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Chapter 3 - Administering Routing and Remote Access Service

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After you install Routing and Remote Access Service, you can configure and monitor interfaces and routing protocols by using Routing and RAS Admin or the command-prompt utility. For more information on how to use the command line to administer your computer, see Appendix B, "Command-Line Interface."

You can also use Routing and RAS Admin to configure and monitor your RAS server. Note that when you select a Windows NT version 4.0 or earlier RAS Server, the Remote Access Admin tool for Windows NT 4.0 automatically appears and enables you to administer the down-level RAS server.

Note Routing and Remote Access Service running on Windows NT Server version 4.0 is also referred to as the Windows NT router.

Remote Administration

You can remotely administer a Windows NT router from a computer running Windows NT 4.0 by using the Copyadmn.cmd batch file. This file is part of the Routing and Remote Access Service files that are copied to your computer when you install Routing and Remote Access Service.

Note After copying these files to a computer running Windows NT version 4.0, you cannot use the Windows NT 4.0 RAS client on that computer. This is because some of the .dll files that are copied are incompatible with .dll files that are part of Windows NT version 4.0. To use a RAS client on the Windows NT version 4.0 computer, you must upgrade to Routing and Remote Access Service.

To administer a remote Windows NT router

  1. On the Windows NT router, open a Command Prompt window. 

  2. Run Copyadmn.cmd and type the source and destination directories.

    For example, type: 

    copyadmn c:\winnt\system32\ \\admin\dept1\remote 

  3. On the remote computer (\\admin\dept1 in this example), make a network connection to the Windows NT router. 

    For example, at the command prompt type: 

    net use \\router1\ipc$ /u: Domain\User 

  4. On the remote computer, at the command prompt type mpradmin

  5. In Routing and RAS Admin, in the Server menu click Connect to Router

  6. In the Router Name box, type the name of the Windows NT router, for example \\router1, and click OK

Routing and RAS Admin Tool

Routing and RAS Admin looks similar to Windows NT Explorer. The tree view in the left window displays the installed network and routing components of Routing and Remote Access Service. The list view in the right window displays the interfaces for a selected protocol.

To open the Routing and RAS Admin tool

  1. Click the Start button, then point to Programs.

  2. Point to the Administrative Tools (Common) folder, then click Routing and RAS Admin

Figure 3.1 shows the Routing and RAS Admin tool interface.

Cc751172.rras0301(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

Figure 3.1 The Routing and RAS Admin tool 

Configuring Components

You can configure Routing and Remote Access Service components by right-clicking within Routing and RAS Admin. As shown in Figure 3.1, you can right-click RIP for Internet Protocol to configure global settings for RIP. You can then right-click a RIP for IP interface in the right window to configure settings and view monitoring information specific to that interface only.

Note Selecting a component in Routing and RAS Admin and then selecting the Actions menu has the same effect as right-clicking a component.

Viewing Routing Tables

You can use Routing and RAS Admin to view routing and protocol information when you troubleshoot or administer your routing and RAS connections.

To view the IP or IPX routing table
  1. Under IP Routing or IPX Routing, right-click Static Routes.

  2. Click View IP routing table or View IPX routing table

In addition to the routing table, you can see detail views of various router settings by right-clicking a component in the left window or an interface in the right window. Table 3.1 shows the available detail views.

Table 3.1 Available Tables and Information in Routing and RAS Admin 

Component

Views

IP Routing/Summary

TCP/IP information

 

Address translation table

 

IP addresses

 

IP routing table

 

TCP connections

 

UDP listener ports

OSPF

Area statistics

 

Link state database

 

Neighbor table

 

Virtual interfaces

RIP for IP

RIP neighbors

IPX Routing/Summary

IPX global parameters

 

IPX routing table

 

IPX service table

Active Connections and Ports

Port status

 

Device statistics

 

Network registration information

Administrative Tasks

You can use the graphical capabilities of Routing and Remote Access Service for administrative tasks. This chapter describes how to use Routing and RAS Admin. For more procedures, see the online Help in Routing and RAS Admin: Click Contents on the Help menu.

If you are familiar with administering a router through the command line, you can also use a Command Prompt window and the routemon command-line tool. For details on using routemon commands, see Appendix B, "Command-Line Interface."

To open the Routing and RAS Admin tool, use the method described in the "Routing and RAS Admin Tool" section in this chapter, or type mpradmin at a command prompt.

The remainder of this chapter describes how to use the Routing and RAS Admin tool to accomplish these administrative tasks:

  • Adding routing protocols and interfaces 

  • Adding a demand-dial interface 

  • Deleting or disabling interfaces

  • Administering RAS servers 

  • Viewing RAS Servers in a domain 

  • Granting dial-in permissions to RAS clients

  • Adding and deleting static routes 

  • Adding and deleting packet filters 

  • Adding local host filters 

  • Adding PPTP filters 

Adding Routing Protocols and Interfaces

To make your router functional, you can specify static routes or add routing protocols to your router and add interfaces to protocols. You can use Routing and RAS Admin to do this.

To add a routing protocol
  1. In Routing and RAS Admin under IP Routing, right-click Summary and select Add routing protocol.

    In the Select Routing Protocol dialog box, click a protocol:

    • DHCP Relay Agent 

    • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) by Bay Networks 

    • RIP Version 1 and 2 for Internet Protocol 

  2. Complete any configuration dialog boxes for the protocol. 

To add an interface to a protocol
  1. Under IP Routing, right-click a protocol and click Add interface

  2. Select the interface you want to add and click OK

  3. Configure any settings for the interface. 

Note All available IPX routing protocols are added automatically during Routing and Remote Access Setup. To add an interface to IPX, right-click Summary under IPX Routing, then click Add interface. The interface is added to all IPX protocols.

Adding a Demand-Dial Interface

A demand-dial connection initiates a link to a remote site when data or routing information must be sent to that site, and closes the connection when a specified amount of time has passed without data being sent over the link.

Routing and RAS Admin includes a Demand-Dial Wizard to help you set up demand-dial interfaces. For more information on how to configure demand-dial routing, see the section "Demand-Dial Network" in Chapter 4.

To connect to a demand-dial router, you must first add a demand-dial interface for that router. For example, if you want to configure a dial-up connection from your Seattle office router to the New York branch office router, you must add an interface for New York on the Seattle router.

After adding a demand-dial interface, you must:

  • Set credentials on the interface to be used for authentication on the remote router.

  • Add a user account on the remote router that gives you permissions to dial in to the remote router. 

When you configure a demand-dial interface, you must enable the port usage on the interface for routing.

To enable port usage for routing
  1. Configure the Routing and Remote Access Service by using Network in Control Panel. 

  2. Select the port, then click Configure in the Routing and Remote Access Setup dialog box.

  3. In the Configure Port Usage dialog box, click the Dial out and receive calls as a demand dial router check box. 

Deleting or Disabling Interfaces

You can delete an interface from the router, which removes the interface from all routing protocols, or you can delete an interface from a specific routing protocol. (However, you cannot delete LAN interfaces from Routing and RAS Admin.) You can also disable an interface if you no longer want to accept calls over that interface.

To delete a demand-dial interface from the router
  1. Under IP Routing or IPX Routing, click Summary.

  2. Right-click an interface, then click Remove interface

To disable an interface
  1. Click LAN and Demand Dial Interfaces and right-click an interface. 

  2. Select Disable

To delete an interface from a routing protocol
  1. Under IP Routing, click a protocol.

  2. Right-click an interface, then click Remove interface

Note You cannot delete an interface from a specific IPX routing protocol. However, you can disable an IPX routing protocol on the interface.

Administering RAS Servers

If you installed a RAS server when you installed Routing and Remote Access Service, you can view and manage RAS clients that dial into your router. You can also administer down-level Windows NT RAS servers and RAS clients on a Windows NT router.

You must use User Manager for Domains to add clients to your domain or server, and to grant users dial-in permissions.

To administer RAS clients and servers
  1. In Routing and RAS Admin, click Active Connections and Ports

    The right window shows the RAS clients that are connected to your router as well as the currently available RAS lines.

  2. Right-click a user to show status on the connection, or expand the user entry and right-click a device to get its status. 

Note If you click a RAS server or client running on Windows NT version 4.0 or earlier, the Remote Access Admin tool appears and enables you to administer the down-level server.

Viewing RAS Servers in a Domain

In addition to viewing RAS clients on a particular computer, you can select a domain and then view statistics on RAS servers and Windows NT routers within that domain.

To view a domain
  1. In Routing and RAS Admin, on the Server menu, click View Domain

  2. In the Domain Name box, type the name of the domain you want to view and then click OK

Granting Dial-In Permissions to RAS Clients

You must use User Manager for Domains to assign dial-in permission to users in your domain. This functionality is not part of Routing and RAS Admin.

To assign users dial-in permission
  1. Click the Start button, then point to Programs.

  2. Point to the Administrative Tools (Common) folder, then click User Manager for Domains

  3. Click a user.
    - or -
    From the User menu, click New User

  4. In the User Properties dialog box, click Dialin. 

  5. In the Dialin Information dialog box, select the Grant dialin permission to user check box and click OK

Adding and Deleting Static Routes

Both the IP protocol and the IPX protocol support static routes.

To add a static route
  • Under IP Routing or IPX Routing, right-click Static Routes and click Add Static Route. 

To edit or delete a static route
  1. Under IP Routing or IPX Routing, select Static Routes

  2. Right-click the route and click Edit or Remove

Setting Filters

To provide security, a Windows NT router has the ability to allow or prohibit the flow of very specific types of IP traffic. This capability, called IP packet filtering, provides a way for the network administrator to precisely define which IP traffic is allowed to cross the router.

IP packet filtering consists of creating a series of definitions, called filters, that tell the router which types of traffic are allowed or prohibited per interface. Filters can be set for incoming and for outgoing traffic.

  • Input filters define which incoming traffic on an interface is allowed to be routed or processed by the router.

  • Output filters define which traffic is allowed to be sent out on an interface. 

Because you can configure both input and output filters for each interface, it is possible to create contradictory filters. For example, the input filter on one interface can allow the inbound traffic and the output filter on the other interface can prohibit the sending of the traffic. In this case, the result is that the traffic is not passed across the Windows NT router.

Before any filters you set will work, you must enable packet filtering on a global level.

To globally enable packet filtering

  1. Under IP Routing, right-click Summary, then click Configure IP parameters.

  2. On the General tab, select the Enable packet-filtering check box. 

Adding and Deleting Packet Filters

Filters are configured on an exception basis. That is, you can configure the interface to pass only the packets from the filters you list, or to allow everything except the packets for the filters you list.

To add, modify, or delete a packet filter
  1. Under IP Routing or IPX Routing, click Summary.

  2. Right-click the interface on which you want to create a filter, then click Configure interface

  3. Click Input filters or Output filters.

  4. In the Filters Configuration dialog box, click Add, Edit, or Delete to add, modify, or delete filters. 

Adding Local Host Filters

A local host filter enables your computer to receive only traffic destined for the computer. A local host filter works by enabling users to access your computer, but not to route through your computer. After this filter is set, only traffic destined either for this host or to all hosts on the host's network will be allowed in on the interface.

To add local host filters
  1. Under IP Routing, click Summary.

  2. Right-click the interface over which you want to set the filter, then click Configure interface

  3. In the IP Configuration dialog box, click Input Filters. 

  4. In the IP Packet Filters Configuration dialog box, click Add

    You must create a set of five input filters and then select a Drop all except listed below option, as described in Table 3.2. 

Table 3.2 Effects of Local Host Filter Options 

Selecting this option

Has this effect

Allow packets coming directly to your computer

As an example, your router is configured with an IP address of 10.1.1.1 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255. To allow packets with a destination of your router, add a filter with the Destination IP address of 10.1.1.1, the Destination Subnet mask of 255.255.255.255, and select Any as the type of protocol.

Allow packets broadcast to the local subnet

The second filter enables you to receive packets that are going to the 10.1.x.x network. For this example, add a filter with the Destination IP address of 10.1.255.255, Destination Subnet mask of 255.255.255.255, and select Any as the type of protocol.

Allow packets going to subnetted networks

Set this filter to allow packets going to all subnets of the network. For this example, add a filter with the Destination IP address of 10.255.255.255, Destination Subnet mask of 255.255.255.255, and select Any as the type of protocol.

Allow packets broadcasting all 1's

For this example, add a filter with the Destination IP address of 255.255.255.255, Destination Subnet mask of 255.255.255.255, and select Any as the type of protocol.

Accept multicast packets

Set this filter to accept a limited form of mulitcast on the network 224.0.0.x. For this example, add a filter with the Destination IP address of 224.0.0.0, Destination Subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, and select Any as the type of protocol.

Adding PPTP Filters

You can configure filters on an interface so that only PPTP traffic can use the interface. For example, a branch office connection can use PPTP and the Internet as a WAN.

Before any filters you set will work, you must enable packet filtering on a global level.

To globally enable packet filtering
  1. Under IP Routing, right-click Summary, then click Configure IP parameters.

  2. On the General tab, select the Enable packet-filtering check box. 

For this type of configuration, you must set three input filters and three output filters on the interface over which you want to make the PPTP connection.

Note All six filters work together to complete a PPTP filter. The PPTP filter will not be secure unless all six filters are set correctly.

PPTP uses TCP Port 1723 for the control channel and IP Protocol ID 47 for the data channel. The process to set parameters when adding a filter includes the following procedures:

  • Select the interface over which you want to make the PPTP connection. 

  • Set the Input filters. 

  • Set the Output filters. 

Select the Interface
  1. Under IP Routing, click Summary.

  2. Right-click the interface over which you want to make the PPTP connection, then click Configure interface

Set Input Filters

You need to set three input filters for the PPTP interface.

To add the first filter
  1. In the IP Configuration dialog box, click Input Filters. 

  2. In the IP Packet Filters Configuration dialog box, click Add

  3. In the Add/Edit IP Filter dialog box (see Figure 3.2), select Other in the Protocol box. 

  4. Type 47 in the Protocol box and click OK

    Cc751172.rras0302(en-us,TechNet.10).gif 

    Figure 3.2 Adding the first filter 

To add the second filter
  1. In the IP Packet Filters Configuration dialog box, click Add

  2. In the Add/Edit IP Filter dialog box (see Figure 3.3), select TCP in the Protocol box. 

  3. Type 1723 in the Source port box and type 0 (implying any) in the Destination port box, then click OK

    Cc751172.rras0303(en-us,TechNet.10).gif 

    Figure 3.3 Adding the second filter 

To add the third filter
  1. In the IP Packet Filters Configuration dialog box, click Add

  2. In the Add/Edit IP Filter dialog box (see Figure 3.4), select TCP in the Protocol box. 

  3. Type 0 in the Source port box and type 1723 in the Destination port box, then click OK

    Cc751172.rras0304(en-us,TechNet.10).gif 

    Figure 3.4 Adding the third filter 

  4. In the IP Packet Filters Configuration dialog box, click Drop all except listed below, then click OK

When you are finished adding filters and configuring, the IP Packet Filters Configuration dialog box should look like Figure 3.5.

Cc751172.rras0305(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

Figure 3.5 The completed IP Packet Filters Configuration dialog box 

Set Output Filters

First, specify output filters. Then, to add the three output filters, complete the same set of procedures as outlined in "Set Input Filters."

To specify output filters
  • In the IP Configuration dialog box, click Output Filters. 

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