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How Setup Works

Updated: March 28, 2003

Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2003 with SP2

Setup Architecture

The Setup program contains components that start or restart the computer, gather information, copy files, and create or adjust settings. The components involved and the sequence of actions they perform are slightly different when Setup is started in different ways. The following figures and tables show the components and briefly describe their relationships for the two most common ways of performing an interactive setup:

  • An upgrade when you insert the product CD while the computer is running the existing operating system and then wait for a display to appear.

  • A clean installation when you insert the product CD and then restart the computer from the CD drive.

Note

  • Multiple methods are available for running Setup. This Technical Reference focuses on two methods, but it is not intended to provide guidance for choosing a method. For information about choosing a method, see “Related Information” later in the section.

Setup Components Used During an Upgrade

The following figure and corresponding table show the components that are involved when you perform an upgrade by starting the computer from the existing operating system, inserting the product CD in the CD drive, and then waiting for a display to appear.

The figure and table list both the components and the related information files for each stage of the upgrade. Setup components use information files to store information that is later retrieved. Note that information might be retrieved by a component different from the one that stored it. Information might also be retrieved after restarting the computer.

For more information about the operating systems from which you can start an upgrade, see “Setup Processes" later in this section.

Setup Components Used During an Upgrade

Setup Components Used During an Upgrade

The following table describes the Setup components used for each stage of an upgrade.

Setup Components Used During an Upgrade

 

Components and Descriptions Grouped by Stage Corresponding Information Files

Initial stage, also known as data-collection stage

 

Setup.exe (autorun)

Setup.exe runs automatically when you insert the product CD in the CD drive on a computer that is turned on and running an operating system that can be upgraded to Windows Server 2003. When this happens, Setup.exe offers options for viewing information about the product CD or for beginning the setup process.

None

Winnt32.exe and Winnt32u.dll

If Setup.exe is allowed to start as described in the previous line of this table, and you choose to begin the setup process, Setup.exe runs Winnt32.exe.

For the compatibility report: Ntcompat.inf in the \I386\compdata folder on the product CD

For other actions: Winnt.sif in $win_nt$.~bt folder

*.inf files in \I386\Winntupg folder and subfolders on product CD

Intermediate stage, also known as text-mode stage

 

$LDR$ file (copied and renamed from Setupldr.bin in \I386 folder on product CD)

As part of the previous stage, Winnt32.exe causes the computer to restart with the Setup loader, instead of NTLDR, the loader that would otherwise be used when starting a server running Windows.

Winnt.sif in $win_nt$.~bt folder

Txtsetup.sif in $win_nt$.~bt folder and in root directory (of the boot disk on the computer)

Migrate.inf in $win_nt$.~bt folder (stores drive letter assignments)

For some computers that have a mass storage controller, Unsupdrv.inf will be created. For more information, see the paragraphs after this table.

Setupdd.sys

Setupdd.sys carries out most of the actions during text-mode stage.

Winnt.sif in $win_nt$.~bt folder

Txtsetup.sif in $win_nt$.~bt folder and in root directory (of the boot disk on the computer)

Final stage, also known as GUI-mode stage

 

Syssetup.dll, Setupapi.dll, Netshell.dll, and other DLLs

For the final stage of an upgrade, Syssetup.dll coordinates most of the actions. The operating system running during this stage is very similar to the completely upgraded operating system, although only a small number of services are started. Syssetup.dll uses a variety of other DLLs for configuration tasks, for example, iesetup.dll for configuring Internet Explorer and Ocgen.dll for configuring certain operating system components such as Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI).

Syssetup.dll uses:

$Winnt$.inf in systemroot\system32

Syssetup.inf and Layout.inf in systemroot\inf

At this stage, the operating system is very similar to the completely upgraded operating system and uses many of the same .inf files (not listed here).

The Unsupdrv.inf file mentioned in the preceding table is created to store settings for a mass storage driver in certain situations. If a mass storage driver is installed on the computer, Setup will copy the driver into the $win_nt$.~bt folder unless the product CD has an equivalent, updated driver or the existing driver is on a list of those that must be disabled for Windows Server 2003. When Setup copies the driver, it also adds the driver file to its list of files and stores the driver settings retrieved from the existing registry in Unsupdrv.inf.

When the computer first restarts after interactive setup, a few final user settings are applied, much like the process that happens at the beginning of any restart. The upgrade is then complete.

Setup Components Used During a Clean Installation When You Start the Computer from the Product CD

The following figure and corresponding table show the components that are involved in a clean installation when you start the computer from the product CD.

The figure and table list both the components and the related information files for each stage of Setup. Setup components use information files to store information that is later retrieved. Note that information might be retrieved by a component different from the one that stored it. Information might also be retrieved after restarting the computer.

Note

  • The following figure and table describe the contents of the I386 folder on the product CD. This folder contains the Setup components for installations on an x86-based computer. The Setup components on an Itanium architecture-based computer are located in the IA64 folder on the product CD.

Setup Components Used During a Clean Installation When You Start the Computer from the Product CD

Setup Components Used During Clean Install from CD

The following table describes the Setup components used for each stage of a clean installation.

Setup Components Used During a Clean Installation When You Start the Computer from the Product CD

 

Components and Descriptions Grouped by Stage Information File

Initial stage, also known as data-collection stage and text-mode stage

 

Setupldr.bin in the I386 folder on the product CD

When the computer is started from the product CD, the boot sector on the CD initializes the setup loader instead of NTLDR, the loader normally used when starting a server running Windows.

Txtsetup.sif in the I386 folder on the product CD

Optionally, you can use the information file Winnt.sif. For more information, see the note after this table.

Setupdd.sys

Setupdd.sys carries out most of the actions during text-mode stage.

Txtsetup.sif in the I386 folder on the product CD

Optionally, you can use the information file Winnt.sif. For more information, see the note after this table.

Final stage, also known as GUI-mode stage

 

Syssetup.dll, Setupapi.dll, Netshell.dll, and other DLLs

For the final stage of a clean installation, Syssetup.dll coordinates most of the actions. The operating system running during this stage is very similar to the complete Windows Server 2003 operating system, although only a small number of services are started. Syssetup.dll uses a variety of other DLLs for configuration tasks, for example, Iesetup.dll for configuring Internet Explorer and Ocgen.dll for configuring certain operating system components such as Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI).

Syssetup.dll uses:

$Winnt$.inf in systemroot\system32

Syssetup.inf and Layout.inf in systemroot\inf

At this stage, the operating system is very similar to the complete Windows Server 2003 operating system and uses many of the same .inf files (not listed here).

When the computer first restarts after interactive setup, a few final user settings are applied, much like the process that happens at the beginning of any restart. The installation is then complete.

Note

  • If you start the computer from the product CD and also insert a floppy disk containing an information file called Winnt.sif, Setup reads the copy of Winnt.sif on the floppy disk. For more information about Winnt.sif, see “Unattended Installation Technical Reference.”

Additional Setup Components Used in Other Installation or Upgrade Scenarios

Some Setup components are called only if you start or restart Setup in a specific way. The following table lists and describes those components.

Additional Setup Components Used in Other Installation or Upgrade Scenarios

 

Component Installation or Upgrade Scenario

$Win_nt$.~ls folder

Dosnet.inf in the \I386 folder on the product CD

$Win_nt$.~ls is created when you perform an installation or upgrade by sharing Setup files in a network folder. During the initial stage of setup, all the folders and files needed for the new operating system are copied to the $Win_nt$.~ls folder on the local computer. This folder is also created when you run Winnt32.exe with the /makelocalsource option.

Dosnet.inf contains the list of files to copy to $Win_nt$.~ls.

Migrate.inf in $win_nt$.~bt folder

Migrate.inf stores the computer’s drive letter assignments when you start either an upgrade or a clean installation on a computer running an earlier operating system such as Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000.

Sprestrt.exe and Undo_Guimode.txt

Sprestrt.exe, which runs at the start of GUI mode, determines if GUI mode ran previously and failed. If so, Undo_Guimode.txt is used to bring files back to the state appropriate for the beginning of GUI mode.

Log Files Created by Setup

A number of log files are created during an installation or upgrade and are saved in the systemroot folder, for example, C:\Windows. The names and descriptions of the log files are as follows.

Commonly Used Log Files

Setupapi.log

Log file for Setupapi.dll, which processes .inf files during hardware installation and registration. This file can include entries that begin with #E, which indicates problems or errors.

Setuperr.log

Logs errors that occur during the setup process.

Setuplog.txt

Logs the overall setup process. This log includes information about the process of setup, the process of applying user settings after the computer’s first restart into the new operating system, and the process of activation. The last line in this file shows the last action Setup was able to complete.

Upgrade.txt

Default name for the file that stores the compatibility report. (You can also save the report with a different name.) The compatibility report is created when you carry out any of the following:

  • Insert the product CD in the CD drive, wait for the display to appear, and then click the appropriate options for checking system compatibility.

  • Begin an upgrade of the existing operating system.

  • Run Winnt32.exe with the /checkupgradeonly option.

Other Log Files

Setupact.log

Records some file copying and many actions related to hardware, for example, the detection of devices in the system. For upgrades, this file can contain some information about whether the computer hardware is compatible with Windows Server 2003.

Winnt32.log

Logs details about the initial stage of Setup, sometimes called the data-collection stage. If you attempted to upgrade to a product version that is not on the upgrade path from the existing operating system (for example, an upgrade to an English version of Windows Server 2003 from a non-English version of Windows 2000 Server), details will be logged in this file. This file is only created when you start Setup while the previous operating system is running, not when you start the computer from the product CD.

Wsdu.log

Logs Dynamic Update actions, if Dynamic Update is run.

Logs created by other components

During the last stage of Setup (also known as GUI-mode stage), the Windows Server 2003 operating system installation or upgrade is nearly complete, and therefore operating system components begin to create logs. The file name often indicates the component that created the log.

Setup Processes

An interactive setup can be started using a variety of methods. This Setup Technical Reference provides detailed descriptions of two of the most common methods for starting Setup:

  • An upgrade when the computer is started from the operating system to be upgraded.

  • A clean installation when the computer is started from the product CD.

The following information defines these two methods as well as other methods used for starting Setup. You can use almost all methods either for a clean installation or an upgrade. The exception is when you start the computer from the product CD, which is used for clean installations only.

Note

  • Multiple methods are available for running Setup. This Technical Reference focuses on two methods, but it is not intended to provide guidance for choosing a method. For information about choosing a method, see “Related Information” later in this section.

Methods for Starting Setup When the Computer is Started from the Product CD

If you insert the product CD in the computer’s CD drive and then start the computer from that drive, Setup starts automatically. This method for starting Setup differs from the other methods in the following ways:

  • This is usually the most straightforward way to begin a clean installation. With this method, you can change the partitions on the hard disk and format partitions as needed. With other methods, you can make changes to the partitions or format the hard disk during installation only if those changes do not affect files that Setup must store on the hard disk while it is running.

  • You must use the basic input/output system (BIOS) or Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) to configure the computer so that you can start it from the CD drive.

  • This method is used only for a clean installation (not an upgrade).

  • You cannot use Dynamic Update if you start the computer from the product CD because the computer will not have network or Internet connectivity.

Methods for Starting Setup When the Computer is Running MS-DOS

If you start Setup from a computer that is running MS-DOS, you must use Winnt.exe; you cannot run Setup.exe or Winnt32.exe. Starting Setup from MS-DOS is the least preferred method; it does not offer all the options available with the other methods.

Methods for Starting Setup When the Computer is Running Any 32-bit or 64-bit Windows Operating System

The following table describes different methods for starting Setup from a computer that is running any 32-bit or 64-bit Windows operating system.

 

Medium and Method for Starting Setup Notes

Medium: Windows Server 2003 product CD

Method: Insert CD in local CD drive and wait for display to appear.

If the operating system already on the computer is one from which you can upgrade, this is the most straightforward way to begin an upgrade.

Allowing the display to appear after the CD is inserted in the drive is the same as running Setup.exe (in the root directory on the CD).

You can also start an installation or upgrade by changing to the I386 folder on the product CD and running Winnt32.exe. (For Itanium architecture-based computers, the folder is the IA64 folder on the product CD.) Winnt32.exe is described later in this table.

Medium: Windows Server 2003 product CD

Method: Insert CD in remote CD drive that has been shared on the network. On the local computer, run Setup.exe from the remote CD drive.

With this method, you do not have to keep track of a product CD or carry it from computer to computer.

Running Setup across the network requires slightly more free space on the local hard disk during Setup than if it is run locally.

Medium: A shared folder in which you place files from the Windows Server 2003 product CD.

Method: Run Setup.exe across the network.

With this method, you do not have to keep track of a product CD or carry it from computer to computer.

Running Setup across the network requires slightly more free space on the local hard disk during Setup than if it is run locally.

Medium: A shared folder in which you place files from the Windows Server 2003 product CD as well as other files. Method: From the I386 subfolder in the shared folder, run Winnt32.exe across the network, using appropriate options. (For Itanium architecture-based computers, run Winnt32.exe from the IA64 folder on the product CD.)

With this method and with appropriate preparation of the shared installation folder or subfolders, you can specify options with Winnt32.exe to change the installation process slightly. For example, you can create a shared subfolder with additional drivers, and have the subfolder installed at the same time as the operating system. As another example, you can have Dynamic Update use updated Setup files that you have downloaded to your shared installation folder. You download these files from the Windows Update Web site. For more information about Winnt32.exe, see “Command line reference A-Z” on the Microsoft TechNet Web site.

Running Winnt32.exe across the network requires slightly more free space on the local hard disk during installation than if Winnt32.exe is run locally.

Winnt32.exe can also be used for unattended installation. For more information, see “Unattended Installation Technical Reference.”

Note

  • When you run Setup from an existing operating system, you have the option of installing a new operating system while leaving the old one in place. This results in a computer with multiple operating systems installed. For information about using the NTFS file system on such a computer, see “NTFS Technical Reference.”

Supported Upgrade Paths

The operating systems from which you can upgrade depend on the specific product in the Windows Server 2003 family that you have purchased:

Supported Upgrade Paths in Windows Server 2003

 

  Standard Edition Enterprise Edition Datacenter Edition Web Edition Windows Small Business Server 2003

Windows NT 4.0* Server

Table Bullet Table Bullet

 

 

 

Windows NT 4.0* Terminal Server Edition

Table Bullet Table Bullet

 

 

 

Windows NT 4.0* Enterprise Edition

 

Table Bullet

 

 

 

Windows 2000 Server

Table Bullet Table Bullet

 

 

Table Bullet

Windows 2000 Advanced Server

 

Table Bullet

 

 

 

Windows 2000 Datacenter Server

 

 

Table Bullet

 

 

Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition

Table Bullet Table Bullet

 

 

Table Bullet

Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition

 

Table Bullet

 

 

 

Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition

 

 

Table Bullet

 

 

Windows Server 2003 Web Edition

 

 

 

Table Bullet

 

Windows Server 2003** Beta3/RC1/RC2

Table Bullet Table Bullet Table Bullet Table Bullet

***

Small Business Server 2000

 

 

 

 

Table Bullet

Windows Small Business Server 2003

 

 

 

 

Table Bullet

* Windows NT 4.0 upgrade is supported by Service Pack 5 (SP5) or later. If an earlier version of the service pack is installed, the upgrade is not possible.

** Interim releases of Windows Server 2003 will upgrade to the release to manufacturer (RTM) code of the same edition. For example, RC1 Standard Edition upgrades to RTM Standard Edition.

*** Release candidate (RC) to RTM code for Windows Small Business Server 2003 is supported.

How Setup Performs an Upgrade

In the process of performing an upgrade, Setup goes through several stages, carrying out specific actions in an orderly way during each stage. The Setup stages and actions are defined as follows:

  • Initial stage, also known as data-collection stage: You start Setup from the existing operating system. Setup prompts you for items such as the product key and your decision about whether to run Dynamic Update. Setup also performs a compatibility check (with a report) during this stage. Finally, Setup copies the files necessary for starting the computer in the next stage and then restarts.

  • Intermediate stage, also known as text-mode stage: Setup copies most of the files that will become the new operating system and then restarts.

  • Final stage, also known as GUI-mode stage: Setup loads appropriate device drivers, applies network settings, copies additional files necessary for the operating system, installs Start menu items, and makes changes to the registry. At the end of this stage, Setup removes temporary files it used and then restarts the computer into the newly upgraded operating system.

The following numbered list shows the sequence of actions in each stage of an upgrade.

Upgrade: Initial Stage (Also Known as Data-Collection Stage)

  1. You start Setup, typically by inserting the product CD in the CD drive and waiting for a display to appear. Setup examines the computer to determine which operating system exists on it, and offers the following options:

    • Installing the operating system

    • Performing additional tasks, that is, setting up a Remote Desktop Connection, browsing the CD, or viewing setup instructions and release notes

    • Checking system compatibility

    If the operating system that exists on the computer is in the Windows Server 2003 family, the display also offers the option to install optional Windows components (such as Certificate Service or Terminal Server).

    You can start Setup from an existing operating system in other ways. For more information, see “Setup Processes” earlier in this section. For some of these options, the display described in step 2 is the first display you see.

  2. If you choose the first option in step 1, Setup asks you whether you want to perform an upgrade or a new installation.

  3. Setup confirms that you agree with the product license.

  4. Setup prompts you to type the product key.

    The 25-character product key is printed on a sticker on the back of your Windows Server 2003 product CD case.

  5. Setup checks that the amount of memory and the space on the hard disk are adequate for the version of the product to which you are upgrading.

  6. Setup asks whether to use Dynamic Update to get updated Setup files from the Microsoft Windows Update Web site. If you agree, Setup performs Dynamic Update (actions are recorded in Wsdu.log), and then checks that the space on the hard disk is still adequate for the upgrade.

  7. Setup checks your system for compatibility, and displays a report if there are incompatibilities. For many types of incompatibilities, you can continue the upgrade. If, however, an incompatibility exists that is known to prevent Setup from completing, you cannot continue the upgrade. The report is saved with a default file name of Upgrade.txt, and actions are recorded in Winnt32.log.

  8. Setup copies files to the hard disk. These files are necessary for starting the computer in the next stage.

  9. Setup restarts the computer.

Upgrade: Intermediate Stage (Also Known as Text-Mode Stage)

  1. Setup rechecks that the space on the hard disk is adequate, and then copies most of the files that will become the new operating system, replacing previous versions of the files where they exist.

  2. Setup restarts the computer again.

Upgrade: Final Stage (Also Known as GUI-Mode Stage)

  1. Using Plug and Play technology, Setup loads appropriate device drivers for the attached devices.

  2. Setup configures settings using the existing registry as a baseline.

  3. Setup copies files to the hard disk for operating system components that have not yet been installed.

  4. Setup installs Start menu items and makes changes to the registry.

  5. Setup sets file and folder permissions to protect the new operating system, for example, for files in the root directory, the system root folder, and the registry.

  6. Setup runs Windows File Protection to ensure that all upgraded files are valid.

  7. Setup removes any temporary files used during the installation process.

  8. Setup restarts the computer. A few final user settings are applied after this restart, much like the process that happens at the beginning of any restart. The upgrade is then complete.

How Setup Performs a Clean Installation when the Computer is Started from the Product CD

In the process of performing a clean installation, Setup goes through several stages, carrying out specific actions in an orderly way during each stage. This Setup stages and actions are defined as follows:

  • Initial stage, also known as data-collection stage and text-mode stage: You start Setup, typically by starting the computer from the product CD. Setup displays a character-oriented window during this stage. It collects information, mainly about what partitions to create or delete and what file system to use on an unformatted partition. Setup carries out your instructions for creating, deleting, and formatting partitions, then copies files and restarts.

  • Final stage, also known as GUI-mode stage: Setup displays a graphical user interface (GUI) during this stage. It loads appropriate device drivers, then prompts for the following information:

    • Regional and language preferences

    • Your name and the name of the organization

    • Product key

    • Licensing mode

    • Computer name and Administrator account password

    • Date and time settings

    • Network settings

    Also during the final stage, Setup applies the network settings you specified, copies the files, installs Start menu items, and makes changes to the registry. At the end of this stage, Setup removes temporary files it used and then restarts the computer into the newly installed operating system.

The following numbered list shows the sequence of actions in each stage of a clean installation where the computer has been started from the product CD.

Clean Installation: Initial Stage (Also Known as Data-Collection Stage and Text-Mode Stage)

  1. You turn the computer on and start it from the product CD.

    In order to start the computer from a CD, either you must press a key at the appropriate prompt, or you must prepare the computer ahead of time by configuring the BIOS or EFI to specify a boot sequence that will cause the computer to start from the CD drive. For more information, see the manufacturer's instructions for your computer.

  2. Setup gives you the opportunity to load a mass storage driver (press F6). At this time, you can also press F5 to load a Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) file.

  3. Setup gives you the opportunity to run Automated System Recovery (press F2).

  4. If you continue with installation (not Automated System Recovery), Setup loads a set of generic device drivers.

  5. Setup displays a welcome screen and gives you the opportunity to start the Recovery Console (press R).

  6. Setup confirms that you agree with the product license.

  7. Setup searches the hard disks for an existing installation of the product that you are installing. If an existing installation is found, Setup gives you the opportunity to repair that installation (press R).

  8. Setup checks that the amount of memory and the hard disk size are adequate for the version of the product that you are installing.

  9. Setup gives you the opportunity to delete or create partitions on the hard disk. If you create a partition and specify it as the installation partition, you must specify a file system (NTFS or FAT) and specify whether to use quick format (integrity of sectors is not verified) or full format (bad sectors are identified and tracked).

  10. After carrying out the specified partition and file system changes, Setup checks that the partition you selected contains enough space to hold the installation, and then copies files to the partition. The files are most of those that will become the new operating system.

  11. Setup restarts the computer.

Clean Installation: Final Stage (Also Known as GUI-Mode Stage)

  1. Using Plug and Play technology, Setup loads appropriate device drivers for the attached devices.

  2. Setup requests information about the following items:

    • Regional and language options

    • Your name and the name of the organization (the name of the organization can be left blank)

    • Product key

      The 25-character product key is printed on a sticker on the back of your Windows Server 2003 product CD case.

    • The licensing mode

    • Computer name and administrator password

    • Date and time settings

  3. Setup installs a basic set of network components to begin the process of establishing network connectivity.

  4. Setup requests information about the following items:

    • Networking settings

    • Workgroup or computer domain

  5. Setup configures the settings that were specified.

  6. Setup copies files to the hard disk for operating system components that have not yet been installed.

  7. Setup installs Start menu items and makes changes to the registry.

  8. Setup sets file and folder permissions to protect the new operating system, for example, for files in the root directory, the systemroot folder, and the registry.

  9. Setup runs Windows File Protection to ensure that all installed files are valid.

  10. Setup removes any temporary files used during the installation process.

  11. Setup restarts the computer. A few final user settings are applied after this restart, much like the process that happens at the beginning of any restart. The installation is then complete.

Configuration Elements That You Can Change After Setup

In Windows Server 2003, most of what you specify during Setup can be changed at a later time. The following table specifies what you can change after Setup.

Configuration Elements That You Can Change After Setup

 

Configuration Elements Specified During Setup Configuration Elements You Can Change After Setup

Partitions: Arrangement, order, or format of partitions on the hard disk

You can use Disk Manager to change various aspects of the partitions. However, unless you reinstall, you cannot perform actions that involve deleting, moving, or changing the letter of the boot partition (also called the boot volume) or the system partition (also called the system volume).

Components: Installed components of the operating system

You can use Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel to add or remove Windows components after installation, for example, the Remote Storage component. To add components, you will need access to the product CD or a network share containing files from the product CD.

Regional and language options Support for East Asian languages: These languages include Chinese, Japanese, or Korean, or the complex script and right-to-left languages, which include Arabic, Armenian, Georgian, Hebrew, the Indic languages, Thai, or Vietnamese.

You can use Regional and Language Options in Control Panel to change most of these options after installation. However, to add support for East Asian languages after installation, you will need access to the product CD or a shared network folder containing files from the product CD.

Name entered by the person who installed the computer (in Personalize Your Software)

You can change this setting by changing the following registry key: \HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft \Windows NT\CurrentVersion\RegisteredOwner

Other options

You can change other settings after installation, usually through Control Panel or through Administrative Tools (in Control Panel).

Note

  • Incorrectly editing the registry might severely damage your system. Before making changes to the registry, you should back up any valued data on the computer

Related Information

The following resources contain additional information that is relevant to this section.

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