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MS Windows 98 Keyboard Guide

Archived content. No warranty is made as to technical accuracy. Content may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist.

July 7, 1998

This document presents keyboard shortcuts and navigation for Microsoft® Windows® 98. For general Windows concepts and descriptions of the interface, consult Help or the documentation supplied with your operating system. Developers also may find useful information about keyboard shortcuts and navigation in The Windows Interface Guidelines for Software Design by Microsoft Press.

The conventions described in this document are supported by most applications designed for Windows 98. However, conventions do vary slightly between different applications and different contexts. Many Microsoft products have specific shortcut keys to make keyboard access convenient. Look for the phrases "keyboard shortcuts" or "keystroke shortcuts" in the application's Help index. Also, while we recommend that applications generate a warning sound when unsupported keystrokes are used, many do not.

Windows 98 provides Accessibility Options that can make typing easier for people who have difficulty using the keyboard or pressing more than one key at a time. For details, consult Help or the document "Customizing Windows 98 for People With Disabilities" available at http://www.microsoft.com/enable .

The Windows 98 Keyboard Guide covers these topics:

  • Shortcut keys throughout Windows 

    For the purposes of this document, "shortcut keys" are the key combinations provided in Windows 98 or the application that perform specific actions, such as pressing buttons, opening applications, choosing menu items, moving the focus, etc. They can be referred to as "keyboard shortcuts," "hotkeys," "keystroke shortcuts," "key combinations" or just "keys" in other documentation and Help.

  • Creating custom shortcut keys 

    "Custom shortcut keys" are key combinations you assign to shortcuts on your Windows taskbar and Start menu. They are also referred to as "hot-keys" in other documentation and Help. Shortcuts themselves are files in the Desktop and Start folders and their icons on the Desktop and taskbar. Custom shortcut keys can be used to launch applications from anywhere within Windows, without going through the taskbar or the Start menu.

  • Keyboard navigation in the Active Desktop, Help, and Internet Explorer 

    "Keyboard navigation" is using keys instead of the mouse to move from item to item on your screen, usually in an order specified by Windows 98 or your application. Common keys used in keyboard navigation are the arrow keys to move form one icon to another, followed by ENTER to activate the icon, or TAB and SHIFT+TAB to move between controls. Using arrow keys, the order of the selection should be obvious (it's the direction of the arrow), but using TAB and SHIFT+TAB is less obvious. Typically, TAB moves through items in standard left-to-right, top-to-down order, but there are exceptions.

1. Shortcut Keys

1.1 General Windows Keys

The following keys work throughout Microsoft Windows.

Keys:

Action:

F1

Displays Help information for the active object or the window as a whole.

Windows logo key or CTRL+ESC

Opens the Start menu located on the taskbar.

CTRL+ALT+DELETE

In Microsoft Windows, opens the Close Program dialog box, which contains a list box of applications to be closed and the command buttons End Task, Shut Down, and Cancel.
In Microsoft Windows NT, opens the Windows NT Security dialog box, with the following options: Lock Workstation, Logoff, Shut Down, Change Password, Task Manager, and Cancel. If you are not logged on, opens the logon dialog box.

DELETE

Deletes the selected item(s). If the items are files, moves them to the Recycle Bin.

SHIFT+DELETE

Delete the selected item(s). If the items are files, destroys them immediately without moving them to the Recycle Bin.

CTRL+N

Opens the New dialog box. (You also can choose the New command from the File menu.)

CTRL+O

Opens the Open dialog box. (You also can choose the Open command from the File menu.)

CTRL+P

Opens the Print dialog box. (You also can choose the Print command from the File menu.)

CTRL+S

Opens the Save dialog box. (You also can choose the Save command from the File menu.)

CTRL+X

Cuts the selected item(s) to the Clipboard. (You also can choose the Cut command from the Edit menu.)

CTRL+INSERT OR CTRL+C

Copies the selected item(s) to the Clipboard. (You also can choose the Copy command from the Edit menu.)

SHIFT+INSERT OR CTRL+V

Pastes the copied items(s) from the Clipboard. (You also can choose the Paste command from the Edit menu.)

ALT+BACKSPACE OR CTRL+Z

Undoes the last action. Note that not all actions, such as shutting down, can be undone. (You also can choose the Undo command from the Edit menu.)

ALT+SHIFT+BACKSPACE

Redoes the previously undone action. (You also can choose the Redo command from the Edit menu.)

Windows logo key+M

Minimizes all open windows. The keyboard focus goes to the least recently selected icon on the desktop. Add SHIFT to expand previously opened windows and return focus to the most recently used application.

Windows logo key+E

Opens the Windows Explorer. (You also can choose the Windows Explorer command from the Program item in the Start menu.)

Windows logo key+F

Opens the Find All Files dialog box. (You also can choose the Files Or Folders command from the Find item in the Start menu.)

Windows logo key+R

Opens the Run dialog box. (You also can choose the Run command in the Start menu.)

Windows logo key+BREAK

Opens the System Properties dialog box. (You also can choose the Systems item in Control Panel.)

Windows logo key+CTRL+F

Opens the Find Computer dialog box. (You also can choose the Computer command from the Find item in the Start menu.)

Windows logo key+number

Reserved for use by computer manufacturers.

SHIFT+F10 or Application key
(also the right mouse click)

Opens the shortcut menu for the active item. This can be selected text, a toolbar button, a taskbar button, or other item.

SHIFT

Press down and hold the SHIFT key while you insert a CD-ROM to bypass the AutoPlay feature. Hold down the SHIFT key while Microsoft Word is loading to suppress the AutoExec macro.

1.2 Selecting Items by Access Key or by Name

Most dialog box controls, menu titles, and menu items have underlined access keys. You can press ALT along with the access key to activate the control or menu anywhere within the active window. If an item doesn't have an underlined character, its access key is the first character in its name.

Access keys can sometimes be used without the ALT key for choosing controls or menu items. Use access keys without ALT to select items from an open menu. You can choose a dialog box control by typing its access key alone, except when the focus is on an edit box, a list box, or another control that expects typed characters. Therefore, using the ALT is a more reliable method.

Choosing controls in this way normally activates them, except when more than one item has the same access key. In that case, it will navigate to the next item assigned that key, but will not activate it. You must then press ENTER to activate it.

Within a list box, list view, tree view, or on the desktop, you can select an item by typing the first one or more characters in its name. Pressing the same character again will select the next item beginning with that character.

1.3 Desktop and Taskbar Navigation Keys

Depending on your setup, various items appear on your desktop when you start Microsoft Windows. For example, the My Computer icon provides access to a list of the drives and files on your computer. You can use the arrow keys to move from one icon to another, or you can select items by typing their names.

By default, the Start button and the taskbar are located at the bottom of your screen when you start Windows and are always visible when Windows is running. When you start a program or open a window, a button representing that program or window is displayed on the taskbar. When you close a window or quit a program, its button disappears from the taskbar. Status indicator icons, such as the time, are displayed at the rightmost end of the taskbar.

Keys:

Action:

Windows logo key+M

Minimizes all open windows. The keyboard focus goes to the most recently selected icon on the desktop. Add SHIFT to expand previously opened windows and return focus to the most recently used application.

ARROW KEY

Selects the adjacent icon or taskbar button in the direction of the arrow.

Any printing character

Selects the next icon with the specified name or initial letter.

Windows logo key or CTRL+ESC

Opens the Start menu from the taskbar. When you use CTRL+ESC, you can press ESC again to place the keyboard focus on the Start button. When you use the Windows logo key, pressing ESC again closes the Start menu.

TAB

Moves between the last selected icon on the desktop, the Start button on the taskbar, and the taskbar as a whole. There is no visual indication of the focus on the taskbar, but you can use the arrow keys to move between the taskbar buttons. You also can use SHIFT+F10 to bring up the shortcut menu for the taskbar.

Windows logo key+TAB

Cycles through the taskbar buttons.

F2

Rename a selected item. A bold rectangle appears around the title creating a text box. Type the new name and press ENTER. Press ESC to cancel. Some icons on the desktop cannot be renamed.

F3

Opens the Find All Files dialog box.

It is often easier to use the Windows Explorer to manipulate objects that are on the desktop and in My Computer. The desktop is treated as the highest level directory on your computer in Windows Explorer, above the My Computer icon. Using the real desktop can be inconvenient because you have to minimize all other windows to be able to see it, but you can easily switch between the desktop group displayed in Windows Explorer and any other application windows with the following window manipulation keys.

Similarly, you don't have to use the taskbar except for the Start menu, which you always can open by pressing CTRL+ESC. The following section describes keystrokes for switching between windows that can be used in place of the taskbar buttons.

1.4 Window manipulation keys

Application windows contain running applications. At the top of the window is a title bar with the name of the application and the associated document. The title bar of the window you are currently using is usually a different color than those of the inactive windows. The application's menu bar is located directly below the title bar. Application windows can be positioned anywhere within the desktop borders. Since the active window always appears in the foreground it might overlap inactive windows, partially or completely obscuring them.

Windows can be arranged on the desktop through the taskbar shortcut menu. To reach this menu, use this sequence of keys: CTRL+ESC, ESC, TAB, SHIFT+F10. The following options are on the shortcut menu and may be reached using arrow keys or the underlined keys: Cascade Windows, Tile Windows Horizontally, Tile Windows Vertically, Minimize All Windows, Undo Minimize All, and Properties.

To move a window, choose the Move command from the Program menu on the left of the title bar (use ALT+SPACEBAR to open the Program menu). Use arrow keys to move the window, followed by ENTER to accept or ESC to cancel. To resize a window, choose the Size command from the Program menu, then use an arrow key to choose which window border you want to move, then move it with the appropriate arrow keys, and then press ENTER to accept or ESC to cancel

Keys:

Action:

ALT+F4

Closes the active application window. (You also can choose the Close command from the Program menu of the active application.)

ALT+SPACEBAR

Opens the Program menu from the leftmost icon on the title bar of the active window. The Program menu typically contains the following commands: Restore, Move, Size, Minimize, Maximize and Close.

ALT+TAB

Switches to the most recently used application window. To select an application from a list, continue to hold ALT down and press TAB more than once to move through the list. Add SHIFT to reverse direction through the list.

ALT+ESC

Switches keyboard focus to next application window, including minimized windows on the taskbar. Press ESC more than once to switch through successive windows and add SHIFT to reverse the direction.

ALT+ENTER

Switches an MS DOS-based application between full-screen and windowed modes.

PRINT SCREEN

Copies an image of the screen to the Windows Clipboard.

ALT+PRINT SCREEN

Copies an image of the active window to the Windows Clipboard.

Applications can have multiple document windows. Document windows appear within application windows, and like application windows may tile or overlap. Document windows have their own title bars unless they are maximized. When maximized, they fill the application workspace and share the application window's title bar, and the document name is included with the name of the application on a shared title bar. The document window's document icon is added to the application menu bar on the far left. For example, in Microsoft Word the title bar says "Microsoft Word - Name of Document" when the document window is maximized. Commands that affect the application window affect the document window as well.

Keys:

Action:

CTRL+F4

Closes the active document window.

CTRL+F6

Switches to next document window in the active application. Add SHIFT to switch to the previous document window.

ALT+HYPHEN

Opens the Document menu from the leftmost icon on the title bar of the active document window. The Document menu typically contains the following commands: Restore, Move, Size, Minimize, Maximize and Close.

For some applications, the application and document windows can be divided into two or more separate viewing areas called panes. This is useful when moving or copying information from one document to another or from one part of a document to another. Panes also are used when viewing both the body of the documents and the footnotes or annotations.

To split a window into two panes, choose the Split command from the Window menu. The split bar appears in the middle of the window with the keyboard focus indicated by arrows. Move the split bar to the desired location using the arrow keys, then press ENTER to set the split bar in the desired location or ESC to cancel. Once the panes are displayed, you can use F6 or TAB to move between them in a clockwise direction; add SHIFT to reverse direction.

1.5 Menu commands

Applications frequently include commands that are listed in menus. Menus are represented by names on a menu bar at the top of each application window. In Microsoft Windows, you select a menu, and then choose a command from that menu. Choosing the command initiates the action. An ellipsis (...) after the menu indicates that a dialog box will appear after the command is chosen to ask for information that the application needs to carry out the command.

Keys:

Action:

Windows logo key or CTRL+ESC

Opens the Start menu on the taskbar.

F10 or ALT

Activates the menu bar of the active window. The leftmost menu name is selected. (In a maximized document window, the leftmost menu has an icon instead of a name and there is no visual indication that it is selected.) Press F10 or ALT again to toggle the focus back to where it was previously.

LEFT ARROW or RIGHT ARROW

Moves the focus between menus on the menu bar in the direction of the arrow. If the original menu was open, the target menu is opened as well, and the first item in it gets the focus.

UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW

Opens the selected menu. DOWN ARROW selects the next command in the list. UP ARROW selects the previous command in the list.

ENTER

Opens the selected menu when focus is on the menu title, but activates a menu item when focus is on a menu item. If the selected menu item is unavailable, ENTER closes the menu.

ALT+SPACEBAR

Opens the Program menu from the leftmost icon on the title bar of the active window. The Program menu typically contains the following commands: Restore, Move, Size, Minimize, Maximize and Close.

ALT+HYPHEN

Opens the Document menu from the leftmost icon on the title bar of the active document window. The Document menu typically contains the following commands: Restore, Move, Size, Minimize, Maximize and Close.

ESC

Closes an open menu and moves the focus back to the parent menu if there is one. Otherwise it returns the focus to the menu title. If the focus was already on the menu title, focus moves back to wherever it was before activating the menu bar.

ALT+Any printing character

Chooses the menu with the underlined character (access key) on the main menu bar.

Any printing character

Chooses the command with the underlined character (access key) on an open menu.

SHIFT+F10 or Application key
(also the right mouse click)

Opens the shortcut menu for the active item. This can be selected text, a toolbar button, a taskbar button, or other item.

1.6 Windows Explorer keys

The Windows Explorer displays the contents of a computer, drive or directory. The Windows logo key+E opens the Windows Explorer at any time, and it also can be started from Programs on the Start menu. It normally has two panes: the left pane displays a tree view of your folders and the right pane displays the contents of one folder.

Windows Explorer also can display a single-pane, without the tree view. In this case it normally hides the toolbar unless you explicitly turn it on using the View menu. You can access the same information using the My Computer icon from the desktop, and in the standard Open and Save As dialog boxes.

The View menu offers a choice of icon displays:

  • Large Icons view displays the contents of a drive or directory as large icons in horizontal rows.

  • Small Icons view displays the same information in small icons in horizontal rows.

  • List menu item displays directories and files as small icons in vertical columns.

  • Details view displays files as a single column of icons with multiple columns of information about each file. 

Files and folders can be moved or copied by using the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands from the Edit menu or by using shortcut keys. Moving a program icon does not change the performance of the program. Deleting a program icon does not delete all the files associated with the program, so you should install or delete programs using the Add/Remove Programs option in Control Panel.

1.6.1 View Control Keys

Keys:

Action:

Arrow keys

Select the next item in the indicated direction. Add SHIFT to select or deselect additional items. Add CTRL to move to the item without selecting it. In Details View there is only one column, so RIGHT and LEFT ARROW scrolls the window a small amount to the right or left. In List View the UP and DOWN ARROW keys wrap between columns.

PAGE UP or PAGE DOWN

Moves to the bottom or top item on the screen. Use a second time to select the item one screen above or below. Add SHIFT to select additional items. Add CTRL to move to the item without selecting it.

HOME or END

Selects the first or last item in the list. Add SHIFT to select or deselect additional items. Add CTRL to move to the item without selecting it.

Any printing character

Selects the next icon with the specified name or initial letter. SPACE behaves this way when it is typed as part of a name—see section 1.2, "Selecting Items by Access Key or by Name"

ENTER

Opens the selected item. This may open a new window, depending on the options you have selected. (You also can choose Open from the File menu.)

BACKSPACE

Displays the contents of the parent directory. This may open a new window, depending on the options you have selected.

SPACE

When typed alone, selects the current item if it is not already selected. Use after moving with the CTRL key to select separate groups of items.

CTRL+SPACE

Selects or deselects the current item. Use after moving with the CTRL key to select separate groups of items.

SHIFT+SPACE

Extends the selection to the current item. If you have already selected more than one item, it selects only the items from the first item you selected to the current item.

CTRL+Z

Undoes the last action. Some actions cannot be undone. (You also can choose Undo from the Edit menu.)

CTRL+X

Cuts the selected item(s) to the Clipboard. (You also can choose Cut from the Edit menu.)

CTRL+C

Copies the selected item(s) to the Clipboard. (You also can choose Copy from the Edit menu.)

CTRL+V

Pastes the copied item(s) from the Clipboard. (You also can choose Paste from the Edit menu.)

CTRL+A

Selects all the items in the current window. (You also can choose Select All from the Edit menu.)

CTRL+G

Opens the Go To Folder dialog box. (You also can choose Go To from the Tools menu).

CTRL+F or F3

Opens the Find All Files dialog box. (You also can choose Find from the Tools menu, then the Files Or Folders command).

DELETE

Deletes the selected item(s) to the Recycle Bin. (You also can choose Delete from the File menu.)

SHIFT+DELETE

Delete the selected item(s) immediately without moving the item(s) to the Recycle Bin.

ALT+ENTER

Displays the properties of the selected item. (You also can choose Properties from the File menu.)

F2

Renames a selected item. A bold rectangle appears around the item. Type the new name and press ENTER. Press ESC to cancel. (You also can choose Rename from the File menu.)

F4

Opens the drop-down list box on the toolbar. Pressing F4 again moves the keyboard focus back to the previously used item.

F5

Refreshes the current window. (You also can choose Refresh from the View menu.)

F6 or TAB

Switches between panes and the toolbar.

1.6.2 Tree View Control Keys

Tree views display a set of objects as an indented outline based on their hierarchical relationships. For example, the All Folders pane in the Windows Explorer is a tree view. Files and folders can be moved or copied in tree view by using the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands. Tree view only supports single selection of items.

Keys:

Action:

RIGHT ARROW

Opens a branch, or selects the first item in the branch.

LEFT ARROW

Closes a branch, or selects the parent of the current item.

ASTERISK (on the numeric keypad)

Expands everything under the current selection.

MINUS SIGN (on the numeric keypad)

Closes everything under the current selection.

PLUS SIGN (on the numeric keypad)

Expands everything under the current selection back to a previously opened state, or opens only one level if it has not previously been opened.

UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW

Selects the next visible object above or below.

PAGE UP or PAGE DOWN

Moves to the top or bottom item on the screen. Use a second time to move up or down one screen.

HOME or END

Selects the first or last item on the tree.

Any printing character

Selects the next icon with the specified name or initial letter. Repeating the character selects successive items beginning with the same character.

BACKSPACE

Chooses the parent directory

1.7 Dialog Boxes

A dialog box is a window that appears temporarily on top of your application window to request information. Message boxes are simple dialog boxes that appear to display additional information, warnings, or to explain why a requested task could not be accomplished. Dialog boxes often contain groups of controls necessary to set options or settings for programs. A typical dialog box might contain some text, a set of radio buttons, and OK and Cancel buttons.

You can select or choose controls that have an access key in their titles by typing ALT+the underlined letter at any time when the dialog box is active. TAB moves the keyboard focus between controls, but which controls are included in the focus sequence, and the order of the sequence, may vary between applications. See section 3, "Keyboard Navigation" for a more detailed discussion of using TAB. Typically, items that cannot be changed are not visited by the TAB key. Arrow keys are used to move within a list box, groups of option controls, or groups of page tabs. Arrow keys can move the keyboard focus between other controls but this behavior is not reliable. Options that are unavailable appear dimmed and cannot be selected.

While the controls described here are typically found on dialog boxes, they also can occur in other contexts.

Command buttons (also known as push buttons) initiate an immediate action. One command button in each dialog box carries out the command you've chosen, using the information supplied in the dialog box. This normally is labeled "OK." Other command buttons let you cancel the command or choose from additional options.

Command buttons marked with an ellipsis (...) open another dialog box so you can provide more information or confirm an action. Command buttons marked with a pair of greater-than symbols (>>) expand the current dialog box to show more controls. Command buttons marked with an arrow display a menu.

A dark border initially indicates the default button. Press ENTER at any time to choose the button with a dark border. Use TAB to move the keyboard focus to the next control, and add SHIFT to reverse the direction. When you move the keyboard focus to a command button it temporarily takes the dark border, but when the keyboard focus is not on a command button the dark border returns to the default button. Press SPACEBAR to choose the command button you selected with TAB. Use ESC to immediately choose the Cancel button if there is one. Typing the access key for a command button will immediately carry out the command.

Check boxes may be selected or cleared to turn an option on or off. Check boxes may have two states (checked and unchecked) or three states (checked, unchecked, and indeterminate). Check boxes often are displayed in sets of related options; for example, in setting Font Effects in Microsoft Word, the check boxes offer Strikethrough, Superscript, Subscript, Hidden, Small caps, and All caps.

Use TAB to move between boxes and SPACE to change the check box to the next state. Typing the access key for a check box also will move the focus to the box and change its state.

Option controls (also known as radio buttons) are used to select only one option from a group of options. (Like check boxes, option buttons may represent two or three states.) Use the arrow keys to select the next or previous buttons within the group. In some applications, you can add CTRL to move to the button without selecting it, then use SPACEBAR to choose the currently selected option button. Typing the access key for an option control will also move the focus to the control and select it.

Tabbed pages are used to fit many options into a single dialog box. They appear visually similar to dividers from a notebook. Each page contains separate groups of controls such as check boxes or option controls. Use TAB to move the focus to the tab for the currently visible page. Typing the access key for a page tab also will move the focus to the tab and display its page.

Keys:

Action:

CTRL+PAGE DOWN or CTRL+TAB

Switches to the next tab and displays the page.

CTRL+PAGE UP or CTRL+SHIFT+TAB

Switches to the previous tab and displays the page.

RIGHT ARROW or LEFT ARROW

When the focus is on a tab selector, chooses the next or previous tab in the current row and displays the page.

DOWN ARROW or UP ARROW

Chooses the tab in the next or previous row and displays the page.

Sliders appear as an indicator on a vertical or horizontal gauge. The slider both displays and sets a value from a continuous range, such as speed, brightness, or volume. Use TAB or the appropriate access key to move the focus to the slider.

Keys:

Action:

RIGHT ARROW or DOWN ARROW

Selects the next higher setting.

LEFT ARROW or UP ARROW

Selects the next lower setting.

HOME or END

Selects the lowest or highest setting.

PAGE DOWN

Selects a somewhat lower or higher setting depending on the application. (This is the equivalent of pressing an arrow key many times.)

PAGE UP

Moves in the reverse of the PAGE DOWN.

Spin boxes appear as a text box with up and down arrows used to select from a list of fixed values. Use TAB to move the keyboard focus to the text box, then enter a valid value in the box or use the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW keys to select the next higher or lower values.

List boxes display a column of available choices. If there are more choices than can fit in the open list box, moving the selection through the list will scroll more choices into view. Use TAB or type the appropriate access key to move the focus to the list box.

Single selection list boxes allow only one item to be selected from the list at a time. Items are selected when navigating to them, and moving to a second item will automatically deselect all other items.

Drop-down list boxes by default show only the selected item. There is a small button to the right of the control that shows a downward-pointing arrow. You can click the arrow to display more items from the list. You also can show or hide the list using ALT+DOWN ARROW, ALT+UP ARROW, or F4. In all other respects it behaves like a normal single-selection list box.

Extended selection list boxes support selecting single items, blocks of items, or combinations of the two. After selecting an item as in a single-selection list box, hold down SHIFT+Navigation keys to select or deselect more items.

Multiple selection list boxes typically have comparatively long lists and more of these items are expected to be chosen individually (not in blocks). Navigating to items does not automatically select them nor does selecting an item change the status of other selections. Press SPACEBAR to select or deselect an item.

Combo-boxes and drop-down combo boxes are list boxes with attached edit boxes. You can make your selection by either typing in the edit box or using the standard commands to select from the list.

Keys:

Action:

UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW

Selects the previous or next item. In an extended selection list box, add SHIFT to select additional items and add CTRL to move to an item without selecting it. In a multiple selection list box, moves without changing the selection.

PAGE UP or PAGE DOWN

Selects the item up or down one screen. In an extended selection list box, add SHIFT to select additional items and add CTRL to move to an item without selecting it. In a multiple selection list box, moves without changing the selection.

HOME or END

Selects the first or last item in the list box. In an extended selection list box, add SHIFT to select additional items and add CTRL to move to an item without selecting it. In a multiple selection list box, moves without changing the selection.

Any printing character

Moves to the next item matching the characters being typed. Use BACKSPACE to change. In a multiple selection list box, moves to an item without selecting it.

SPACEBAR or CTRL+SPACE

Selects or deselects the current item in an extended-selection list box.

SHIFT+SPACE

Extends the selection from the last selected item to the current item in an extended selection list-box.

SHIFT+F8

In extended selection list boxes, pressing SHIFT+F8 allows you to move without changing the selection. You can then press CTRL+SPACEBAR or SHIFT+SPACEBAR to select additional items. The list box returns to normal operation when you press SHIFT+F8 a second time or switch to another window or control.

Edit controls are rectangular boxes used for displaying or editing text. See the following section for more information. Use TAB or the appropriate access key to move the focus to the edit control and select the text.

1.8 Text Navigation and Editing Keys

When you open a document window in a word processing (or similar) program, a pointer appears in the upper-left corner of the window. The text you enter will appear at the pointer. In insertion mode, the new text is inserted into the existing text—the existing text is automatically pushed back to follow the new text. In overwrite mode, the new text overwrites the existing text. The following keys automatically scroll the window to keep the pointer in view when it is necessary. These keys also work in the text boxes of dialog boxes and list boxes.

Keys:

Action:

INSERT

Toggles between overtype and insertion modes. (Text boxes support only insert mode.)

ARROW KEY

Moves the pointer one character in the direction of the ARROW KEY. If text is selected, moves the pointer to the end of the selection and deselects the text.

HOME or END

Moves the pointer to the beginning or end of the current line.

PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN

Moves the pointer up or down one screen or to the first or last line.

CTRL+RIGHT or CTRL+LEFT

Moves the pointer to the beginning of the next or previous word.

CTRL+UP or CTRL+DOWN

Moves the pointer to the beginning of the preceding or next paragraph. (Not supported in text boxes.)

CTRL+HOME or CTRL+END

Moves the pointer to the beginning or the end of the document. (Not supported in text boxes.)

Press SHIFT with the text navigation keys listed above to select blocks of text for editing. For example, press SHIFT+END to select text from the pointer to the end of the line. SHIFT toggles—you can use SHIFT plus the above navigation keys to both select and deselect text.

Keys:

Action:

DELETE

Deletes the next character or the selected text.

BACKSPACE

Deletes the previous character or the selected text.

ALT+BACKSPACE or CTRL+Z

Undoes the last action.

CTRL+INSERT or CTRL+C

Copies the selected text to the Clipboard.

SHIFT+DELETE or CTRL+X

Cuts the selected text to the Clipboard.

SHIFT+INSERT or CTRL+V

Pastes copied text from the Clipboard.

1.9 Internet Explorer and Help Keys

Windows 98 includes a new Help facility, called HTML Help. Because Help is now displayed as Web pages, you can use many of the same keyboard shortcuts to display both Help topics and pages in Internet Explorer.

When a Web page or Help topic is displayed, TAB and SHIFT+TAB move through the links. The page scrolls automatically to keep the links in view.

Keys:

Action:

TAB

Moves to next control, link, or page. Add shift to reverse.

F6

Moves between panes in Help.

ALT+RIGHT ARROW

Displays the next page (the Forward button).

ALT+LEFT ARROW

Displays the previous page (the Back button).

SHIFT+F10

Displays a shortcut menu for a link.

CTRL+TAB

Moves forward between frames.

SHIFT+CTRL+TAB

Moves back between frames.

UP ARROW

Scrolls toward the beginning of a document.

DOWN ARROW

Scrolls toward the end of a document.

PAGE UP

Scrolls toward the beginning of a document in single screen increments.

PAGE DOWN

Scrolls toward the end of a document in single screen increments.

HOME

Moves to the beginning of a document.

END

Moves to the end of a document.

F5

Refreshes the current page.

ESC

Stops downloading a page or stops animation.

CTRL+O

Displays the Open dialog box, which you can use to go to a new location on the Internet.

CTRL+N

Opens a new window.

CTRL+S

Saves the current page.

CTRL+P

Prints the current page or active frame.

ENTER

Activates a selected link.

1.10 Accessibility Keys

Use the Control Panel or the Accessibility Wizard to turn on these keys in Microsoft Windows 98. Under Windows 95 and NT 4.0, these settings are changed only in Control Panel. Under Windows NT 3.5 and earlier versions of Windows and MS-DOS, the Accessibility features are not available until the Access Pack has been installed. Once Access Pack is installed, the hot keys are on by default. These features are not available in Windows NT 3.1.

Keys:

Action:

Five taps on SHIFT

Toggles the StickyKeys feature on and off. Use StickyKeys if you want to use the SHIFT, CONTROL, or ALT keys one key at a time in combination with other keys.

LEFT ALT+LEFT SHIFT+NUM LOCK

Toggles the MouseKeys feature on and off. Use MouseKeys if you want to control the mouse pointer with the numeric keypad.

Hold NUM LOCK for 5 seconds

Toggles the ToggleKeys feature on and off. Use ToggleKeys if you want to hear tones when pressing CAPS LOCK, NUM LOCK and SCROLL LOCK.

Hold RIGHT SHIFT for 8 seconds

Three beeps followed by a sliding beep signals eight seconds. Toggles the FilterKeys features (SlowKeys, BounceKeys and RepeatKeys) on and off. Use FilterKeys if you want Windows to ignore brief or repeated keystrokes or to slow the repeat rate. SlowKeys ignores keys that are pressed accidentally or for a short time. BounceKeys ignores keys that are pressed more than once too quickly. RepeatKeys adjusts or disables the keyboard repeat rate.

Hold RIGHT SHIFT for 12 seconds

Three beeps followed by a sliding beep followed by a double beep signals twelve seconds. Turns on the BounceKeys feature with the most conservative settings.

Hold RIGHT SHIFT for 16 seconds

Three beeps followed by a sliding beep followed by a double beep followed by a triple beep signals sixteen seconds. Turns the SlowKeys feature on with the most conservative settings.

LEFT ALT+LEFT SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN

In Microsoft Windows 95, toggles the High Contrast Mode feature on and off. Use this option if you want Windows to display colors and fonts designed for easy reading.
In Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, use Control Panel to select from several High Contrast schemes in the Appearance page under the Display option.

2. Creating Custom Shortcut Keys for Applications or Documents

Custom shortcut keys provide easy access to the documents and programs you use most often. You can create shortcut items on your desktop or on your Start menu and then assign them custom shortcut keys. Typing a shortcut key at any time will switch to the application or document, or start it if it is not already running.

Both the icons on the desktop and the menu items on the Start menu are represented in Windows Explorer as the Desktop and Start Menu folders in the Windows directory.

To create a shortcut and place it in the Start menu: 

  1. Press CTRL+ESC. 

    Windows displays the Start menu. 

  2. Use arrow keys and ENTER to choose Programs from the Start menu. 

    Windows displays the Programs menu. 

  3. Use arrow keys and ENTER to choose Windows Explorer from the Programs menu. 

    The Windows Explorer opens with the contents of 'Start Menu' in the Contents pane on the right.

    • If it doesn't open with the contents of the Start Menu, navigate to the Start Menu file in your Windows directory, select it and press ENTER to display the contents in the right pane. 

  4. Press F6 and arrow keys. 

    Use F6 to switch panes and the arrow keys to navigate to the program or document to which you are assigning a shortcut. 

  5. Press CTRL+C. 

    The selected item is copied to the Clipboard. 

  6. Press CTRL+ESC. 

    Windows displays the Start menu again. 

  7. Press ESC. 

    The keyboard focus moves to the Start button on the taskbar. 

  8. Press SHIFT+F10. 

    Windows displays the shortcut menu for the Start button. 

  9. Press E. 

    Chooses the Explore command. A second copy of Windows Explorer opens with the contents of 'Start Menu' in the Contents pane on the right. Use TAB to move the keyboard focus to the first item in the pane. 

  10. Press ALT+E. 

    Windows displays the Edit menu. 

  11. Press S. 

    Chooses the Paste Shortcut command.

    The new shortcut icon appears at the end of the list of icons in the Contents of the "Start Menu" pane. 

  12. Press ALT+F and then C. 

    Chooses Close from the File menu to close the second copy of the Windows Explorer. Repeat to close the first copy. 

You also can place shortcuts on the desktop through the Windows Explorer by copying items to the Desktop group instead of the Start Menu file.

To assign a shortcut key to a shortcut:

  1. Select the shortcut on the desktop or in the Windows Explorer. 

    You can assign shortcut keys only to shortcuts on the Desktop or in the Start menu.

    • To assign shortcut keys to shortcuts on the Start menu you must go through Explorer. 

  2. Press ALT+ENTER. 

    Displays the Properties sheet with the focus on the Shortcut Key edit box. 

    Press any key combination.

    • Enter your shortcut and it will appear in the edit box. CTRL+ALT will automatically be added to your key combination, for example, if you enter the letter "n" the shortcut key combination CRTL+ALT+N will be entered in the edit box. If you enter a key combination that contains CTRL or ALT (for example, CTRL+SHIFT+E) you will see CTRL+ALT briefly displayed and then your selection displayed. This is to ensure that shortcut keys include CTRL or ALT. 

    • Shortcut keys must include CTRL or ALT, or both, and one other key. For example, CTRL+SHIFT+Y.

    • You cannot use ESC, ENTER, TAB, SPACEBAR, PRINT SCREEN, or BACKSPACE. Be careful, because no other program will be able to use this key combination while it is defined as a shortcut key.

    • Press backspace to delete an existing shortcut key or to change your entry in the text box. 

  3. Press ENTER.

    Chooses the OK button. Press ESC to cancel. 

3. Keyboard Navigation

On both the Active Desktop and in Internet Explorer, you can use TAB to move the focus between controls such as icons, buttons, list boxes, toolbars, panes, and links, generally in left-to-right and top-to-bottom order. Use SHIFT+TAB to move in reverse order. You can use ENTER to choose icons, choose commands, choose buttons, and activate links.

3.1 Overview of Active Desktop

New features added to the Windows 98 Active Desktop include:

  • The Start menu, and menus displayed by Windows Explorer, are now custom scrolling menus. This allows you to have more menu commands than fit on the screen at one time, which is helpful for people who enlarge the menu fonts or customize their menu to have many commands. 

    There are several new desktop toolbars, including:

    • The Address bar, which functions like the Run command on the Start menu. 

    • The Links bar, which shows Web sites of general interest. 

    • The Desktop bar, which shows the objects on your desktop. 

    • The Quick Launch bar, which shows links to commonly used commands. 

  • You can create your own desktop toolbars with commands you use frequently. See the following procedures. 

  • The Channel bar is now displayed on your desktop. You can remove it or add other desktop objects using the Display options in Control Panel. 

  • You can now view any folder as a Web page: open the folder and choose As Web Page from the View menu. If you do not like this view, you can switch back to any of the views provided by Windows, including Large Icons, Small Icons, and List views. 

For more information on Active Desktop, see Help in Windows 98.

3.2 Using Keyboard Navigation in Active Desktop

Press TAB and SHIFT+TAB to move forward and backward between the Start button, desktop icons, the QuickLaunch bar, the Taskbar, and the Channel bar. A one-pixel-wide border appears around items to indicate what is selected.

The selection moves forward through the Active Desktop items in this order:

  1. The Start button on the Taskbar. 

  2. The Quick Launch toolbar. 

    One of the Quick Launch icons appears selected.

    • You can use the arrow keys to move between the program icons. Once the focus is on an icon, you can press ENTER to launch the application, or SHIFT+F10 to display the shortcut menu for the toolbar. (All the toolbars on the desktop share the same shortcut menu.) 

    • The arrow keys wrap, i.e., continuing to use the right arrow on the rightmost icon moves to the leftmost (first) icon. 

  3. The Taskbar. 

    A selection does not appear on the Taskbar, but the focus is in fact there.

    • Press SHIFT+F10 to display the shortcut menu for the toolbar. (All the toolbars on the desktop share the same shortcut menu.) 

    • Press the RIGHT ARROW key to select an application. You can press ENTER to display the selected application, or press SHIFT+F10 to display the shortcut menu for that application. 

    • Arrow keys move between the application buttons. 

    • The arrow keys wrap, i.e., continuing to use the right arrow on the rightmost icon moves to the leftmost (first) icon. 

  4. The Desktop icons. 

    An icon on the desktop appears selected.

    • Use arrow keys to move between the icons on the desktop. You can press ENTER to open the application or document, or press SHIFT+F10 to display the shortcut menu for that icon. 

    • Press CTRL+SPACEBAR to select or deselect the current icon; when no icon is selected, you can press SHIFT+F10 to display the shortcut menu for the entire desktop. 

    • The arrow keys do not wrap, i.e., continuing to use the left arrow on the leftmost selection does not move the focus and Windows does not play an error sound. 

  5. The Channel bar. 

    The topmost button on the Channel bar is selected.

    • Use arrow keys to move between the icons on the channel bar. Press ENTER to display a channel using Windows 98. 

    • The arrow keys do wrap, i.e., continuing to use the down arrow on the last selection moves to the top button. 

    • Note that you can reach the Channel bar only by pressing TAB. The Channel bar is skipped when you navigate in reverse order using SHIFT+TAB. 

  6. The selection box returns to the Start button 

If you add other bars, such as the Address bar, QuickLinks bar, Desktop bar, or a new toolbar, you also can use TAB and SHIFT+TAB to navigate to these bars.

3.3 Overview of Windows 98 Help and Internet Explorer

Windows 98 includes a new Help facility, called HTML Help. Because Help is now displayed as Web pages, most of the accessibility features in Internet Explorer are now also available when viewing Help topics. You can override formatting options in Help, display text instead of images, disable animation, and even apply your own style sheet in order to have greater control over how Help is presented. When you adjust these and similar options in Internet Explorer and then restart Help, your settings will automatically apply to all help topics you view. For more information on how to customize the display of Web pages and Help through Internet Explorer, see the Internet Explorer Help. Detailed information also is available online at http://www.microsoft.com/enable/ .

3.4 Using Keyboard Navigation in Windows 98 Help

  • As in previous versions of Help, you can use TAB to navigate between text boxes, buttons, and panes of Help and between links within a displayed Help topic.

  • Sometimes the focus seems to disappear completely when using keystrokes to navigate Help controls. Often the "invisible focus" is on a window or pane as a whole. and this can be tested by pressing CTRL+F10 to display the shortcut menu for the window.

  • Some links or controls also may register as an "invisible focus." Pressing ENTER will activate them. 

  • When you display a topic in the right pane, it continues to be displayed until replaced with another selection. This can make navigation confusing, because the topic name currently selected in the left pane may not match the topic shown on the right. 

  • The Hide button on the Help toolbar can hide the leftmost pane used for Content, Index, and Search. To restore the tabs, press ALT+O and then T to open the Options menu and choose the Show Tabs command. 

  • To display the topics in the Contents tab: 

  1. Press ALT+C to move the focus to the Contents tab. 

  2. The highlight indicates the topic in the list with the focus. 

    Use the UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW keys to move the selection in the Contents tab.

    • Pressing ENTER opens and closes topics indicated by book icons. 

    When you have made your selection of an available topic (indicated by a page icon), press ENTER to display the information in the right pane.

    • Your topic is displayed in the pane on the right. 

    • The keyboard focus remains on the selected item in the left pane.

    • The string you searched for is highlighted wherever it appears in the topic. 

    Press F6 or TAB to move the focus to the right pane.

    • The topic you had selected in the left pane is dimmed to indicate the lack of focus. 

    • The focus is on the entire right pane, though there is no visual indication of this.

    • Press HOME or END to scroll the screen to the beginning or end of the topic. 

    • Use CTRL+F10 to display the shortcut menu for the topic. The shortcut menu provides the following options for the displayed topic: Back, Forward, Select All, View Source, Print, Refresh, Properties. Some options may be dimmed if unavailable. 

    If there are links in the topic, press TAB to move from link to link.

    • Tab selects links in left-right, top-down order.

    • Use SHIFT+TAB to reverse.

    • Use ENTER to activate links.

  3. To return to the Contents tab, press ALT+C. 

  4. Press ALT+F4 to quit Help. 

To display a topic using the Index tab

To search for a topic by keyword in Windows 98 Help 

  1. Enter the keyword you want. 

    Press tab and l, enter, or alt+l.

    • A list of topics pertaining to your keyword appears in the Topic list box. 

    Press ALT+P and then the DOWN ARROW key or TAB to move the keyboard focus to the first item in the Topic list box.

    • The keyboard focus does not move to the list box immediately after pressing ALT+T; it appears after using the DOWN ARROW key. 

    • The keyboard focus does appear immediately in the list box after using tab. 

    • Use the UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW keys to select a topic. 

    Press ENTER or ALT+D to display the selected topic.

    • Your topic is displayed in the pane on the right, and the keyboard focus moves to the Help topic. The string you searched for is highlighted wherever it appears in the topic. 

    • Use the arrow keys to scroll the screen up and down or left and right. 

    • Press HOME or END to scroll the screen to the beginning or end of the topic. 

    • Use CTRL+F10 to display the shortcut menu for the topic. 

    • Use ALT+P to return to the Topic list box to choose another topic, or ALT+K to begin another search. 

  2. Use ALT+F4 to quit Help. 

3.5 Using Keyboard Navigation in Internet Explorer

You can use TAB and SHIFT+TAB to navigate between the menu bar, toolbars, pages, and links in Internet Explorer. Use ENTER to activate links.

The selection moves forward through the Internet Explorer items in this order:

You can use SHIFT+TAB to move between the same areas, but in reverse order. However, the focus stops on the page as a whole before reaching the links on the page.

When using SHIFT+TAB, the focus moves in the following order: 

  1. The current address (URL) on the Address bar 

  2. The page as a whole 

  3. Links on the page in right-to-left and then upward order 

  4. The Explorer bar 

  5. The Links bar 

    The Address bar

    • You can quickly skip to the next displayed page by pressing CTRL+TAB (the Forward button) or go back to the previous page by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (the Back button) 

By Maryanne K. Snyder, Gregory C. Lowney and Jeff Witt. Last modified July 30, 1998.

Copyright © 1996—1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and MS-DOS are trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

The information contained in this document represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication.

This document is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, IN THIS DOCUMENT. 

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