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Windows 95 and Microsoft Networking: The Basics

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Computers running Windows 95 can communicate and share resources with other computers running Windows 95, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Server and Windows NT Workstation, and LAN Manager on Microsoft networks. This chapter presents procedures and technical information about using Windows 95 on Microsoft networks.

Important Each computer running Windows 95 must have a client access license if it will access Window NT Server 3.5 servers on a network. For more information, see "Client Access Licenses for Windows NT Server" later in this chapter.

Client for Microsoft Networks is the 32-bit, protected-mode network client for Windows 95 that provides the redirector and other software components for Microsoft networking. Client for Microsoft Networks also supports limited interoperability with other Microsoft-compatible server message block-based (SMB) servers such as IBM® LAN Server, DEC™ PATHWORKS™, AT&T® StarLAN, and LAN Manager for UNIX® Systems local area network software.

You can install Client for Microsoft Networks to serve as the sole network support for Windows 95 or to coexist with Client for NetWare Networks or clients from other network vendors, as described in Chapter 10, "Windows 95 on Other Networks." For technical information about these optional configurations, see Chapter 32, "Windows 95 Network Architecture."

Support for computers running Client for Microsoft Networks includes all the robust networking features built into Windows 95:

  • Automatic setup, user profiles, and system policies for configuring computers

  • Dial-Up Networking, share-level and pass-through user-level security, and remote administration capabilities

  • Unified logon and automatic reconnection to network resources

The following list summarizes the additional key benefits of using Client for Microsoft Networks.

A high-performance system using no conventional memory.

Client for Microsoft Networks uses only 32-bit, protected-mode supporting networking components and, as a file system driver, uses Windows 95 caching (VCACHE). Client for Microsoft Networks uses 32-bit versions of NetBEUI, Microsoft TCP/IP, and the Microsoft IPX/SPX-compatible protocol and NDIS 3.1-compliant network adapter drivers. This protected-mode client is designed to be used in a multitasking environment, providing robust performance and using no MS-DOS conventional memory space. For information about supporting protocols and network adapter drivers, see Chapter 12, "Network Technical Discussion."

Protected-mode peer resource sharing services.

You can configure computers running Client for Microsoft Networks to provide peer server capabilities using File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks. For information, see Chapter 11, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing."

Security and other support on Windows NT networks.

You can use Windows NT servers to validate user logon and to provide pass-through security for shared resources on computers running Windows 95. Computers running Windows 95 can recognize and use long filenames on Windows NT servers because the two operating systems use the same algorithm for long filenames and aliases. For information, see Chapter 14, "Security"and see also "Running Windows 95 with Windows NT" later in this chapter.

In addition, a computer running Windows 95 can start from a floppy disk or local hard disk and run a shared copy of Windows 95 stored on a Windows NT server. Support for booting diskless workstations will be available in Windows NT Server update releases. For information about shared installations, see Chapter 4, "Server-Based Setup for Windows 95." For information about installing Windows 95 from login scripts using Windows NT Server, see Chapter 5, "Custom, Automated, and Push Installations."

On This Page

Windows 95 and Microsoft Networking: The Issues
Installing Client for Microsoft Networks
Configuring Client for Microsoft Networks
Running Windows 95 in a Mixed Microsoft Environment
PROTOCOL.INI: Real-Mode Network Initialization File

Windows 95 and Microsoft Networking: The Issues

This section summarizes some issues you should consider when using Windows 95 with Client for Microsoft Networks, whether your site uses server-based or peer-to-peer networking.

Issues for Server-Based Microsoft Networks

On server-based networks, central servers running Windows NT Server or Microsoft LAN Manager 2.x act as file and print servers and provide support for managing network logon and security. For information about the benefits of server-based networks using Windows NT Server, see "Running Windows 95 with Windows NT" later in this chapter.

  • You must configure Client for Microsoft Networks as the Primary Network Logon client if you want to take advantage of user profiles for configuring or managing custom desktops on a Microsoft network, or if you want users to use system policies stored on a Windows NT server.

  • To share resources with computers running other Microsoft networking products, the computers must be running a common protocol.

  • Client for Microsoft Networks can use a LAN Manager domain controller for logon validation. However, File and Printer Sharing Services for Microsoft Networks cannot use a LAN Manager domain controller for pass-through validation. To take advantage of the user-level security support on Microsoft networks, the user must have an account on a Windows NT domain.

Issues for Peer-to-Peer Networks

In the peer-to-peer networking model, at least one computer must — but each computer can — act as both a client and a server. As a client in a peer network, the computer can access the network resources shared on another computer. A peer network can be an appropriate networking solution for small offices with only five to ten users.

Any computer running Windows 95 can act as both a client and a server on peer networks. If you have the technical expertise, you can establish the wiring for a small peer network using Windows 95 yourself; otherwise, use the services of a system integrator. The following sections summarize issues either you or the system integrator need to consider for peer networking with Windows 95. For technical information about configuring and using File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks, see Chapter 11, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing."

Choosing Thinnet or Twisted Pair for Cabling

Thinnet (also called thin-Ethernet or Thin Coax) is the simplest method of cabling 10 or fewer connections on a network. Thinnet cabling uses coaxial cable with a BNC connector at each end. The cable attaches to each computer with a BNC T-connector. The major disadvantage in using thinnet cabling is that if there is a fault in the cabling at any computer, it affects all computers on the network. Thinnet cabling is only appropriate for Ethernet topologies.

Unshielded Twisted Pair cabling (called VTP or twisted pair) cabling is based on common telephone wiring technology, using connectors similar to those inserted in telephone jacks. Twisted-pair cabling is appropriate if your network has or will have more than 10 computers, and if computers are located in low-noise environments such as an office — it's not appropriate for manufacturing or warehousing environments. You can use twisted-pair cabling for Ethernet or token-ring networks.

When cabling the network, make sure not to use twisted-pair wiring that was previously used for telephone systems or that is more than five years old. To make the network active, you need additional components such as hubs and concentrators. These components help to isolate cabling failures.

Choosing the Peer Network Components

This section summarizes issues for networking components and organization.

Choosing protocols and other networking components.

Microsoft NetBEUI is a fast protocol, requiring no additional configuration settings; it is a good choice for peer-to-peer networks. The IPX/SPX-compatible protocol is another alternative for small peer-to-peer networks. You also need an NDIS 3.1 network adapter driver. For information about these components, see Chapter 12, "Network Technical Discussion."

Setting up security and automated backup.

Share-level security is the only security option available on peer-to-peer networks. With share-level security, you create passwords to control access to shared resources on a peer server. For information about managing passwords for Windows 95, see Chapter 14, "Security." If you need to control access to files or to particular computers based on user identity, create a server-based network.

You can use any backup software that is compatible with Windows 95 to back up files on peer servers and other computers. To make sure data on the network is backed up automatically, use a server-based network.

Setting up peer servers.

Each computer that is running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks can act as a server, so that other computers can connect to it to use files or printers created on that peer server. Because work on a peer server can slow down if many users are using services on the peer server, you might want to dedicate one computer as a print server. In this configuration, users can return to work immediately after printing, and the dedicated computer can manage the print queue.

For optimal performance on each computer that is extensively used as a file or print server, use the System option in Control Panel to optimize the performance of the file system for supporting network server activities. For information, see Chapter 17, "Performance Tuning."

Managing a peer network.

Most of the remote administration features in Windows 95 rely on user-level security, which requires a server running Windows NT or NetWare to provide pass-through authentication of users for access to resources on remote computers. Therefore, on peer-to-peer networks, you cannot use Microsoft Remote Registry services, or any administrative features that require remote access to the Registry. However, you can use Net Watcher to manage the file system on remote computers, as described in Chapter 16, "Remote Administration."

If you want to take advantage of remote administrative features or user-level security, consider a small server-based network using Windows NT.

Installing Client for Microsoft Networks

In Windows 95, Client for Microsoft Networks provides the redirector (VREDIR.VXD) to support all Microsoft networking products that use the SMB protocol. This includes support for connecting computers running Windows 95, LAN Manager, Windows NT, Windows for Workgroups, and Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS networking software for personal computers running MS-DOS.

Because Windows 95 network redirectors are implemented as file system drivers, Client for Microsoft Networks provides mechanisms for locating, opening, reading, writing, and deleting files, submitting print jobs, and making available application services (such as named pipes and mailslots).

If a previous Microsoft network client is running when Windows 95 Setup is started, then Client for Microsoft Networks is installed automatically. You can also add Client for Microsoft Networks after you add network hardware to the computer.

To install Client for Microsoft Networks

  1. In the Network option in Control Panel, click the Add button.

  2. In the Select Network Component Type dialog box, double-click Client.

  3. In the Select Network Client dialog box, click Microsoft in the Manufacturers list, and then click Client for Microsoft Networks in the Network Clients list. Click OK.

Configuring Client for Microsoft Networks

To configure Client for Microsoft Networks, you need to consider the following:

  • Will Client for Microsoft Networks be the Primary Network Logon client?

  • Will users log on to a Windows NT domain for logon a single Windows NT computer, or a LAN Manager domain validation?

  • Will persistent connections to network drives be restored when the user logs on to Windows 95 or only when the resource is used?

This section describes these options and how to configure the network client.

Configuring the Primary Client for Network Logon

If you set Client for Microsoft Networks as the Primary Network Logon, the Microsoft network is used to download system policies and user profiles, and the first logon prompt that appears will be for the Windows NT network. Also, if more than one network client is installed, the last login script will be run from Windows NT (or LAN Manager, depending on your network).

To make Client for Microsoft Networks the Primary Network Logon client

  1. In the Network option in Control Panel, click the Configuration tab.

  2. In the Primary Network Logon list, click Client for Microsoft Networks.

Configuring Logon and Reconnection Options

In the Network option in Control Panel, you can specify network validation and resource connection options. If you enable logon validation, Windows 95 automatically attempts to validate the user by checking the specified domain. You must enable this option if you want to access user profiles and system policies on a Windows NT domain. If logon validation is required on your network and this option is not configured, you might not be able to access most network resources. If this option is configured and you (or another user) do not provide a correct password, you might not have access to network resources.

Note: The user's user name and password must be specified in a user account on the specified Windows NT domain, LAN Manager domain, or Windows NT computer for logon validation to work.

You can also set logon validation by using system policies. With system policies, you can prevent the user from accessing resources on the local computer if the correct logon password is not provided. For more information, see Chapter 15, "User Profiles and System Policies."

Note: Windows 95 does not support using a LAN Manager domain controller as a pass-through security provider, but LAN Manager can provide logon validation.

To enable logon validation for Client for Microsoft Networks

  1. In the Network option in Control Panel, double-click Client for Microsoft Networks in the list of network components.

  2. In General properties, check the Log On To Windows NT Domain option if you want to log on to a Windows NT or LAN Manager domain automatically when starting Windows 95.

    If you do not want to log on to a domain when starting Windows 95, make sure this option is cleared.

  3. If you select logon validation, you must also specify the domain to be used for validation by typing or selecting a name in the Windows NT Domain box.

    You can specify a Windows NT or LAN Manager domain name or the name of a Windows NT computer (version 3.1 or 3.5) where you have a user account.

    Cc751086.rk08_02(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

You can also specify whether Windows 95 should use "ghosted connections" or reestablish and verify each persistent connection at system startup.

To configure how persistent connections are restored

  1. In the Network Option in Control Panel, double-click Client for Microsoft Networks in the list of installed components.

  2. To map the drive letters when you log on without actually establishing a session for each persistent network connection, in the Network Logon Options area, click Quick Logon.

    – Or –

    To have Windows 95 verify each persistent network connection at startup by establishing a session for each persistent connection, click Logon And Restore Network Connections.

Quick Logon works in essentially the same way that Ghosted Connections worked under Windows for Workgroups 3.11. That is, Windows 95 initializes data structures for mapping local drives and local printer ports to network resources, but it does not physically attach to the network resource until the user tries to access it.

When you use Quick Logon (which is the default), Windows 95 can start up and return control of the user interface faster than if the physical connections are made. Because your computer might not be attached to the resource when you click a drive icon for the first time (for example, in My Computer), you might see a slight delay before the contents of that network drive are displayed. This delay is balanced against a possibly long startup time, depending on the number of persistent network connections you maintain.

Note: Quick Logon requires password caching to function properly. If system policies are used to disable password caching, users cannot use Quick Logon successfully with peer servers configured with share-level security.

Running Windows 95 in a Mixed Microsoft Environment

This section presents some technical information for you to consider if your network includes computers running Windows NT or earlier versions of Microsoft networking products in addition to computers running Windows 95.

Running Windows 95 with Windows NT

Microsoft Windows NT Server networks provide both client-server and peer networking with user-level security using a domain structure. You can run Windows 95 on a Windows NT network, and you can install Windows 95 for dual-booting on computers running Windows NT 3.1 or Windows NT 3.5.

The following notes summarize important issues for this configuration:

  • Windows 95 and Windows NT versions 3.1 or 3.5 can be installed on the same computer, but not in the same directory.

  • You cannot run Windows 95 Setup from within Windows NT. You must run Setup from MS-DOS, Windows 3.1, or Windows for Workgroups.

  • If your computer has any Windows NT file system (NTFS) partitions, they will not be available locally while the computer is running Windows 95.

For a description of the support for running login scripts from Windows NT Server, see Chapter 11, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing." For information about installing Windows 95 as a dual-boot operating system with Windows NT, see Chapter 6, "Setup Technical Discussion."

Running Windows 95 in a Mixed Environment with Windows NT

In Windows 95, computers are grouped logically in workgroups, where each computer in the workgroup maintains its own security system for validating local user logon and access to resources. Computers in workgroups do not share security with other computers, and they do not rely on other computers to provide security. On Windows NT networks, computers can be grouped in domains, which allow multiple servers and workstations to be grouped for unified administration. With Windows NT domains, centralized user accounts are used to validate user logon and access to resources.

Windows 95 and Windows NT use the same workgroup model for browsing network resources, so computers running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks can appear in the same workgroup as computers running Windows NT. Computers running Windows NT will be favored in Browse Master elections because of the higher version number of the browser software.

Users running Client for Microsoft Networks can access the shared resources on a computer running Windows NT if both computers are using a common protocol. For resources protected with user-level security, the user running Windows 95 must have been granted access to those resources. Conversely, a user running Windows NT can connect to the shared resources on a computer running Windows 95 if the same conditions are met.

Notes on Windows NT Server Benefits

The Microsoft Windows NT Server operating system is the high-end member of the family of Microsoft Windows operating systems, providing a powerful, reliable, and scalable operating system to support the demands of client-server computing.

Windows NT Server provides the ideal platform for the server backbone in a mixed-network environment. It is especially versatile and powerful for enterprise networks made up of LANs that use a variety of network types and require dial-in support for network access. Also, on a peer-to-peer network where the computers are running Client for Microsoft Networks, you can add Windows NT to the network without changing the networking software on the existing computers.

Windows NT Server is designed to support complex business applications and administrative requirements. The following list summarizes important features.

Networking and workgroup support.

Windows NT Server provides built-in file and printer sharing capabilities for workgroup computing, and an open network system interface that includes built-in support for IPX/SPX, TCP/IP, NetBEUI, and other protocols. Windows NT Server provides administrative tools for controlling network services, auditing system events, changing hardware configuration and system performance, managing and backing up disks, and more. Windows NT also provides robust support for server-based and client-server applications.

Interoperability.

Windows NT Server is compatible with networks such as Windows 95, Banyan® VINES®, Novell® NetWare®, UNIX®, LAN Manager 2.x, and Microsoft Windows for Workgroups. Windows NT Server can add value to your current network environment without disruption. Even though networks and interoperability are complicated, a Windows NT network is easy to use and reliable, with automatic configuration provided wherever possible, and remote administration available for most administration tasks.

A single network logon.

Users can access network resources, including client-server applications, using one user account and one password per user.

Centralized management of user accounts.

The administrator can work from a single computer across divisions, departments, and workgroups.

Advanced data-protection features.

These include disk mirroring, disk striping with parity (RAID 5), and uninterruptible power supply support.

Remote Access Service (RAS).

Users can access network resources even when they are off-site, traveling, or working at home. Users can dial in over asynchronous telephone lines or Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) lines to access the network from computers running Windows 95, MS-DOS, Windows for Workgroups, or Windows NT operating systems. Windows NT RAS also supports X.25 networks.

Access to Apple® Macintosh® resources.

When Services for Apple Macintosh is installed on a Windows NT Server, Macintoshes and computers running Windows 95 can work together to share files, printers, and client-server applications. Macintosh users can access resources on a computer running Windows NT Server, similar to any other AppleShare® server.

Client Access Licenses for Windows NT Server

Windows NT Server and Windows NT Workstation are licensed separately from Microsoft, allowing you to purchase only the components you need to build a network solution for your organization. For Windows NT Server, you must have a Server License for Microsoft Windows NT Server for each server on the network. In addition to a Server License, a Client Access License for Windows NT Server is required for computers that will access or otherwise use the following basic network services:

  • File services (sharing and managing files and disk storage)

  • Printing services (sharing and managing printers)

  • Remote access services (accessing the server from a remote location through a communications link)

Microsoft offers two licensing options for Windows NT Server:

  • "Per Seat" licensing. In this case, the Client Access License applies to a specific workstation ("seat"). Using this alternative, an unlimited number of computers or workstations can access Windows NT Server, provided each one is licensed with a Client Access License. After a workstation has been licensed, it has permission to access all Windows NT Server products installed throughout your organization.

    A Client Access License is required whether you use client software supplied by Microsoft or software from another vendor. In particular, for each computer running Windows 95, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Workstation, or any client software Windows NT Server supports, a separate Client Access License is required.

  • "Per Server" licensing. In this case, each Client Access License is assigned to a particular server and allows one connection to that server for basic network services. Under this option, you designate during setup the number of licenses that apply to this server.

You can convert a Per Server license to a Per Seat license at no cost and without notifying Microsoft. You cannot, however, switch from a Per Seat option to a Per Server option. Also, all the servers in your environment are not required to be licensed using the same option — some servers can be licensed on a Per Server basis and others on a Per Seat basis.

You do not need a separate Client Access License if you access or run server applications only from Microsoft or other vendors on Windows NT Server. Examples of such server applications include Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft SNA Server, Microsoft Systems Management Server, Lotus® Notes®, Btrieve® for Windows NT and ORACLE® Server. A Client Access License is required, however, when using utilities such as Windows NT File and Print Services for NetWare that use the basic networking services of Windows NT Server.

Note: It is a violation of the terms of the Server License to access Windows NT Server without an appropriate number of Client Access Licenses. For more information, see your Server License.

Client Access Licenses are available in single-client and 20-client configurations and in volume quantities through the Microsoft Select licensing program. For more information, contact your Microsoft reseller. If you have questions, in the United States, contact the Microsoft Sales Information Center at (800) 426-9400. In Canada, contact the Microsoft Canada Customer Support Centre at (800) 563-9048. For other locations, contact your local Microsoft subsidiary.

Running Windows 95 with LAN Manager

Either Windows 95 or Windows NT Server can be installed as upgrades for all versions of LAN Manager and IBM OS/2® LAN Server, depending on the role you want that computer to serve on the network. Microsoft recommends that you upgrade these servers, rather than maintain these legacy systems on your network.

A workgroup in Windows 95 is analogous to a LAN Manager domain in that it's a logical grouping of workstations. However, a workgroup in Windows 95 does not share any of the advanced security features offered as part of a LAN Manager domain. Windows 95 does not support using a LAN Manager domain controller as a security provider, so only share-level security can be used for computers running Windows 95 on LAN Manager networks. (User-level security requires a Windows NT domain.)

To ensure computers running Windows 95 can browse for LAN Manager servers, make sure that at least one computer running Client for Microsoft Networks sets its workgroup name to the LAN Manager domain name. After a computer running Windows 95 becomes a member of the LAN Manager domain, it can distribute the names of LAN Manager servers in that domain to other computers running Windows 95 on the network. The configuration must be duplicated for each LAN Manager domain.

To ensure LAN Manager workstations can see and access resources on computers running File and Printer Sharing Services for Microsoft Networks

  1. Make sure that all the computers are using a common protocol.

  2. Make sure that users running LAN Manager clients have been granted access to the resources on the computers running Windows 95.

  3. Set the value of the LM Announce property to Yes on each computer running Windows 95 with File and Printer Sharing services, as described in "Configuring File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks" in Chapter 11, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing."

The LM Announce setting ensures that the computer running Windows 95 peer resource sharing services announces its presence to LAN Manager workstations and servers. By default, the LM Announce property is set to No to reduce broadcast traffic on the network.

Tips for LAN Manager Variations

IBM OS/2 LAN Server supports a domain model and is equivalent to LAN Manager for interoperating with Windows 95. Just as with Windows for Workgroups, the Client for Microsoft Networks in Windows 95 does not support LAN Server aliases.

DEC PATHWORKS is a LAN Manager-compatible network, but it does not support a domain model for browsing servers and shared resources. DEC PATHWORKS servers will appear in Network Neighborhood.

For more information about both of these networks, see Chapter 10, "Windows 95 on Other Networks."

Running Windows 95 with Windows for Workgroups

Windows 95 uses the same workgroup model as Windows for Workgroups. Because of this, computers running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks can be seen by computers running Windows for Workgroups. The Windows 95 computers will be favored in Browse Master elections because of the higher version number of the browser software.

A user running Client for Microsoft Networks can access the shared resources on a computer running Windows for Workgroups if both computers are using a common protocol. A user running Windows for Workgroups can connect to the shared resources on a computer running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks, if both computers are using a common protocol and the user has been granted access to the resources on the computer running Windows 95.

Running Windows 95 with Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS

Computers running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks can appear in the same workgroup as a computer running the peer server supported in Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS. For a list of peer servers to be available in the workgroup, there must be at least one computer in the workgroup configured as Browse Master that is running Windows 95, Windows for Workgroups, or Windows NT. A computer running Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS cannot be a Browse master.

A user running Client for Microsoft Networks can access the shared resources on a computer running Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS if both computers are using a common protocol. A user on a computer running Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS can access resources on a computer running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks if both computers are using a common protocol, and if the user has been granted access to the shared resources.

PROTOCOL.INI: Real-Mode Network Initialization File

For real-mode networking, Windows 95 uses a file called PROTOCOL.INI in the Windows directory to determine the parameters for the protocol and network adapter drivers. Setup creates and modifies PROTOCOL.INI from information in .INF files if any real-mode networking components are installed, such as NDIS 2 adapter drivers.

If you typically run Client for Microsoft Networks, the PROTOCOL.INI file on your computer is used to support Safe Mode Command Prompt Only with networking for system startup.

Caution: Never edit PROTOCOL.INI manually. Actual settings are stored in the Registry, and changes in PROTOCOL.INI will be overwritten automatically. Instead, always use the Network option in Control Panel and the setup software for your network hardware to configure network settings.

The information presented in this section is for troubleshooting purposes only.

PROTOCOL.INI also contains network adapter configuration information, such as the I/O address, DMA, and IRQs. The PROTOCOL.INI file contains sections for [Protman] plus separate sections for each network adapter and network protocol.

Tip for Configuring Adapters with Real-Mode Networking

When multiple hardware adapters are used on a computer, some entries in PROTOCOL.INI, such as interrupt settings and shared memory addresses, might need adjustments to avoid hardware conflicts. Because Windows 95 Setup cannot anticipate every possible conflict, watch for error messages when you start the computer in the real-mode networking.

For example, if a network adapter and a video controller adapter both try to use the same memory address, you must adjust one of the adapters to a different address by using either the setup software for the adapter or the switches on the adapter (or both, which is the typical case). Also, the PROTOCOL.INI entries must agree with the jumper setting on each adapter.

The [protman] Section

This section provides the settings for the system component that manages protocols. The following list shows the format for this section.

[protman] entry

Description

drivername=

Entry defines the driver name for the component that manages protocols.

priority=

Entry determines the order in which incoming frames are processed.

The following shows an example of entries in this section for a computer configured with multiple NDIS protocols:

[protman$]
priority=ndishlp$
DriverName=protman$

The [netcard] Section

This section lists the set of parameters for an NDIS network adapter. A [netcard] section is present for each network adapter configured in the computer, and the specific entries present in this section will vary depending on the network adapter installed. The following is an example of entries in this section for an Intel® EtherExpress™ 16 or 16TP adapter:

[EXP16$]
DriverName=EXP16$
transceiver=Twisted-Pair (TPE)
iochrdy=Late
irq=5
ioaddress=0x300

The [protocol] Section

This section defines the settings used by a network protocol. A [protocol] section is present for each network transport protocol installed on the computer, and the specific entries present in this section will vary depending on the protocol installed. The following list shows the format for entries common to each configured protocol.

[ protocol ] entry

Description

bindings=

Indicates the network adapter drivers to which each transport protocol binds. The netcard name for the network adapter driver and protocol must appear in the bindings= entry for at least one of the protocol drivers. The entry can specify one or more [netcard] sections (separated by commas).

lanabase=

For NetBIOS protocols only, defines the first LANA number the protocol is to accept.

The following is an example of entries in this section for IPX/SPX-compatible protocol and Microsoft NetBEUI:

[nwlink$]
DriverName=nwlink$
Frame_Type=4
cachesize=0
Bindings=EXP16$
[NETBEUI$]
DriverName=NETBEUI$
Lanabase=0
sessions=10
ncbs=12
Bindings=EXP16$
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