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4201.CPI

Archived content. No warranty is made as to technical accuracy. Content may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist.

Code-page information file for IBM Proprinters II and III Model 4201, and IBM Proprinters II and III XL Model 4202.

On This Page

4208.CPI
5202.CPI
ADOS
ASSIGN
BACKUP
COMP
CV
DBLBOOT
DVORAK.SYS
EDLIN
EDLIN:[line]
EDLIN: A(APPEND)
EDLIN: C(COPY)
EDLIN: D(DELETE)
EDLIN: E(EDLIN)
EDLIN: I(INSERT)
EDLIN: L(LIST)
EDLIN: M(MOVE)
EDLIN: P(PAGE)
EDLIN: Q(QUIT)
EDLIN: R(REPLACE)
EDLIN: S(SEARCH)
EDLIN: T(TRANSFER)
EDLIN: W(WRITE)
EXE2BIN
FAKEMOUS
GRAFTABL
JOIN
KBDBUF.SYS
LCD.CPI
MIRROR
MSHERC
PRINTER.SYS
PRINTFIX

4208.CPI

Code-page information file for IBM Proprinter X24E Model 4207, and IBM Proprinter XL24E Model 4208.

5202.CPI

Code-page information file for IBM Quietwriter III printer.

ADOS

Starts AccessDOS, a package of MS-DOS extensions for persons with motion and hearing disabilities.

See ADOS.TXT for information about using AccessDOS.

Syntax

ADOS [/A] [/C] [/L] [/M] [/X]

Switches

/A

Installs AccessDOS.

/C

Runs AcessDOS in color mode.

/L

Runs AccessDOS in LCD mode.

/M

Runs AccessDOS in monochrome mode.

/X

Runs AccessDOS in minimal mode.

ASSIGN

Redirects requests for disk operations on one drive to a different drive. Some older programs can read and write files only on drives A and B. With the ASSIGN command, you can redirect disk operations for those programs so that you can read and write files on drives other than A and B.

Syntax

ASSIGN [x[:]=y[:][...]]

To redirect all drive letters to their original drives, use the following syntax: ASSIGN

To display a list of the current assignments, use the following syntax: ASSIGN /STATUS

Parameters

x

Specifies the drive from which you want to redirect read and write operations. This value must be a letter. The use of the colon (:) is optional. y Specifies the existing drive to which you want to redirect read and write operations. This value must be a letter. The use of the colon (:) is optional.

Switches

/STATUS

Lists current assignments. You can abbreviate this switch as /STA or /S.

Notes

Invalid uses of ASSIGN

You must not assign the drive letter of your hard disk to another drive. You should not use ASSIGN for a drive that is in use by a program. You cannot use the drive letter of a hard disk drive that does not exist for either the x or the y parameter.

Avoid the use of ASSIGN in the following cases:

  • With commands requiring drive information (BACKUP, JOIN, LABEL, RESTORE, SUBST)

  • With the DISKCOPY and FORMAT commands, which ignore drive reassignments

  • During typical use of MS-DOS, unless a program cannot read and write files on the specified drive

Using ASSIGN with the APPEND command

If you use both the ASSIGN and APPEND commands, you must use APPEND first, even if the commands affect different drives.

Using ASSIGN for network drives

You can use the ASSIGN command for network drives.

Canceling a previous assignment as the result of a new assignment

Assigning a drive letter to a drive cancels previous assignments to it.

Suppose you assign drive A to drive letter C, as the following example shows:

ASSIGN A=C

Later you assign drive B to drive letter C, as the following example shows:

ASSIGN B=C

As a result, drive A is no longer assigned to drive letter C.

Using the SUBST command instead of ASSIGN

You should use the SUBST command instead of ASSIGN. The following commands are equivalent:

ASSIGN A=C
SUBST A: C:\

Examples

Suppose you want to use drive C to read and write files, but your program requires you to put your program disk into drive A and your data disk into drive B. To reassign the drive letters A and B to drive C, type the following command:

ASSIGN A=C B=C

This command causes MS-DOS to look for your program and data files on drive C.

To reset all drive letters to their original drives, type the ASSIGN command without parameters, as follows:

ASSIGN

BACKUP

Backs up one or more files from one disk onto another.

You can back up files onto either a hard disk or floppy disk(s).

Files can also be backed up from one floppy disk onto another, even if the disks have different numbers of sides or sectors. MS-DOS displays the name of each file it backs up.

Syntax

BACKUP source destination-drive: [/S] [/M] [/A][/F[:size]]

[/D:date [/T:time]][/L[:[drive:][path]logfile]]

Parameters

source

Specifies the location of files you want to back up.

Source can consist of a drive letter and colon, a directory name, a filename, or a combination.

destination-drive:

Specifies the drive that contains the disk on which you want to store any backup files. The backup files are stored in the BACKUP.nnn and CONTROL.nnn files. That is, BACKUP assigns the names BACKUP.001 and CONTROL.001 to the files it creates on the first backup disk you use, BACKUP.002 and CONTROL.002 to the files it creates on the second backup disk, and so on.

Switches

/S

Backs up the contents of all subdirectories.

/M

Backs up only files that have changed since the last backup, and turns off the archive attribute of the original files.

/A

Adds backup files to an existing backup disk without deleting existing files. (The /A switch is ignored if the existing backup disk contains backup files that were created by using the BACKUP command from MS-DOS version 3.2 or earlier.)

/F[:size]

Formats the backup disk to the size you specify. (The FORMAT command must be present in the current path.) With this switch, you direct BACKUP to format floppy disks that do not match the default size of the drive. The BACKUP command formats an unformatted destination disk even if you do not specify the /F switch. When BACKUP finishes formatting, it begins backing up files onto the last disk it formatted.

Size specifies the size in kilobytes of the disk to be formatted. If you do not specify size, the /F switch uses the default size of the drive. The following list shows the valid values for size and a brief description of each size:

160 or 160k or 160kb

160K, single-sided, double-density, 5.25-inch disk

180 or 180k or 180kb

180K, single-sided, double-density, 5.25-inch disk

320 or 320k or 320kb

320K, double-sided, double-density, 5.25-inch disk

360 or 360k or 360kb

360K, double-sided, double-density, 5.25-inch disk

720 or 720k or 720kb

720K, double-sided, double-density, 3.5-inch disk

1200 or 1200k or 1200kb or 1.2 or 1.2m or 1.2mb

1.2-MB, double-sided, quadruple-density, 5.25-inch disk

1440 or 1440k or 1440kb or 1.44 or 1.44m or 1.44mb

1.44-MB, double-sided, quadruple-density, 3.5-inch disk

2880 or 2880k or 2880kb or 2.88 or 2.88m or 2.88mb

2.88-MB, double-sided, 3.5-inch disk

/D:date

Backs up only files modified on or after the specified date. The date format depends on the setting you are using for the COUNTRY command.

/T:time

Backs up only files modified at or after the specified time. The time format depends on the setting you are using for the COUNTRY command.

/L[:[drive:][path]logfile]

Creates a log file and adds an entry to that file to record the backup operation. If you do not specify a location for the log file, BACKUP puts the file in the root directory of the source drive. If you do not specify logfile, BACKUP names the file BACKUP.LOG. You should not specify a removable drive (such as a floppy disk drive) for this parameter; but once the backup is complete, you can copy the log file to a floppy disk.

Notes

Backing up onto a disk with files

Unless you use the /A switch, BACKUP deletes old files (including read-only files) from a backup disk before adding new files to it.

Backup log file

If you use the /L switch and do not specify a name and location for the log file, the BACKUP command adds a file named BACKUP.LOG to the root directory of the source drive. If the BACKUP.LOG file already exists, BACKUP adds the current entry to the file. A backup log-file entry uses the following format:

  • The date and time of the backup appear on the first line.

  • Each filename appears on a separate line with the number of the backup disk that contains the file.

The backup log file can assist you later, when you need to identify the files you want to restore. The RESTORE command always returns a file to the original directory or subdirectory recorded in the backup log, creating the subdirectory if necessary.

Labeling backup disks

It is important to label and number backup disks consecutively. As each disk is filled, BACKUP prompts you for the next disk. When you restore files, you need to insert the backup disks into the disk drive in the same sequence. To check the sequence of backup disks (MS-DOS version 3.3 or later), use the DIR command to check the disk number.

BACKUP and system files

The BACKUP command cannot back up the system files IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and COMMAND.COM. You can use the SYS command to copy these files onto a floppy disk.

Using an old version of the RESTORE command

You cannot use an old version of the RESTORE command (MS-DOS version 3.2 or earlier) for files backed up with MS-DOS version 3.3 or later. If you attempt this, MS-DOS displays the following message:

Source does not contain backup files

This error occurs because the format of old backup files differs from the format of files backed up with MS-DOS versions 3.3 and later.

Using BACKUP with networks or redirected drives or directories

If you are sharing files on a network, you can back up only those files to which you have access. You should not use BACKUP with a drive that has been redirected with the ASSIGN, JOIN, or SUBST command. If you do, the RESTORE command may not be able to restore the files.

Backup exit codes

The following list shows each exit code and a brief description of its meaning:

0

The backup was successful.

1

No files were found to back up.

2

Some files were not backed up because of file-sharing conflicts.

3

The user pressed CTRL+C to stop the process.

4

The process stopped because of an error.

You can use the ERRORLEVEL parameter on the IF command line in a batch program to process exit codes returned by the BACKUP command.

Examples

Suppose you want to back up all the files in the \PUBLIC\SMITH directory on drive C onto a blank, formatted disk in drive A. To do so, type the following:

BACKUP C:\PUBLIC\SMITH\*.* A:

Suppose you need to back up all files in the \PUBLIC\SMITH directory on drive C onto a 720K floppy disk in drive B. If the floppy disk is unformatted, BACKUP formats it before backing up any files. Because the /S switch is not specified in the following command, files in subdirectories are not backed up:

BACKUP C:\PUBLIC\SMITH\*.* B: /F:720K

To write a simple batch program named SMITH that supports the BACKUP command's exit codes and the /S switch, you can type the following commands by using MS-DOS Editor:

echo off
rem Smith's backup command
backup c:\public\smith\*.* b: /s
if errorlevel 4 goto error
if errorlevel 3 goto abort
if errorlevel 2 goto conflict
if errorlevel 1 goto no_files
if errorlevel 0 goto success
:error
echo Backup stopped the process due to an error
goto exit
:abort
echo You just pressed CTRL+C to stop the backup
goto exit
:conflict
echo One or more files were not backed up due to a sharing conflict
goto exit
:no_files
echo Sorry, but there were no files to back up
goto exit
:success
echo The backup was successful
goto exit
:exit

COMP

Compares the contents of two files or sets of files byte by byte.

COMP can compare files on the same drive or on different drives, in the same directory or in different directories. As COMP compares the files, it displays their locations and filenames.

Syntax

COMP [data1] [data2] [/D] [/A] [/L] [/N=number] [/C]

Parameters

data1

Specifies the location and name of the first file or set of files you want to compare. You can use wildcards (* and ?) to specify multiple files.

data2

Specifies the location and name of the second file or set of files you want to compare. You can use wildcards (* and ?) to specify multiple files.

Switches

/D

Displays differences in decimal format. (The default format is hexadecimal.)

/A

Displays differences as characters.

/L

Displays the number of the line on which a difference occurs, instead of displaying the byte offset.

/N=number

Compares the first number of lines of both files, even if the files are different sizes.

/C

Performs a comparison that is not case-sensitive.

Notes

Comparing files with the same names

The files you want to compare can have the same filename, provided they are in different directories or on different drives. If you do not specify a filename for data2, the default filename for data2 is the same as the filename in data1. You can use wildcards (* and ?) to specify filenames.

Special cases for data1 and data2

If you omit necessary components of either data1 or data2 or if you omit data2, COMP prompts you for the missing information. If data1 contains only a drive letter or a directory name with no filename, the default filename for data1 is *.*. Therefore, COMP compares all the files in the specified directory to the file specified in data2. If data2 contains only a drive letter or a directory name, the default filename for data2 is the same as that in data1.

How the COMP command identifies mismatching information During the comparison, COMP displays messages to identify the locations of unequal information in the two files. Each message indicates the offset memory address of the unequal bytes and the contents of the bytes themselves (in hexadecimal notation unless you specify the /A or /D switch). The message has the following format:

Compare error at OFFSET xxxxxxxx

file1 = xx

file2 = xx

After 10 unequal comparisons, COMP stops comparing the files and displays the following message:

10 Mismatches – ending compare 

Comparing files of different sizes

You cannot compare files of different sizes unless you specify the /N switch. If the file sizes are different, COMP displays the following message:

Files are different sizes
Compare more files (Y/N)?

Press Y to compare another pair of files. Press N to stop the COMP command.

If you press Y in response to the prompt, COMP includes any switches you specified on the command line in every comparison it makes, until you press N or retype the command.

When comparing files of different sizes, use the /N switch to compare only the first portion of each file.

Comparing files sequentially

If you use wildcards to specify multiple files, COMP finds the first file matching data1 and compares it with the corresponding file in data2, if it exists. COMP reports the results of the comparison, then does the same for each file matching data1. When finished, COMP displays the following message:

Compare more files (Y/N)? 

To compare more files, press Y. COMP prompts you for the locations and names of the new files. To stop the comparisons, press N. When you press Y, COMP prompts you for switches to use. If you don't specify any switches, COMP uses the ones you specified before.

If COMP cannot find the files

If COMP cannot find the file(s) you specify, it prompts you with a message to determine whether you want to compare more files.

CV

Starts CodeView versions 3.0 through 3.13.

Caution: Using versions 3.0 to 3.13 of the CodeView CV.EXEfile may cause data loss if your system has a 80386 memorymanager (such as EMM386.EXE) and device drivers or programs that use extended memory. To determine which version you have, type CV.EXE at the command prompt.

To start CodeView versions 3.0 to 3.13 safely, use the CV.COM file included with the Supplemental disk, and HIMEM.SYS version 2.77 or later.

To use the CV.COM file included with the Supplemental disks, copy it to the directory that contains your CV.EXE file.

This problem has been fixed in CodeView version 3.14. Call Microsoft C Support to get this version.

DBLBOOT

Creates a bootable DoubleSpace floppy disk.

Syntax

DBLBOOT [drive:]

Parameter

[drive:]

Specifies the floppy disk drive for the DoubleSpace floppy disk.

Notes

You can use the floppy disk to start any system with MS-DOS 6. Because the disk is compressed, you can include many more files on the disk than on most uncompressed disks.

Before you can use DBLBOOT, you must install DoubleSpace on your hard disk. DBLBOOT only works with high-density (1.44 or 1.2 MB) floppy disks.

DVORAK.SYS

Provides alternative keyboard layouts for people who have difficulty using the standard QWERTY layout.

The commands for installing the layouts in your CONFIG.SYS file are as follows. (If DOS is not the directory that contains your MS-DOS files, substitute the correct directory name in the commands below.)

Two-handed layout

keyb dv,,c:\dos\dvorak.sys

Left-handed layout

keyb lh,,c:\dos\dvorak.sys

Right-handed layout

keyb rh,,c:\dos\dvorak.sys

EDLIN

Starts Edlin, a line-oriented text editor with which you can create and change ASCII files. Edlin numbers each line of the text file that is located in memory. You can use Edlin to insert, modify, copy, move, and delete lines of the file. If you want to use a full-screen editor, use the EDIT command.

Syntax

EDLIN [drive:][path] filename [/B]

Parameter

[drive:][path] filename

Specifies the location and name of an ASCII file on a disk. If the file exists, Edlin opens it. If the file does not exist, Edlin creates a file in memory and uses the specified location and filename to create the file on a disk when you use the Edlin E command.

Switches

/B

Specifies that Edlin is to ignore the end-of-file character (CTRL+Z).

Notes

Maximum line length

Edlin accepts a maximum of 253 characters per line.

Edlin commands

The following is a list of Edlin commands with a brief description of each command:

[line]

Displays the line you specify.

?

Displays a list of Edlin commands.

A

Loads a portion of a file into memory when insufficient memory prohibits loading the entire file.

C

Copies a block of consecutive lines to the line number you specify.

D

Deletes a block of consecutive lines.

E

Writes the edited file from memory to a disk (saves the file), and stops the Edlin session.

I

Inserts one or more lines.

L

Displays a block of consecutive lines.

M

Moves a block of consecutive lines.

P

Displays a file one page at a time.

Q

Stops the Edlin session without writing the edited file from memory to a disk.

R

Searches for a string of one or more characters, and replaces it.

S

Searches for a string of one or more characters.

T

Merges the contents of another file on a disk with the contents of the file that is in memory.

W

Writes the first portion of the file in memory to a disk.

Meaning of the asterisk character in Edlin

The asterisk (*) is used for two purposes in Edlin. When an asterisk appears as the only character on the display line, it is the Edlin prompt after which you type Edlin commands. When an asterisk appears after a line number on the display line, it indicates that the line is the current line (where the cursor is located).

Meaning of a page of text

A page of text is one full screen of information. With a 25-line screen mode, Edlin displays 24 lines of text per page. The number of lines per page depends on the screen mode you are using.

Starting and stopping insert mode

To insert lines into the file in memory, use the Edlin I (insert) command. Once you have finished inserting lines, press ENTER and then CTRL+C to stop insert mode. For more information about inserting lines, see the Edlin I command.

Editing keys

MS-DOS provides several editing keys that you can use to edit the file in memory.

EDLIN:[line]

Displays the line of text you specify.

When you type a line number as a command, Edlin displays two lines. The first line contains the number you specified and its associated text. The second line contains the number again, followed by the cursor. The text on the first line of the display serves as a template for the second line. On the second line of the display, you can press ENTER to cancel the command without changing the text, type replacement text, or edit the line of text.

Syntax

[line]

Parameters

line

Specifies the number of the line you want Edlin to display. To see the number and text of the current line, press ENTER.

NOTE

Entering changes into memory

After you edit a line, press ENTER to enter the changes into memory.

Caution

If you press ENTER while the cursor is in the middle of a line, Edlin deletes the portion of the line that is between the cursor and the end of the line.

For information about saving the edited file from memory to a disk, see the Edlin E and Edlin W commands.

EXAMPLE

Suppose that the following file is in memory and ready to edit. When you use the Edlin L (list) command at the Edlin prompt, Edlin displays the contents of the file.

1: Dear Mr. Muster:
2:
3: Congratulations on your promotion
4: to the position of Senior Chemical
5: Engineer. I continue to be most
6: impressed with your work.

To edit line 6, type 6. Edlin displays the following two lines:

6:*impressed with your work.
6:*_

The first line contains the specified line number and its associated text. The second line contains the same line number and the cursor.

Now suppose you want to insert the word "fine" before the word "work" in the previous example. You can specify that Edlin is to redisplay a portion of the first line, beginning at the cursor position on the second line. First, press F2 and type W. Edlin displays up to, but not including, the first "w" in line 6, as follows:

6:*impressed _

Then, press F2 and type W again. Edlin displays up to, but not including the next "w" in line 6, as follows:

6:*impressed with your _

Now press the INSERT key and type FINE and then a space. Then press the F3 key. Edlin displays the edited line, as follows:

6:*impressed with your fine work._

Press ENTER to accept the change.

At the Edlin prompt, use the Edlin L (list) command to see a display of the edited file now in memory. Edlin displays the following:

1: Dear Mr. Muster:
2:
3: Congratulations on your promotion
4: to the position of Senior Chemical
5: Engineer. I continue to be most
6:*impressed with your fine work.

EDLIN: A(APPEND)

Loads a portion of a file into memory when insufficient memory prevents Edlin from loading the entire file.

When you start Edlin, it reads as many lines as possible from your disk file into memory. If the size of your file exceeds available memory, you must edit your file in stages. That is, you edit the first part of the file, write that part of the file to your disk by using the W (write) command, and then load more unedited lines from your disk into memory.

Syntax

[n]A

Parameters

n

Specifies the number of lines you want Edlin to read into memory from the disk.

Notes

Default setting

If you do not specify a value for n, Edlin loads lines from the disk file until available memory is 75-percent full. If available memory is already 75-percent full, Edlin loads no lines.

Freeing extra memory

If available memory is already full, you may be able to free memory by writing a portion of the file to a disk, by stopping other programs, or by restarting MS-DOS after quitting MS-DOS Editor. Restarting MS-DOS clears memory being used by memory-resident programs.

End-of-file message

After the A command reads the last line of the file into memory, Edlin displays the following message:

End of input file 

EXAMPLE

Suppose the last 100 lines of your disk file do not fit into memory. After you edit the first part of the file and write a portion of it back to a disk, you can type the following command to load the remaining 100 lines into memory:

100a 

EDLIN: C(COPY)

Copies a block of consecutive lines to one or more locations within the file in memory.

The C command copies the block of consecutive lines you specify to a line number you specify. This block can be copied as many times as necessary.

Syntax

[line1],[line2],line3[,count]C

Parameters

line1

Specifies the first line you want Edlin to copy.

line2

Specifies the last line you want Edlin to copy.

line3

Specifies the line before which Edlin is to insert the specified block of lines.

count

Specifies the number of times you want Edlin to copy the block of lines.

Notes

Default settings

If you omit line1 or line2, Edlin copies only the current line. You must include the commas on the command line even if you omit one or both of these parameters.

If you omit the count parameter, Edlin copies the lines one time.

Line renumbering

After Edlin copies lines, you can use the Edlin L (list) command at the Edlin prompt to see the correctly renumbered lines.

Overlapping line numbers

The line you specify for theline3 parameter cannot be part of the block of lines to be copied. If you overlap line numbers in this way, Edlin cannot complete the copy operation and displays the following message:

Entry error

For example, the following command results in an error message:

3,20,15c 

Examples

If you type the following command, Edlin copies lines 1 through 5 one time, beginning on line 6:

1,5,6c 

Lines 6 through 10 become identical to lines 1 through 5.

To copy the current line to line 5, use the following command:

,,5c 

EDLIN: D(DELETE)

Deletes the block of consecutive lines you specify.

Syntax

[line1][,line2]D

Parameters

line1

Specifies the first line you want Edlin to delete.

line2

Specifies the last line you want Edlin to delete.

Notes

Default parameter values

If you omit both parameters or only the line2 parameter, Edlin deletes the current line. However, if you omit only the line1 parameter, Edlin deletes the block of text that includes the current line through the line whose number is specified for line2. In the latter case, you cannot specify a line number for line2 that precedes the current line number. In general, the number you specify for line2 cannot be smaller than the number you specify for line1. If you omit only the line1 parameter, you need to insert a comma as a placeholder preceding line2, as shown in the syntax line.

Line renumbering

After Edlin deletes lines, you can use the Edlin L (list) command at the Edlin prompt to see the correctly renumbered lines that remain.

Examples

If you want Edlin to delete line 7, type:

7d 

If you want Edlin to delete the block of text on lines 22 through 32, type the following command:

22,32d 

Finally, suppose that the number of the current line is 7. To specify that Edlin is to delete the block of text that includes the current line through line 11, type the following command:

,11d 

EDLIN: E(EDLIN)

Writes the current file from memory to a disk and stops the Edlin session.

The E command renames the original input file on the disk with the .BAK extension, writes the edited file from memory to the original input file on the disk, and then stops the Edlin session. However, if the file in memory is one that you created during this session rather than one that Edlin loaded from a disk, Edlin does not create a backup (.BAK) file on the disk.

Syntax

E

Notes

Default drive and directory

Edlin writes the edited file from memory to the drive, directory, and filename on a disk that you specified when you started the current Edlin session. If you omitted a drive name at that time, Edlin writes to the current drive. If you omitted a directory name at that time, Edlin writes to the current directory.

Checking for disk space

Before using the E command, you should be sure your disk contains enough free space for the entire edited file that is in memory. If it does not, Edlin loses part or all of the file.

Read-only .BAK file

Suppose you want Edlin to save an edited file from memory to a disk, but the .BAK version of the file is a read-only file. In this case, Edlin displays a message in the following format to inform you that Edlin cannot replace the .BAK file:

Access denied  - [drive:][path] filename.BAK 

Both the original and backup versions of your file on the disk remain unchanged.

EDLIN: I(INSERT)

Inserts lines before the line number you specify in the edited file in memory.

If you are creating a new file, you must type the I command before you can insert a new line. Edlin displays the next line number each time you press ENTER. Edlin remains in insert mode until you press CTRL+C.

Syntax

[line]I

Parameters

line

Specifies the line number before which you want Edlin to insert lines. The default value of line is the number of the current line.

Notes

Line renumbering

When you quit insert mode, the line immediately following the inserted lines becomes the current line. You can use the Edlin L (list) command at the Edlin prompt to see the correctly renumbered lines.

Inserting control characters

To insert a control character in text, type ^V followed by the ASCII symbol that represents the control character. For example, to insert an escape character (CTRL+[), type the following:

^V[

To insert a character that produces a tone (CTRL+G), type the following:

^VG

Appending text

If the value for line exceeds the number of lines in the file you are editing or if you specify a number sign (#) for line, Edlin appends the inserted line(s) to the end of the file. In either case, the last line you insert becomes the current line. If only a portion of the file is in memory, the line is appended at the end of the portion in memory.

Examples

Suppose you have used the Edlin L (list) command at the Edlin prompt to display the following text on your screen:

1: Dear Mr. Muster:
2:
3: Congratulations on your promotion
4: to the position of Senior Chemical
5: Engineer. I continue to be most
6: impressed with your work.
7:
8: Sincerely,
9:
10: S.L. Martin, President

Suppose you want to add another paragraph to the letter. To insert text before line 8, type 8I. Edlin displays the following:

8:*_

Now type the following line at the cursor on line 8:

8:*I think you will enjoy working with

Press ENTER at the complete of each new line and continue by typing the following lines:

9:*Mr. Lang on the new project. Please
10:*let me know if there is anything I
11:*can do to assist you.

Edlin displays the following:

12:*_

Insert a blank line by pressing ENTER and complete the insertion by pressing CTRL+C on the next line. You can type 1L to see the following correctly renumbered lines:

1: Dear Mr. Muster:
2:
3: Congratulations on your promotion
4: to the position of Senior Chemical
5: Engineer. I continue to be most
6: impressed with your work.
7:
8: I think you will enjoy working with
9: Mr. Lang on the new project. Please
10: let me know if there is anything I
11: can do to assist you.
12:
13:*Sincerely,
14:
15: S.L. Martin, President

EDLIN: L(LIST)

Displays the block of consecutive lines you specify.

Syntax

[line1][,line2] l

Parameters

line1

Specifies the first line you want Edlin to display.

line2

Specifies the last line you want Edlin to display.

Notes

Default values

You can omit the line1 parameter, the line2 parameter, or both. The following list describes the default value(s) for each of these cases:

  • If you omit only the line1 parameter, Edlin displays up to one page (full screen of text) at a time, beginning 11 lines before the current line and ending with the line whose number is specified in line2. When you omit only line1, you must insert a comma as a placeholder.

  • If you omit only the line2 parameter, Edlin displays up to one page, beginning with the line whose number is specified in line1.

  • If you use the Edlin L (List) command with no parameters, Edlin displays up to one page, beginning 11 lines before the current line. If you install the ANSI.SYS device driver, the number of lines Edlin displays per page depends on the type of monitor you have. This number might be greater than 24.

Blocks of more than one page

When the block of lines you specify contains more than one page, Edlin displays the first page and then prompts you with the following message:

Continue (Y/N)? 

EXAMPLE

To see lines 5 through 10, type the following:

5,10l 

EDLIN: M(MOVE)

Moves the block of consecutive lines you specify to another location in the file in memory.

Syntax

[line1],[line2],line3M

[line1],+n,line3M

Parameters

line1

Specifies the first line you want Edlin to move.

line2

Specifies the last line you want Edlin to move.

line3

Specifies the line before which you want Edlin to move the block of lines.

+n

Specifies that you want Edlin to move the block of lines that begins with the line whose number is specified in line1 and includes the next n lines. If you omit the line1 parameter, the block of lines to be moved begins with the current line.

Notes

Line renumbering

After Edlin moves lines, you can use the Edlin L (list) command at the Edlin prompt to see the correctly renumbered lines.

Overlapping line numbers

The line you specify for theline3 parameter cannot be part of the block of lines to be moved. If you overlap line numbers in this way, Edlin cannot complete the move operation and displays the following message:

Entry error 

For example, the following command results in an error message:

5,10,8m 

Examples

Suppose that the following file is in memory and ready to edit. You can type 1L at the Edlin prompt to see the contents of the file.

1: Dear Mr. Muster:
2:
3: Congratulations on your promotion
4: to the position of Senior Chemical
5: Engineer. I continue to be most
6: impressed with your hard work.
7:
8: I think you will enjoy working with
9: Mr. Lang on the new project. Please
10: let me know if there is anything I
11: can do to assist you.
12:
13: Sincerely,
14:
15: S.L. Martin, President
16: Rockdale Corporation
17: "A World Leader in Technology"

What if you prefer to have the motto at the beginning of the memo? You can move lines 16 and 17 before the existing line 1 by typing the following command:

16,17,1m 

Type the Edlin L (list) command at the Edlin prompt to see the following correctly renumbered lines:

1: Rockdale Corporation
2: "A World Leader in Technology"
3: Dear Mr. Muster:
4:
5: Congratulations on your promotion
6: to the position of Senior Chemical
7: Engineer. I continue to be most
8: impressed with your hard work.
9:
10: I think you will enjoy working with
11: Mr. Lang on the new project. Please
12: let me know if there is anything I
13: can do to assist you.
14:
15: Sincerely,
16:
17: S.L. Martin, President

The following command specifies that Edlin is to move the block of lines including the current line through the next 25 lines to immediately before line 100:

,+25,100m 

EDLIN: P(PAGE)

Displays all or part of a file, one page (full screen of text) at a time.

The last line displayed per screen becomes the current line.

Syntax

[line1][, line2]P

Parameters

line1

Specifies the first line you want Edlin to display.

line2

Specifies the last line you want Edlin to display.

Notes

Omitting only the line1 parameter

When you omit the line1 parameter, Edlin displays a page of text that begins with the current line through line2.

Omitting only the line2 parameter

When you omit the line2 parameter, Edlin displays a page of text that begins with the line whose number you specify for line1.

Omitting both parameters

When you omit both parameters, Edlin displays a page of text that begins with the line after the current line.

EXAMPLE

To see lines 100 through 200, one page at a time, type the following command:

100,200p 

EDLIN: Q(QUIT)

Stops the current Edlin session without writing the edited file from memory to a disk.

When you use the Q command, the Edlin session stops and the MS-DOS prompt appears.

To specify that Edlin is to write the edited file from memory to a disk before ending the current session, you must use the E (end) command.

Syntax

Q

Notes

A difference between the Q and E commands

Suppose that the file you are editing is one that Edlin loaded into memory from a disk at the beginning of this session rather than one that you created in memory during the session. If you use the Q command to quit the session, the contents of both the original input disk file and the .BAK version of the disk file (if one exists) remain unchanged. However, if you use the E command to quit the session and the file you are editing has changed during the session, the edits are saved and the original input disk file becomes the .BAK version.

Quitting Edlin without writing the edited file from memory to a disk

Use the following procedure to quit the Edlin session without writing the edited file from memory to a disk:

  1. At the Edlin prompt, type Q. Edlin displays the following message:

    Abort edit (Y/N)? _ 
    
  2. Press Y (for yes).

EDLIN: R(REPLACE)

Searches a block of consecutive lines for a string of one or more characters you specify, and replaces each occurrence of that string with another string you specify.

The last line in which the replacement occurs becomes the new current line.

Syntax

[line1][,line2][?]R[string1][separator string2]

Parameters

line1

Specifies the first line in which you want Edlin to replace the string specified in string1.

line2

Specifies the last line in which you want Edlin to replace the string specified in string1.

? (question mark)

Specifies that Edlin is to prompt you by displaying a confirmation message before replacing an occurrence of the string specified in string1.

string1

Specifies the string that you want Edlin to replace.

separator

Separates the string1 and string2 values. The only valid value for this parameter is the end-of-file character (CTRL+Z).

string2

Specifies the new string that is to replace each occurrence of the string specified for string1.

Notes

Command-line spacing

You must not insert a space between the R and any subsequent parameter on the command line.

Default settings

If you omit the line1 parameter, Edlin begins the search on the line after the current line. If you omit the line2 parameter, Edlin stops the search at the end of the file or at the end of the portion of text in memory.

If you omit the string1 parameter, Edlin uses the more recently used of the following two values: the value that you specified for string1 the last time you used the R command or the value that you specified for string the last time you used the S command during this session. If you omit string1 and you have not used the R or S command yet during the editing session, the command stops.

If you omit the string2 parameter, Edlin uses the value you specified the last time you used the R command during this session. If you omit the string2 parameter and you have not used the R command yet during this session, Edlin deletes all occurrences of the string that is specified for string1.

Using the separator parameter

You must separate the string1 and string2 values by using the CTRL+Z key combination. Even if you omit string1, you need to press CTRL+Z to mark the beginning of string2. When you press the CTRL+Z key combination, the characters displayed are not "CTRL+Z". Instead, you see the following:

^Z 

Using the question mark (?)

If you include the ? parameter in your command, Edlin displays the line containing the first occurrence of the string specified for string1 and prompts you by displaying the following confirmation message:

O.K.? _ 

If you press Y (for yes) or press ENTER, Edlin replaces this occurrence of the value for string1 with the value for string2 and searches for the next occurrence. If you press N (for no), Edlin does not replace this occurrence of the value for string1 and searches for the next occurrence.

If you do not use the question mark (?)

If you do not use the ? parameter to confirm replacements as they are made, Edlin makes all the replacements at once and then displays each line that contains a replacement. If a line contains two or more replacements, Edlin displays the line once for each replacement.

Examples

Suppose you want Edlin to carry out only each confirmed replacement of the word "mine" with the word "ours" within the first 20 lines of the edited file in memory. Type the first part of the command as follows, but do not press ENTER:

1,20?rmine 

To complete the command, press CTRL+Z (which appears on the screen as ^Z), type the word OURS, and press ENTER. The complete command appears on the screen as follows:

1,20?rmine^Zours 

Suppose that the following file is in memory and ready to edit. You can type 1L at the Edlin prompt to see the contents of the file.

1: Dear Mr. Muster:
2:
3: Congratulations on your promotion
4: to the position of Senior Chemical
5: Engineer. I continue to be most
6: impressed with your hard work.
7:
8: I think you will enjoy working with
9: Mr. Lang on the new project. Please
10: let me know if there is anything I
11: can do to assist you.
12:
13: Sincerely,
14:
15: S.L. Martin, President
16: Rockdale Corporation
17: "A World Leader in Technology"

Now suppose that in lines 5 through 10 you want Edlin to replace all occurrences of the word "I" with the words "yours truly". Type the first part of the command as follows, but do not press ENTER:

5,10rI 

To complete the command, press CTRL+Z (which appears on the screen as ^Z), type the words "yours truly", and press ENTER. The complete command appears on the screen as follows:

5,10rI^Zyours truly 

Because the ? parameter is omitted, Edlin replaces the three occurrences of "I" without prompting you by displaying the confirmation message. When Edlin finishes carrying out the command, it displays the following lines, which are changed as a result of the three replacements:

5: Engineer. yours truly continue to be most
8: yours truly think you will enjoy working with
10: let me know if there is anything yours truly

In the previous example, two unintended replacements occurred--in lines 5 and 8. You can avoid such changes by adding the ? parameter to the command. The completed command should appear on screen as follows:

5,10?rI^Zyours truly 

Now, Edlin prompts you by displaying the confirmation message for each occurrence of the string specified in string1 and carries out only confirmed replacements, as the following example shows:

5: Engineer. yours truly continue to be most
O.K.? n
8: yours truly think you will enjoy working with
O.K.? n
10: let me know if there is anything yours truly
O.K.? y

When the ? parameter is used, Edlin does not automatically display the lines that are changed as a result of the confirmed replacements. If you type the Edlin L (list) command at the Edlin prompt, Edlin displays the edited file that is in memory, as follows:

1: Dear Mr. Muster:
2:
3: Congratulations on your promotion
4: to the position of Senior Chemical
5: Engineer. I continue to be most
6: impressed with your hard work.
7:
8: I think you will enjoy working with
9: Mr. Lang on the new project. Please
10: let me know if there is anything yours truly
11: can do to assist you.
12:
13: Sincerely,
14:
15: S.L. Martin, President
16: Rockdale Corporation
17: "A World Leader in Technology"

EDLIN: S(SEARCH)

Searches for the string of one or more characters that you specify.

Edlin displays the first line that contains an occurrence of the string. The search then stops and that line becomes the current line.

Syntax

[line1][,line2][?]S[string]

Parameters

line1

Specifies the first line you want Edlin to search.

line2

Specifies the last line you want Edlin to search.

? (question mark)

Specifies that Edlin is to prompt you by displaying a confirmation message when it finds the first occurrence of the value you specify for string.

string

Specifies the string for which you want Edlin to search. You must not insert a space before this parameter on the command line, unless the space is part of the search text.

Notes

Default settings

If you omit the line1 parameter, Edlin starts the search on the line after the current line. If you omit the line2 parameter, Edlin stops the search at the end of the file.

If you omit the string parameter, Edlin uses the more recently used of the following two values: the value that you specified for string the last time you used the S command, or the value that you specified for string1 the last time you used the R (replace) command during this session. If you omit the string parameter and this is your first use of an S or R command during this session, the S command stops immediately.

Using the ? (question mark)

If you include the ? parameter in your command, Edlin displays the line containing the first occurrence of the characters specified for string and prompts you with the following confirmation message:

O.K.? _ 

If you press Y (for yes) or press ENTER, the line displayed before the message becomes the current line and the search stops. If you press N (for no), the search continues until another occurrence is found or until Edlin displays the following message indicating that all lines have been searched:

Not found 

Examples

Suppose that the following file is in memory and ready to edit. You can type 1L at the Edlin prompt to see the contents of the file.

1: Dear Mr. Muster:
2:
3: Congratulations on your promotion
4: to the position of Senior Chemical
5: Engineer. I continue to be most
6: impressed with your hard work.
7:
8: I think you will enjoy working with
9: Mr. Lang on the new project. Please
10: let me know if there is anything I
11: can do to assist you.
12:
13: Sincerely,
14:
15: S.L. Martin, President

To specify that Edlin is to search lines 2 through 12 for the first occurrence of the word "to", type the following command:

2,12sto 

Edlin displays the following line:

4: to the position of Senior Chemical

To specify that Edlin is to display the line containing the first occurrence of "to" and then prompt you with a confirmation message, type the following command:

1,?sto 

Edlin displays the following lines:

4: to the position of Senior Chemical
O.K.? _

If you press any key other than Y or ENTER, the search continues. For this example, press N (for no), as follows:

O.K.? n 

Edlin continues the search and displays the following lines:

5: Engineer. I continue to be most
O.K.? _

Press Y to stop the search.

EDLIN: T(TRANSFER)

Merges the contents of another file from a disk with the contents of the file that is in memory.

Syntax

[line]T[drive:][path] filename

Parameters

line

Specifies the line number before which you want Edlin to insert the file it is transferring from a disk. The default value of this parameter is the number of the current line.

[drive:][path] filename

Specifies the location and name of the file you want Edlin to insert before the line whose number is specified in the line parameter. The default value for drive is the current drive; the default value for path is the current directory.

NOTE

After Edlin merges a file from a disk, you can use the Edlin L (list) command at the Edlin prompt to see the correctly renumbered lines.

EXAMPLE

To merge a file named TAXES.MEM to line 12 of the file you are editing, type the following command:

12t taxes.mem 

EDLIN: W(WRITE)

Writes the first portion of the edited file from memory to a disk.

When you start Edlin, it reads as many lines as possible from your disk file into memory. If the size of your file exceeds available memory, you must edit your file in stages. That is, you edit part of the file, write that part to your disk by using the W command, and then load the next part from disk by using the A command.

Syntax

[n]W

Parameters

n

Specifies the number of lines that you want Edlin to write to the disk, beginning with the first line of the edited file in memory.

Notes

How the W command works

When you open a file, Edlin reads lines from disk until memory is more than 75-percent full. It reserves the other 25 percent for changes you might make to the text. If your entire file fits in memory, Edlin displays the following message:

End of input file 

If you see this message, you do not need to use the W and A commands.

If Edlin does not display this message when you open a file, the size of the file exceeds available memory. Therefore, you must edit your file in stages by using the W and A commands to write and read parts of the file, respectively.

The W command does not write to disk the changes you make unless it was actually necessary to use the W command. Therefore, if you use the W command even though the whole file fit into memory and then you use the Q command to quit Edlin, none of the changes you made to the file are saved.

Line renumbering

After Edlin writes the first portion of the edited file from memory to a disk, you can use the Edlin L (list) command at the Edlin prompt to see the correctly renumbered lines that remain, beginning with line number 1.

Default setting

If you omit the n parameter, Edlin writes lines from the edited file in memory to a disk until memory is 25-percent full.

EXAMPLE

Suppose the final 100 lines of your disk file do not fit into memory. After you edit the first part of the file, you can free enough space to load the remainder of your disk file into memory and continue editing by typing the following command:

125w 

EXE2BIN

Converts .EXE (executable) files to binary format.

EXE2BIN is included with MS-DOS as a courtesy to software developers. It is not useful for general users.

Syntax

EXE2BIN [drive1:][path1]input-file [[drive2:][path2]output-file]

Parameters

[drive1:][path1]input-file

Specifies the location and name of the input file.

[drive2:][path2]output-file

Specifies the location and name of the output file.

Notes

Restrictions on using EXE2BIN

The following restrictions apply when you use the EXE2BIN command:

  • The input file must be in valid .EXE format produced by the linker and must not be packed.

  • The resident, or actual, code and data portions of the file combined must be less than 64K.

  • There must be no STACK segment.

Default values for parameters

EXE2BIN takes specific actions, depending upon the values you use for the input-file and output-file parameters.

  • The default filename extension for the filename you specify for input-file is .EXE. EXE2BIN converts the input .EXE file to an output file in .BIN format (a memory image of the program) and uses the location and filename you specify for [drive2:][path2]output-file to store that output file.

  • If you do not specify drive2 or path2, EXE2BIN writes the output file to the current drive and directory.

  • If you do not specify an output filename, EXE2BIN uses the input filename.

  • The default extension for the filename specified for the output-file parameter is .BIN.

Types of conversion available with EXE2BIN

Two types of conversion are possible, depending upon whether the initial CS:IP (Code Segment:Instruction Pointer) is specified in the .EXE file. The following list presents the two types:

  • If the CS:IP is not specified in the .EXE file, EXE2BIN performs a pure binary conversion. If segment fixups are necessary (that is, if the program contains instructions requiring segment relocation), EXE2BIN prompts you for the fixup value. This value is the absolute segment at which the program is to be loaded. The resulting program is usable only when loaded at the absolute memory address specified by your program. The command interpreter cannot load the program.

  • If the CS:IP is specified as 0000:100H, the file runs as a .COM file with the instruction pointer set at 100H by the assembler statement ORG. Include the .COM extension in the output-file parameter. No segment fixups are allowed, because .COM files must be segment-relocatable; that is, they must assume the entry conditions explained in the Microsoft Macro Assembler manuals. The command interpreter can then load and run the program in the same way as it loads and runs the .COM programs supplied on your MS-DOS disk.

FAKEMOUS

An IBM PS/2 mouse utility used with AccessDOS.

See ADOS.TXT for information about using FAKEMOUS.

GRAFTABL

Enables MS-DOS to display the extended characters of a specified code page in graphics mode.

Most monitors can display extended characters (ASCII characters 128 through 255) without the GRAFTABL command. Use this command only if your monitor does not properly display these characters in graphics mode.

Syntax

GRAFTABL [xxx]

GRAFTABL /STATUS

Parameters

xxx

Specifies the code page for which you want MS-DOS to define the appearance of extended characters in graphics mode. The following list shows each valid code-page identification number and its country/region or language:

437

United States

850

Multilingual (Latin I)

852

Slavic (Latin II)

860

Portuguese

863

Canadian-French

865

Nordic

Switches

/STATUS

Identifies the code page selected for use by GRAFTABL.

Notes

GRAFTABL does not change the active code page

GRAFTABL affects only the appearance of extended characters of the code page you specify. To change the code page you are using, use the MODE or CHCP command.

GRAFTABL exit codes

The following list shows each exit code and a brief description of its meaning:

0

Character set was loaded successfully; no previous code page was loaded.

1

Character set was already loaded and replaced by new table.

2

A file error occurred.

3

An incorrect parameter was specified; no action was taken.

4

An incorrect version of MS-DOS is in use; version 5.0 is required.

You can use the ERRORLEVEL parameter on the IF command line in a batch program to process exit codes returned by GRAFTABL. For an example of a batch program that processes exit codes, see the BACKUP command.

Effect on memory

The GRAFTABL command decreases the amount of available conventional memory by about 1K.

EXAMPLE

To load the graphics character set for code page 437 (United States) into memory, type the following command:

graftabl

To load the graphics character set for code page 860 (Portuguese) into memory, type the following command:

graftabl 860

JOIN

Joins a disk drive to a directory on another disk drive.

When you use the JOIN command, MS-DOS treats the directories and files on a disk drive as the contents of the other drive and path you specify.

Syntax

JOIN [drive1: [drive2:]path]

JOIN drive: /D

Parameters

drive1:

Specifies the floppy disk drive or logical drive that you want to join to a different drive and directory.

drive2:

Specifies the floppy disk drive or logical drive to which you want to join drive1.

path

Specifies the directory to which you want to join drive1. This directory must be empty before you join drive1 to it. It must also be a directory other than the root directory.

drive:

Specifies a floppy disk drive or logical drive that was previously specified in a JOIN command that you are now canceling.

Switches

/D

Cancels any previous JOIN commands for the drive you specify.

Drive1 becomes invalid

After you use the JOIN command, the drive1 you specify becomes invalid. If you then try to use it, MS-DOS displays the following message:

Invalid drive specification

Limitations on path

If the directory specified by path already exists before you use the JOIN command, you cannot use that directory for any other purpose while JOIN is in effect. If the directory is not empty, MS-DOS does not complete the join operation and displays the following message:

Directory not empty

If the directory does not exist, MS-DOS tries to create it.

Limitations on using JOIN with other commands

The following commands do not work with drives formed by the JOIN command:

  • ASSIGN

  • BACKUP

  • CHKDSK

  • DISKCOMP

  • DISKCOPY

  • FDISK

  • FORMAT

  • LABEL

  • MIRROR

  • RESTORE

  • SYS

Using JOIN with no parameters

You can use the JOIN command with no parameters to see a list of the currently joined drives.

Examples

You can join any directory or subdirectory in a tree structure. For example, the following commands are valid:

join d: c:sales 
join d: c:salesoctober 

To reverse either of the previous JOIN commands, type the drive1 value followed by the /D switch, as follows:

join d: /d 

KBDBUF.SYS

Specifies the number of keystrokes that can be held in your keyboard buffer.

Syntax

DEVICE=KBDBUF.SYS nnnn

Parameter

nnnn

Specifies the number of keystrokes that can be held in the keyboard buffer. The acceptable range is 16 to 1024

Notes

The KBDBUF.SYS driver should be loaded with the DEVICE command early in your CONFIG.SYS file. In addition, you cannot load the KBDBUF.SYS driver into the upper memory area. If you run MemMaker, choose Custom, and exclude the driver from the optimization process.

EXAMPLE

If you want to specify a keyboard buffer that allows you to type ahead

25 keystrokes beyond what has been displayed on your screen, add the following command to your CONFIG.SYS file:

DEVICE=KBDBUF.SYS 25

LCD.CPI

Code-page information file for IBM PC Convertible liquid crystal display.

MIRROR

Starts the MIRROR program, which records information about one or more disks; the UNFORMAT and UNDELETE commands can use this information to restore a reformatted disk or to recover deleted files.

Syntax

MIRROR [drive:[ ...]] [/1] [/Tdrive[-entries][ ...]]

MIRROR [/u]

MIRROR [/partn]

To save information about the disk in the current drive, use the following syntax:

MIRROR

Parameter

drive:

Specifies the drive containing the disk for which you want MIRROR to save information. This information is used by the UNFORMAT command to restore a disk.

Switches

/1

Retains only the latest information about the disk. If you do not specify this switch, MIRROR makes a backup copy of the existing disk-information file before recording the current information.

/Tdrive[-entries]

Loads a terminate-and-stay-resident deletion-tracking program that records information used by the UNDELETE command to recover deleted files. The required drive parameter specifies the drive containing the disk for which you want MIRROR to save information about deleted files. The optional entries parameter, which must be a value in the range 1 through 999, specifies the maximum number of entries in the deletion-tracking file (PCTRACKR.DEL). The default value for entries is dependent upon the type of disk being tracked. The following list shows each disk size, its default number of entries, and its corresponding file size:

Disk size

Entries

File size

360K

25

5K

720K

50

9K

1.2 megabyte (MB)

75

14K

1.44 MB

75

14K

20 MB

101

18K

32 MB

202

36K

32 MB

303

55K

Caution: Do not use deletion tracking for any drive that has been redirected by using the JOIN or SUBST command. If you intend to use the ASSIGN command, you must do so before using MIRROR to install deletion tracking.

/U

Unloads the deletion-tracking program from memory, disabling deletion tracking. You cannot unload the tracking program if you loaded any other memory-resident programs after it.

/PARTN

Saves system information about how a hard disk is partitioned. The switch saves the information in a file on a floppy disk. The UNFORMAT command can use this file later to rebuild the partitions of a disk.

Saving information about a disk

The MIRROR program saves a copy of the file allocation table and the root directory of the disk in the specified drive. The UNFORMAT command can use this information to rebuild a disk that has been unintentionally formatted, or it can use the information to recover files and subdirectories in the disk's root directory.

Because UNFORMAT restores the disk's system area to the condition it was in when you last used MIRROR, you should save this information frequently for every hard disk drive in your system. To ensure that the information is saved each time you turn on your computer, you may want to add a MIRROR command to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.

Removing the deletion-tracking program from memory

You may need to remove the deletion-tracking program from memory. To do so, remove all memory-resident programs that you loaded after the deletion-tracking program, and then use the MIRROR command with the /U switch. Since this turns off deletion tracking, any files deleted after you remove the tracking program can be recovered only by using information in the directory.

Saving information about hard-disk partitions

Every formatted hard disk drive has at least one partition. To identify a hard disk drive, MS-DOS uses information stored in a special disk partition table. If this table is corrupted, MS-DOS cannot locate the hard disk.

You can save partition-table information for a hard disk by using the MIRROR command with the /PARTN switch. This switch creates a file named PARTNSAV.FIL, which the UNFORMAT command can use to rebuild the partition table. Because MS-DOS cannot gain access to your hard disk if the partition table is damaged, you should not put this file on the hard disk itself. Instead, you should put the file on a floppy disk (which you should keep in a safe place) or on another hard disk drive, such as a network server.

Examples

To save a copy of the file allocation table and the root directory of drive C and to install deletion tracking for drives A and C, type the following command:

mirror c: /ta /tc 

Suppose you want to save a copy of the file allocation table and the root directory of the disk in the current drive, and you want to install the deletion-tracking program for drive C. To do this and to set the maximum number of deletions to be tracked to 500, type the following command. (Note that since no drive parameter is specified, MIRROR saves the information about the disk in the current drive.)

mirror /tc-500 

To save a copy of the partition table for your hard disk drive, type the following command:

mirror /partn 

The MIRROR program displays the following information:

Disk Partition Table saver. 
The partition information from your hard drive(s) 
has been read. Next, the file PARTNSAV.FIL will be
 written to a floppy disk. Please insert a formatted 
 diskette and enter the name of the diskette drive. 
What drive? A 

The default disk drive is drive A. If you want to use a different drive, type the drive letter (making sure it does not identify a partition on the hard disk drive), insert a formatted floppy disk in the drive (if necessary), and press ENTER.

MSHERC

Installs support for Qbasic programs that use the Hercules graphics card.

Syntax

MSHERC [/HALF]

Switches

/HALF

Use this switch when a color adapter is also installed.

PRINTER.SYS

Supports code-page switching for the parallel ports PRN, LPT1, LPT2, and LPT3.

Syntax

DEVICE=[drive:][path]PRINTER.SYS LPTx=(type[,[hwcp][,n]])

Parameters

[drive:][path]

Specifies the location of the PRINTER.SYS file.

LPTx

Specifies the number of the parallel port for which you want to support code-page switching.

type

Specifies the printer in use. The following list shows valid values for type and the printers represented by each value:

4201

IBM Proprinters II and III Model 4201 IBM Proprinters II and III XL Model 4202

4208

IBM Proprinter X24E Model 4207 IBM Proprinter XL24E Model 4208

5202

IBM Quietwriter III Model 5202

hwcp

Specifies the code page your hardware supports. The following list shows the code pages that MS-DOS supports and the country/region or language for each:

437

United States

850

Multilingual (Latin I)

852

Slavic (Latin II)

860

Portuguese

863

Canadian-French

865

Nordic

n

Specifies the number of code pages your hardware can support in addition to the code page specified in the hwcp parameter.

EXAMPLE

The following command loads the PRINTER.SYS device driver for use with the IBM Proprinter X24E Model 4207, loads code page 850, and prepares PRINTER.SYS to support two additional code pages:

device=c:\dos\printer.sys lpt1:=(4208,850,2) 

PRINTFIX

Prevents MS-DOS from checking the status of your printer. Use this command only if you have had problems printing since you installed MS-DOS 6.

Syntax

PRINTFIX

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