists).

  • All data in a .GRP file except icon location (x,y coordinates in a group) is used during conversion and migrated to folders in the Windows 95 Programs folder.

  • GRPCONV migrates the [Restrictions] section of the PROGMAN.INI file from previous versions of Windows into the Policies key in the Registry.

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