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Windows NT 4.0 FAQs: Setup and Upgrading Questions

Archived content. No warranty is made as to technical accuracy. Content may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist.

Archived content - No warranty is made as to technical accuracy. Content may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist.

The following Microsoft Knowledge Base articles were compiled from the Microsoft Support Online Web site (http://support.microsoft.com/support). The articles below provide some answers to users who run into setup or upgrade questions installing Windows NT 4.0. Click on an issue of interest in the left column to jump to the answer.

Issue

Symptom/Description

Troubleshooting STOP: 0x0000007B or "0x4,0,0,0" Error

Restarting your computer results in one of two errors: "STOP: 0x0000007B Inaccessible Boot Device" or "Setup has encountered a fatal error that prevents it from continuing."

Boot Loader Screen Keeps Repeating During Setupload

Boot loader screen counts down from the default 5 seconds to 0, the screen goes black, and then the boot loader screen reappears and cycles through this process indefinitely.

Err Msg: STOP: C000026C Unable to Load Device Driver

Installing Windows NT, starting Windows NT from the hard disk, or starting Windows NT from the three Setup floppy disks during a repair process, results in one of two errors: "STOP: 0xC000026C [Unable to load device driver] <driver_name>" or "STOP: 0xc0000221 [Unable to load device driver] <driver_name>"

"Stop 0x50" Error Message While Installing Windows NT 4.0

Computer stops responding while displaying the following error message on a blue screen: "STOP: 0x00000050 PAGE_FAULT_IN_NONPAGED_AREA"

"Stop: 0x0000001E" Error Message During Setup

Windows NT generates the following bug check code: "STOP 0x0000001E KMODE_EXCEPTION_NOT_HANDLED"

"STOP: 0x00000093" with Security Dongle Adapter

Starting your computer results in the following error message: "STOP: 0x00000093 INVALID_KERNEL_HANDLE"

Dual-Booting Between Windows NT Workstation 4.0 and Windows 95

Describes dual-booting between Windows NT Workstation and Windows 95.

Windows 95 Partition Types Not Recognized by Windows NT

Windows NT does not recognize Windows 95 FAT32 partitions.

Overview of FAT, HPFS, and NTFS File Systems

Explains the differences between FAT, HPFS, and NTFS under Windows NT, and their advantages and disadvantages

"STOP: 0x00000093" with Novell NetWare Client Services

Installing the Novell NetWare Client Service version 3.5b in Windows NT 4.0 may result in the following error message: "STOP: 0x00000093 INVALID_KERNEL_HANDLE"

Troubleshooting STOP: 0x0000007B or "0x4,0,0,0" Error

Last reviewed: March 30, 1998

Article ID: 122926

The information in this article applies to:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation versions 3.5, 3.51, and 4.0

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server versions 3.5, 3.51, and 4.0

Symptoms

When you restart your computer, you may receive one of the following error messages:

  • STOP: 0x0000007B Inaccessible Boot Device

  • Setup has encountered a fatal error that prevents it from continuing. Contact your software representative for help. The following status codes will assist them "0x4, 0, 0, 0"

Cause

This problem may occur if one or more of the following conditions exists:

  1. Your computer is infected with a boot sector virus.

  2. A device driver required by your boot controller is not configured to start at boot time or is corrupt. If during a WINNT /B installation no mass storage device was detected.

  3. A resource conflict exists between the boot controller and another controller in the system or between SCSI devices.

  4. Drive translation is not being performed or was changed.

  5. The boot volume is corrupt and cannot be mounted by Windows NT.

  6. Information in the Windows NT registry about which device drivers load at start up is corrupt.

  7. If this error occurred during Windows NT Setup while reading Windows NT Setup floppy disk 2, you may have the Drive Swapping option enabled in your computer BIOS.

  8. Using winnt /b as the installation method may present a timing issue for the disk controller. The controller is not given enough time to respond and identify itself and is therefore detected incorrectly or not at all.

Resolution

To resolve this problem, use the appropriate method:

Solution 1

Check any diskettes for viruses that may have been used in the computer since the last time you were able to successfully restart Windows NT.

NOTE: You may need to use more than one brand of virus detection software to detect and remove various viruses.

If a virus has infected the Windows NT computer and a virus detection program cannot remove the virus and repair the system, you will have to reinstall Windows NT. For more information on how to protect the boot sector from viruses in Windows NT, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 122221:How to Protect Boot Sector from Viruses in Windows NT.

Solution 2

Windows NT requires a mini-port driver to communicate with the boot controller. If the device driver is corrupt or incompatible with your controller, you can replace it by copying a new drive to the %systemroot%\system32\drivers folder or through the Emergency Repair process. On computers running on a SCSI controller or ATAPI enabled systems, SCSIPORT.SYS and DISK.SYS (Windows NT 4.0 only) device drivers are also required to successfully boot.

  • If you attempt a "WINNT /B" installation, you may receive a STOP 0x7B before mass storage detection takes place. To work around this, when the computer reboots after the initial file copy, press F6 as soon as "Setup is inspecting your computers hardware configuration" is displayed. This will allow you to add a mass storage device at the very beginning of text mode setup.

  • Related Microsoft Knowledge Base articles:

    125933 STOP 0x0000007B: Inaccessible Boot Device After Removing CD-ROM

    164471 Replacing System Files Using a Modified Emergency Repair Disk

Solution 3

If an IRQ or I/O port address conflict exists between your boot controller and another controller in the system, Windows NT will either hang or stop with the Stop 0x0000007B error message. If you recently added new hardware, remove the new hardware or re-configure it so it does not conflict with the resources of any other installed controllers.

Check the SCSI chain for proper termination. Remove any non-essential SCSI devices or check to ensure each SCSI ID is unique. For more information, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article: 102651Required Settings for Adaptec 1510 SCSI Host Adapter.

Solution 4

  • The Windows NT Boot partition must exist within the first 1024 cylinders of the boot device. This is due to restrictions of the INT-13 BIOS call used to start the operating system. Check your CMOS settings for LBA support on IDE based systems, or your SCSI controllers BIOS settings for enabling drive translation for drives greater than 2GB. For more information, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article: 114841Windows NT Boot Process and Hard Disk Constraints.

Solution 5

If the file system is corrupt and Windows NT cannot mount the boot volume during start, move the drive to another machine running Windows NT and run the CHKDSK command on that drive. Alternately, attempt to create a parallel installation of Windows NT on the drive in a separate directory. The Windows NT Setup program checks the integrity of the volume prior to copying files and may fix some problems.

Solution 6

If the SYSTEM Hive in the Windows NT registry is corrupt, it may prevent Windows NT from loading the Mini-port device driver required by the boot controller. To resolve this problem, use one of the following methods:

  • Start from the three Windows NT setup disks and use the Repair utility. When prompted, select to inspect registry files, and then only replace the System Configuration Registry hive. This hive contains information about which device drivers and services start during start up.

  • Install a parallel copy of Windows NT into a separate directory, and then use Registry Editor to modify the System hive in the Windows NT registry to correct the invalid or missing information.

  • For more information, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article: 165748How to Disable a Service or Device that Prevents NT from Booting.

Solution 7

Many computers are equipped with a 5.25-inch and a 3.5-inch floppy diskette drive in one single unit. When you install Windows NT on a computer with this floppy drive unit, the STOP 0x7B error message may appear during Setup while Windows NT Setup disk 2 is being read. To resolve this problem, disable the Drive Swapping option in your system BIOS. For information about correcting this problem, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 126423STOP: 0x0000007B "Inaccessible_Boot_Device" During Setup Disk2.

Solution 8

Install using the three boot floppies, a bootable CD, winnt or winnt32. Install the device driver recommended by hardware vendor if one is available.

Boot Loader Screen Keeps Repeating During Setup

Last reviewed: February 4, 1998

Article ID: 156903

The information in this article applies to:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation version 4.0

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server version 4.0

Symptoms

When you install Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, during the GUI-mode portion of Windows NT Setup, the boot loader screen counts down from the default 5 seconds to 0, the screen goes black, and then the boot loader screen reappears and cycles through this process indefinitely.

Cause

The boot drive may be infected with a boot-sector virus.

Resolution

Use a reputable third-party virus scanning product to detect and clean the boot sector of the system drive. Do not use FDISK /MBR as some boot sector viruses may permanently damage the boot sector when removed in this manner.

Err Msg: STOP: C000026C Unable to Load Device Driver

Last reviewed: February 4, 1998

Article ID: 160495

The information in this article applies to:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server version 3.5, 3.51, 4.0

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation version 3.5, 3.51, 4.0

Symptoms

When you install Windows NT, start Windows NT from the hard disk, or start Windows NT from the three Setup floppy disks during a repair process, you may receive one of the following error messages:

  • STOP: 0xC000026C [Unable to load device driver] <driver_name>

  • STOP: 0xc0000221 [Unable to load device driver] <driver_name>

Cause

This behavior can occur one or more of the following conditions exist:

  • There is a damaged device driver file on the hard disk.

  • There is a damaged device driver file on one of the three Setup floppy disks.

Resolution

To resolve this issue, use the appropriate method:

Floppy Disks

Create a new set of Windows NT Setup floppy disks by using the WINNT32 /OX command in Windows NT or the WINNT /OX command in MS-DOS. The Winnt32.exe and Winnt.exe files are located in the I386 on the Windows NT 4.0 CD-ROM.

Hard Disk

Use the Emergency Repair Disk to replace the missing or damaged driver file on the NTFS partition by following the procedure outlined in the following Microsoft Knowledge Base article: 164471Replacing System Files Using a Modified Emergency Repair Disk.

"Stop 0x50" Error Message While Installing Windows NT 4.0

Last reviewed: February 4, 1998

Article ID: 171003

The information in this article applies to:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server version 4.0

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation version 4.0

Symptoms

While you are installing Windows NT 4.0, your computer may stop responding (hang) while displaying the following error message on a blue screen:

 STOP: 0x00000050 
 PAGE_FAULT_IN_NONPAGED_AREA 

Cause

This error message may be caused by faulty memory (RAM) in your computer.

Resolution

To resolve this issue, replace the faulty RAM.

More Information

The faulty RAM could be located in any of several areas, including the secondary RAM cache, the video RAM, or the computer's main memory. To determine where the faulty RAM is located, use the following steps:

  1. Disable all caching on your computer, including the CPU cache and L2 cache, in the computer's CMOS settings. For information about how to use your computer's CMOS configuration tool, please refer to your computer's documentation.

    If you can successfully install Windows NT after disabling all caching, try re-enabling each cache, one at a time, to determine the area in which the faulty RAM is located. If you still receive the error message, continue to the next step.

  2. Temporarily replace your video adapter. If you can install Windows NT after replacing the video adapter, the video adapter you replaced is faulty.

  3. Temporarily replace the main memory installed in your computer. If the RAM in your computer consists of multiple SIMM modules, you may be able to swap SIMM modules to determine which has the faulty memory.

    For example, if you have four modules of 8 megabytes (MB) each, remove two of the modules and try installing Windows NT again. If the Setup process still does not succeed, swap one of the SIMMs in the computer with one that you removed and try again. Continue this process to determine which of the SIMM modules contains the faulty memory.

For additional information about the error message listed above, see the following articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

  • 155573 "Stop 0x50" Transferring Files over RAS with Windows NT 4.0

  • 156211 Network Virus Checking Programs and Microsoft Windows NT

  • 162837 Replacing TCP/IP After SP2 Causes STOP 0x00000050

  • 156410 STOP 0x1E or 0x50 Error on Multiprocessor DEC Alpha Computer

  • 164352 Stop 0x00000050 in Tcpip.sys Caused by Winsock Applications

  • 167362 STOP 0x00000050 in Srv.sys When Shutting Down Computer

  • 163620 STOP 0x50 in Rdr.sys If Pathname Too Long in SMB

  • 162438 "STOP 0x50" Accessing Files on Windows NT from Windows 95

  • 160370 Stop Screen 0x00000050 Caused by Fs_rec.sys

"Stop: 0x0000001E" Error Message During Setup

Last reviewed: February 4, 1998

Article ID: 161703

The information in this article applies to:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server versions 3.1, 3.5, 3.51, and 4.0

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation versions 3.1, 3.5, 3.51, and 4.0

Summary

Windows NT generates a bug check code on a blue screen when a problem is encountered. These codes can assist you in troubleshooting the problem. For additional information about bug check codes, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 103059Descriptions of Bug Codes for Windows NT.

This article describes only the following bug check code:

 STOP 0x0000001E KMODE_EXCEPTION_NOT_HANDLED 

More Information

The STOP 0x1E code is a common bug check code. The exception address usually pinpoints the driver or function that caused the problem. You should note this address as well as the link date of the driver or image that contains this address to assist Microsoft Support Engineers if it becomes necessary to contact Microsoft.

Example

 STOP: 0x0000001E (0x80000003, 0xBFC0304, 0x0000000, 0x0000001) 
 [bug check code] ([1st],      [2nd],     [3rd],     [4th]) 

Parameter definitions:

 1st = The exception code that was not handled 
 2nd = The address at which the exception occurred 
 3rd = Parameter 0 of the exception 
 4th = Parameter 1 of the exception 

On non-Intel-based computers, if the address of the exception is 0xBFC0304, the bug code is the result of a cache-parity error on the CPU. If the problem occurs frequently, contact the hardware's manufacturer.

Possible Cause and Workaround

The STOP 1E message may occur after the first reboot during Windows NT Setup, or after Setup is finished. Three possible causes of the problem are:

  1. Lack of disk space for installation.

  2. Third-party video drivers (and the Microsoft Windows NT Win32k.sys driver).

  3. System BIOS incompatibilities.

To resolve this issue, use the appropriate method below:

  1. Reinstall on another hard disk when disk space is low.

  2. Remove the third-party video driver.

  3. Upgrade the system BIOS.

This problem should not occur very often. If it occurs repeatedly, make sure a debugger is connected and the computer is booted with the /debug switch. Refer to the following Microsoft Knowledge Base article for more information: 148954How To Set Up A Remote Debug Session Using A Modem.

"STOP: 0x00000093" with Security Dongle Adapter

Last reviewed: February 20, 1998

Article ID: 157912

The information in this article applies to:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server version 4.0

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation version 4.0

Symptoms

When you start your computer, you may receive the following error message:

 STOP: 0x00000093 
 INVALID_KERNEL_HANDLE 

Cause

This error message can be caused by the driver for a dongle security device. Two such drivers know to cause this error message are:

  • Haspnt.sys

  • Sentinel.sys

Resolution

If you receive this error after installing software in your Windows NT 4.0 installation, you may be able to resolve this issue by starting the computer using the Last Known Good configuration. However, if the error occurred after upgrading to Windows NT 4.0 you may resolve the issue, by renaming the driver using the steps in the appropriate section below.

Windows NT Installed on a FAT Partition

  1. Start your computer using the MS-DOS option from the NT OS Loader. (If MS-DOS is not an option, boot your computer using an MS-DOS boot disk.)

  2. Rename the driver.

  3. Restart your computer and start Windows NT.

Windows NT Installed on an NTFS Partition

  1. Install Windows NT in an alternate folder on your computer.

  2. Log in to the new installation of Windows NT and run Command Prompt.

  3. Rename the driver.

  4. Restart your computer using the original installation of Windows NT.

NOTE: Some of your software may require these drivers to be present in order to operate properly and may generate error messages when you restart Windows NT 4.0.

More Information

For updated versions of these drivers, contact the manufacturer of the driver.

Dual-Booting Between Windows NT Workstation 4.0 and Windows 95

Last reviewed: February 4, 1998

Article ID: 155034

The information in this article applies to:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation version 4.0

  • Microsoft Windows 95

Summary

This article describes dual-booting between Windows NT Workstation and Windows 95.

More Information

If you have Windows 95 installed and then install Windows NT Workstation 4.0, the Windows NT boot loader menu is displayed when you start your computer after Windows NT Workstation installation is complete. Windows NT Workstation starts by default. To start Windows 95, select Microsoft Windows from the Windows NT boot loader menu.

If you have Windows NT Workstation 4.0 installed and then install Windows 95, the Windows NT boot loader appears when you start your computer after Windows 95 installation is complete. To retain the NT boot loader after installing Windows 95, the system must have been booted to MS-DOS from the NT boot menu, not from a DOS diskette. Windows NT Workstation starts by default. To start Windows 95, select MS-DOS from the Windows NT boot loader menu.

For information about troubleshooting dual-boot between Windows NT Workstation and Windows 95, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 136547Restoring Windows NT Dual Boot After Installing Windows 95.

For information about upgrading from Windows 95 to Windows NT Workstation 4.0, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 154418Cannot Upgrade Windows 95 to Windows NT Workstation 4.0.

For addition information about dual-booting in Windows NT, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 102873BOOT.INI and ARC Path Naming Conventions and Usage.

Windows 95 Partition Types Not Recognized by Windows NT

Last reviewed: February 6, 1998

Article ID: 151414

The information in this article applies to:

  • Microsoft Windows NT operating system version 3.1

  • Microsoft Windows NT Advanced Server version 3.1

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation versions 3.5, 3.51, and 4.0

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server versions 3.5, 3.51, and 4.0

Summary

Windows NT does not recognize Windows 95 FAT32 partitions.

More Information

OEM versions of Windows 95 support four partition types for FAT file systems that Windows NT does not recognize. The partition type can be identified by the System ID byte in the partition table. This byte is located at the following offsets:

 0x1C2 = Partition 1 
 0x1D2 = Partition 2 
 0x1E2 = Partition 3 
 0x1F2 = Partition 4 

The four values used by Windows 95 that Windows NT does not recognize are as follows:

 0x0B      Primary  Fat32 Partitions up to 2047 GB 
 0x0C      Same as 0x0B, uses Logical Block Address Int 0x13 extensions 
 0x0E      Same as 0x06, uses Logical Block Address Int 0x13 extensions 
 0x0F      Same as 0x05, uses Logical Block Address Int 0x13 extensions 

The FAT partition types that Windows NT version 3.X and 4.0 can recognize are:

 0x01      Fat12 < 10 megabytes 
 0x04      Fat16 < 32 megabytes 
 0x06      Fat16 > 32 megabytes 
 0x05      Extended (may be FAT, HPFS or NTFS) 

Overview of FAT, HPFS, and NTFS File Systems

Last reviewed: February 4, 1998

Article ID: 100108

The following information applies to:

  • Microsoft Windows NT operating system version 3.1

  • Microsoft Windows NT Advanced Server version 3.1

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation versions 3.5, 3.51, and 4.0

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server versions 3.5, 3.51, and 4.0

Summary

This article explains the differences between FAT, HPFS, and NTFS under Windows NT, and their advantages and disadvantages. It is divided into the following sections:

  • FAT Overview

  • HPFS Overview

  • NTFS Overview

NOTE: HPFS is only supported under Windows NT versions 3.1, 3.5, and 3.51. Windows NT 4.0 does not support and cannot access HPFS partitions.

Fat Overview

FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT), which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. To protect the volume, two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged. In addition, the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located.

A disk formatted with FAT is allocated in clusters, whose size are determined by the size of the volume. When a file is created, an entry is created in the directory and the first cluster number containing data is established. This entry in the FAT table either indicates that this is the last cluster of the file, or points to the next cluster.

Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. If the FAT table is not regularly updated, it can lead to data loss. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated.

There is no organization to the FAT directory structure, and files are given the first open location on the drive. In addition, FAT supports only read-only, hidden, system, and archive file attributes.

FAT Naming Convention

FAT uses the traditional 8.3 file naming convention and all filenames must be created with the ASCII character set. The name of a file or directory can be up to eight characters long, then a period (.) separator, and up to a three character extension. The name must start with either a letter or number and can contain any characters except for the following:

 . " / \ [ ] : ; | = , 

If any of these characters are used, unexpected results may occur. The name cannot contain any spaces.

The following names are reserved:

 CON, AUX, COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4, LPT1, LPT2, LPT3, PRN, NUL 

All characters will be converted to uppercase.

Advantages of FAT

It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems. Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware, which cannot be done under Windows NT. However, if the file was located on a FAT partition, and the system is restarted under MS-DOS, the file can be undeleted. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB, because FAT starts out with very little overhead. For further discussion of FAT advantages, see the following:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server "Concepts and Planning Guide," Chapter 5, section titled "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Resource Kit, Chapter 18, "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Resource Kit "Resource Guide," Chapter 3, section titled "Which File System to Use on Which Volumes"

Disadvantages of FAT

Preferably, when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. This is because as the size of the volume increases, performance with FAT will quickly decrease. It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions.

FAT partitions are limited in size to a maximum of 4 Gigabytes (GB) under Windows NT and 2 GB in MS-DOS. For additional information on this limitation, please see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 118335Maximum Partition Size in MS-DOS.

For further discussion of other disadvantages of FAT, see the following:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server "Concepts and Planning Guide," Chapter 5, section titled "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Resource Kit, Chapter 18, "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Resource Kit "Resource Guide," Chapter 3, section titled "Which File System to Use on Which Volumes"

HPFS Overview

The HPFS file system was first introduced with OS/2 1.2 to allow for greater access to the larger hard drives that were then appearing on the market. Additionally, it was necessary for a new file system to extend the naming system, organization, and security for the growing demands of the network server market. HPFS maintains the directory organization of FAT, but adds automatic sorting of the directory based on filenames. Filenames are extended to up to 254 double byte characters. HPFS also allows a file to be composed of "data" and special attributes to allow for increased flexibility in terms of supporting other naming conventions and security. In addition, the unit of allocation is changed from clusters to physical sectors (512 bytes), which reduces lost disk space.

Under HPFS, directory entries hold more information than under FAT. As well as the attribute file, this includes information about the modification, creation, and access date and times. Instead of pointing to the first cluster of the file, the directory entries under HPFS point to the FNODE. The FNODE can contain the file's data, or pointers that may point to the file's data or to other structures that will eventually point to the file's data.

HPFS attempts to allocate as much of a file in contiguous sectors as possible. This is done in order to increase speed when doing sequential processing of a file.

HPFS organizes a drive into a series of 8 MB bands, and whenever possible a file is contained within one of these bands. Between each of these bands are 2K allocation bitmaps, which keep track of which sectors within a band have and have not been allocated. Banding increases performance because the drive head does not have to return to the logical top (typically cylinder 0) of the disk, but to the nearest band allocation bitmap to determine where a file is to be stored.

Additionally, HPFS includes a couple of unique special data objects:

Super Block

The Super Block is located in logical sector 16 and contains a pointer to the FNODE of the root directory. One of the biggest dangers of using HPFS is that if the Super Block is lost or corrupted due to a bad sector, so are the contents of the partition, even if the rest of the drive is fine. It would be possible to recover the data on the drive by copying everything to another drive with a good sector 16 and rebuilding the Super Block. However, this is a very complex task.

Spare Block

The Spare Block is located in logical sector 17 and contains a table of "hot fixes" and the Spare Directory Block. Under HPFS, when a bad sector is detected, the "hot fixes" entry is used to logically point to an existing good sector in place of the bad sector. This technique for handling write errors is known as hot fixing.

Hot fixing is a technique where if an error occurs because of a bad sector, the file system moves the information to a different sector and marks the original sector as bad. This is all done transparent to any applications that are performing disk I/O (that is, the application never knows that there were any problems with the hard drive). Using a file system that supports hot fixing will eliminate error messages such as the FAT "Abort, Retry, or Fail?" error message that occurs when a bad sector is encountered.

Note: The version of HPFS that is included with Windows NT does not support hot fixing.

Advantages of HPFS

HPFS is best for drives in the 200-400 MB range. For more discussion of the advantages of HPFS, see the following:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server "Concepts and Planning Guide," Chapter 5, section titled "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Resource Kit, Chapter 18, "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Resource Kit "Resource Guide," Chapter 3, section titled "Which File System to Use on Which Volumes"

Disadvantages of HPFS

Because of the overhead involved in HPFS, it is not a very efficient choice for a volume of under approximately 200 MB. In addition, with volumes larger than about 400 MB, there will be some performance degradation. You cannot set security on HPFS under Windows NT.

HPFS is only supported under Windows NT versions 3.1, 3.5, and 3.51. Windows NT 4.0 cannot access HPFS partitions.

For additional disadvantages of HPFS, see the following:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server "Concepts and Planning Guide," Chapter 5, section titled "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Resource Kit, Chapter 18, "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Resource Kit "Resource Guide," Chapter 3, section titled "Which File System to Use on Which Volumes"

NTFS Overview

From a user's point of view, NTFS continues to organize files into directories, which, like HPFS, are sorted. However, unlike FAT or HPFS, there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware, such as 512 byte sectors. In addition, there are no special locations on the disk, such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks.

The goals of NTFS are to provide:

  • Reliability, which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers

  • A platform for added functionality

  • Support POSIX requirements

  • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems

Reliability

To ensure reliability of NTFS, three major areas were addressed: recoverability, removal of fatal single sector failures, and hot fixing.

NTFS is a recoverable file system because it keeps track of transactions against the file system. When a CHKDSK is performed on FAT or HPFS, the consistency of pointers within the directory, allocation, and file tables is being checked. Under NTFS, a log of transactions against these components is maintained so that CHKDSK need only roll back transactions to the last commit point in order to recover consistency within the file system.

Under FAT or HPFS, if a sector that is the location of one of the file system's special objects fails, then a single sector failure will occur. NTFS avoids this in two ways: first, by not using special objects on the disk and tracking and protecting all objects that are on the disk. Secondly, under NTFS, multiple copies (the number depends on the volume size) of the Master File Table are kept.

Similar to OS/2 versions of HPFS, NTFS supports hot fixing.

Added Functionality

One of the major design goals of Windows NT at every level is to provide a platform that can be added to and built upon, and NTFS is no exception. NTFS provides a rich and flexible platform for other file systems to be able to use. In addition, NTFS fully supports the Windows NT security model and supports multiple data streams. No longer is a data file a single stream of data. Finally, under NTFS, a user can add his or her own user-defined attributes to a file.

POSIX Support

NTFS is the most POSIX.1 compliant of the supported file systems because it supports the following POSIX.1 requirements:

  • Case Sensitive Naming: Under POSIX, README.TXT, Readme.txt, and readme.txt are all different files.

  • Additional Time Stamp: The additional time stamp supplies the time at which the file was last accessed.

  • Hard Links: A hard link is when two different filenames, which can be located in different directories, point to the same data.

Removing Limitations

First, NTFS has greatly increased the size of files and volumes, so that they can now be up to 2^64 bytes (16 exabytes or 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 bytes). NTFS has also returned to the FAT concept of clusters in order to avoid HPFS problem of a fixed sector size. This was done because Windows NT is a portable operating system and different disk technology is likely to be encountered at some point. Therefore, 512 bytes per sector was viewed as having a large possibility of not always being a good fit for the allocation. This was accomplished by allowing the cluster to be defined as multiples of the hardware's natural allocation size. Finally, in NTFS all filenames are Unicode based, and 8.3 filenames are kept along with long filenames.

Advantages of NTFS

NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more. This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS, as it does under FAT, with larger volume sizes.

The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition. For additional advantages of NTFS, see the following:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server "Concepts and Planning Guide," Chapter 5, section titled "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Resource Kit, Chapter 18, "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Resource Kit "Resource Guide," Chapter 3, section titled "Which File System to Use on Which Volumes"

Disadvantages of NTFS

It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB, because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS. This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition.

Currently, there is no file encryption built into NTFS. Therefore, someone can boot under MS-DOS, or another operating system, and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume.

It is not possible to format a floppy disk with the NTFS file system; Windows NT formats all floppy disks with the FAT file system because the overhead involved in NTFS will not fit onto a floppy disk.

For further discussion of NTFS disadvantages, see the following:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server "Concepts and Planning Guide," Chapter 5, section titled "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Resource Kit, Chapter 18, "Choosing a File System"

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Resource Kit "Resource Guide," Chapter 3, section titled "Which File System to Use on Which Volumes"

NTFS Naming Conventions

File and directory names can be up to 255 characters long, including any extensions. Names preserve case, but are not case sensitive. NTFS makes no distinction of filenames based on case. Names can contain any characters except for the following:

 ?  "  /  \  <  >  *  |  : 

Note: Currently, from the command line, you can only create filenames of up to 253 characters.

"STOP: 0x00000093" with Novell NetWare Client Services

Last reviewed: February 20, 1998

Article ID: 156527

The information in this article applies to:

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server version 4.0

  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation version 4.0

Symptoms

After you install the Novell NetWare Client Service version 3.5b in Windows NT 4.0, you may receive the following error message:

 STOP: 0x00000093 
 INVALID_KERNEL_HANDLE 

You may also receive this message after upgrading from Windows NT 3.5x to Windows NT 4.0 if the NetWare Client Service was not removed before the upgrade.

Cause

The Novell NetWare Client Service version 3.5b for Windows NT 3.5x is not compatible with Windows NT 4.0. The Windows NT 4.0 upgrade process is unable to upgrade the Novell components.

Resolution

To resolve this issue, rename the Nwfs.sys file using the steps in the appropriate section below.

Windows NT Installed on a FAT Partition

  1. Start your computer using the MS-DOS option from the NT OS Loader. (If MS-DOS is not an option, boot your computer using an MS-DOS boot disk.)

  2. Change directories to the Winnt\System32\Netware folder.

  3. Rename the Nwfs.sys file to Nwfs.old.

  4. Restart your computer and start Windows NT.

Windows NT Installed on an NTFS Partition

  1. You can remove all the network cards from your machine. This will prevent the network components from starting and allow you to logon without trapping. If this does not work then you must install a parallel copy of Windows NT and follow the remaining steps below.

  2. Log in to the new installation of Windows NT and run Command Prompt.

  3. Change directories to the Winnt\System32\Netware folder on the original Windows NT installation.

  4. Rename the Nwfs.sys file to Nwfs.old.

  5. Restart the original installation of Windows NT.

    NOTE: The NetWare Client Service is unable to start without the Nwfs.sys file and may generate event log errors. After logging into Windows NT, you should completely remove the Novell NetWare Client Service using the following steps:

In Control Panel, double-click Network.

  1. Click the Services tab, click Novell NetWare Client Services, and then click Remove.

  2. Click OK. When you are prompted to restart the computer, do so.

After you have removed the Novell NetWare Client Service, use one of the following methods to gain access to NetWare resources on the network:

  • Install the Gateway Service for NetWare or the Client Service for NetWare that is included with Windows NT Server or Windows NT Workstation.

  • Contact Novell Technical Support to obtain an updated client for Windows NT 4.0.

More Information

The Novell NetWare Client Service is used with Windows NT 3.5x to access NDS (NetWare Directory Services) objects in a Novell 4.x tree. Windows NT 4.0 includes a client for NetWare that allows access to NDS objects, but does not allow certain Novell tools to operate in Windows NT.

For additional information, please see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 149014: Unable to Run Netadmin.exe or Nwadmin.exe.

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