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Chapter 11 - Printing, Imaging, and Fonts

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This chapter describes support for printers, still imaging devices, and fonts in Microsoft Windows 98. It includes an overview of the printing subsystem and explains how to set up and administer printers and print servers. It also discusses acquiring and printing images, including new support in Windows 98 for TWAIN, Image Color Matching (ICM), scanners, and still image digital cameras. Finally, this chapter explains font matching and font support in Windows 98.

See Also

  • For information about support for imaging devices and drivers in the Win32® Driver Model (WDM), see Chapter 30, "Hardware Management." 

Printing Support in Windows 98

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Windows 98 adds the following enhancements to the printing support and subsystem introduced with Windows 95.

New printer drivers. Windows 98 has over 200 new printer drivers to support a broader range of the latest printer models and technologies.

Improved Web printing. The Microsoft Internet Explorer 4 browsing software has implemented the new cascading style sheet (CSS) extensions to HTML for printing Web pages. Cascading style sheets enable such enhancements as background printing of Web pages, recursive printing of hyperlinks on a Web page, and for frames pages, the ability to print a specific frame or all frames on a page.

Improved color management. Windows 98 supports the new Image Color Matching (ICM) version 2.0 standards. When you acquire an image from an input device, such as a scanner or still image digital camera, ICM 2.0 maintains the image's original color mapping, from display and editing in applications through printed or electronic output. In other words, ICM 2.0 ensures that the original image colors are accurately interpreted by an input device, displayed on a monitor, and output to a color printer or electronic format.

For detailed information about ICM 2.0, see "Image Color Matching 2.0 Support" later in this chapter.

New Hewlett-Packard JetAdmin 2.54 utility. The Windows 98 compact disc includes an updated version of the Hewlett Packard (HP) JetAdmin utility, which lets you install and configure HP printers connected to a network through an HP JetDirect print server (network interface). The update provides additional features and support for the latest printer models from Hewlett-Packard.

For more information about the JetAdmin utility, see "Using the Hewlett-Packard JetAdmin Utility" later in this chapter.

Overview of the Windows 98 Printing Subsystem

In Windows 98, the print spooler is implemented as a series of 32-bit virtual device drivers and dynamic-link libraries (DLLs), and consolidates the spooler functionality into a single architecture. The spooler provides smooth background printing by using background thread processing. This means that the spooler passes data to the printer only when the printer is ready to receive more information.

The spooler provides quick return-to-application time. It allows you to set printer properties for an individual printer instead of requiring global printing properties. For example, each printer can have a different separator page, and each can specify whether jobs will be printed directly or to a queue.

Figure 11.1 illustrates how Windows 98 prints documents.

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Figure 11.1 Overview of printing in Windows 98 

During printer installation Windows 98 reads INF files to install the proper printer drivers. Although the previous OEMSetup.inf file format is still supported for compatibility with Windows 3.x, the new INF format offers added functionality, including support for installing printing subsystem components, such as the printer driver and port monitor, and for installing Plug and Play printers. All information about an installed printer is stored in the registry.

For information about enhanced metafiles (EMFs), printer drivers, and other components of the printing subsystem, see "How the Printing Subsystem Works" later in this chapter.

Considerations Before Installing Printers

Before configuring printers and installing fonts in Windows 98, you should consider the issues summarized in this section.

General Considerations

The following are general considerations for printing:

  • When purchasing new printers, consider those with support for bidirectional communication and extended capabilities ports (ECPs). These features allow Plug and Play–compliant printers to send status messages to Windows 98 and utilize high-speed printing. 

  • ECPs are not automatically configured. For more information on ECPs, see "Extended Capabilities Port Support" later in this chapter. 

  • If your printer uses font cartridges, you will also need to install the fonts on your computer. For information on installing fonts, see "Installing Fonts" later in this chapter. 

Network Considerations

The following are considerations for printing on a corporate network:

  • To share a printer on either Microsoft or NetWare networks, the print server must be running a 32-bit, protected-mode client, and file and printer sharing services must be enabled. For information, see Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing." 

  • With Point and Print, users can install a network printer if the print server has been configured with the correct printer drivers. You need to designate which network servers will function as print servers and configure them to store Point and Print information. For information on Point and Print, see "Remote Installation Using Point and Print" later in this chapter. 

The following are specific considerations for printing on NetWare networks:

  • To use Point and Print with NetWare servers, you must decide which print servers will store printer driver files. You can store pointers in the NetWare bindery to the print servers that have printer drivers installed on them. For information, see "Remote Installation Using Point and Print" later in this chapter. 

How the Printing Subsystem Works

This section presents detailed information about the Windows 98 printing subsystem.

Bidirectional Communication

Through bidirectional parallel communication, Windows 98 detects Plug and Play–compliant printers that return device ID values (as described in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [IEEE] specification 1284). This feature allows applications to directly query printers to determine their physical attributes.

Bidirectional communication provides the benefit of configuring printer driver settings on the print server without user intervention. The printer driver can automatically determine how much memory the printer has, what device fonts are available.

Bidirectional communication also allows printers to send unsolicited messages, such as "out of paper" or "printer offline," to Windows 98 and to applications. Bidirectional communication also makes possible much more detailed status reporting on a wider variety of information, such as low toner conditions, paper jams, maintenance needs, and so on.

To use bidirectional printing, you must have the following:

  • A bidirectional printer. 

  • An IEEE 1284 – compliant cable (a cable that has "1284" printed on it). 

Extended Capabilities Port Support

An extended capabilities port (ECP) provides high-speed printing. Support for ECP and ECP devices is included in Windows 98. If you have an ECP, you can connect either ECP or non-ECP devices to the port. In either case, using an ECP improves I/O performance.

Enhanced Metafile Spooling

In Windows 98, all output to non-PostScript printers spools as enhanced metafiles (EMFs). By contrast, output to PostScript printers spools as PostScript-language raw printer data. Programs print using EMFs as much as twice as fast as raw printer data.

EMFs include instructions about how a document is to be printed. For example, if a document contains a solid black rectangle, the EMF contains a command to draw a rectangle with the given dimensions and then fill it in with a solid color, using the color black. Figure 11.2 shows how Windows 98 spools EMFs when printing from a Windows-based application.

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Figure 11.2 Enhanced metafile spooling in Windows 98 

EMF information is generated by the Graphics Device Interface (GDI) before spooling. After the GDI creates the EMF, control is returned to the application. The 32-bit printing subsystem spooler interprets the EMF in a background thread and sends the information to the printer driver. This returns control to the application faster than waiting for the printer driver to interpret all printer calls directly.

Printing Support for MS-DOS-based Applications

In Windows 98, MS-DOS-based applications spool directly to the 32-bit Windows 98 print spooler. This support is integrated into a print spooler virtual device, which takes the output destined for a printer port and places it in the Windows 98 print spooler before sending the data to the printer. This functionality works with all existing MS-DOS-based applications and results in quicker return-to-application time.

Although MS-DOS-based applications do not benefit from EMF spooling, users will not encounter device contention issues, and will instead experience smoother background printing and improved printing performance.

Printer Drivers

The Windows 98 device driver model makes it easy for printer manufacturers to create drivers for their printers. The printer driver model is composed of two parts: a universal driver and a minidriver. The universal printer driver, supplied by Windows 98, communicates with the other parts of the operating system and includes information pertinent to all printers. Between the universal printer driver and the printers are minidrivers, written by printer manufacturers, that transmit information between the universal printer driver and a specific make and model of printer. These minidrivers are installed when you add a local or network printer. Figure 11.3 illustrates the Windows 98 printer driver model.

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Figure 11.3 The Windows 98 printer driver model 

Microsoft cooperates with printer manufacturers to ensure the compatibility of minidrivers. Microsoft worked closely with Adobe Systems, for example, to develop the PostScript driver. The following sections describe the universal printer driver and the PostScript driver included with Windows 98.

Universal Printer Driver

The Windows 98 universal printer driver supports mainstream page description languages, including HP page composition language (PCL), Epson ESC P/2, Canon CaPSL, Lexmark PPDS, monochrome HP GL/2, and most of the older dot-matrix technologies.

The universal printer driver fully supports device-resident Intellifont and TrueType scalable device fonts. It also supports downloading TrueType font outlines to HP PCL printers as bitmap soft fonts or as graphics, and supports character sets with more than 256 characters. For more information about fonts, see "Font Support in Windows 98" later in this chapter.

The universal printer driver includes the following:

  • Full 600 dots per inch (dpi) support, with support for future expandability to higher resolutions. 

  • Monochrome HP GL/2 support, providing full LaserJet 4 functionality. 

  • Generic Text support using TTY.drv. 

  • Support for Epson ESC P/2 raster graphics directly through the universal driver, rather than through minidrivers. 

  • Easy-to-use Properties dialog boxes for configuring printer driver settings. 

PostScript Driver

The PostScript driver included with Windows 98 offers the following features:

  • PostScript Level 2 support. This feature is automatically enabled for printers reporting as Level 2 from their PostScript printer description (PPD) file. 

  • Support for ICM 2.0. The PostScript driver allows the server to offload ICM to the PostScript processor to improve performance. This flexibility allows you to take advantage of image color management on either the printer or the server. For more information about image color management, see "Imaging Support in Windows 98" later in this chapter. 

  • Control over output data format. The PostScript driver supports CTRL+D handling, Binary Communications Protocol (BCP), Tagged Binary Communications Protocol (TBCP), and pure binary (8-bit) channels (AppleTalk). 

  • Support for PPD version 4.2 files. These are ASCII files that contain printer model information that drivers and other software retrieve in order to control a PostScript printer. These files cannot be edited. For compatibility, Windows Printer Description (WPD) files are still supported. 

  • Support for Simplified Printer Description (SPD) files. When a printer is installed, Windows 98 reads the PPD file for each PostScript printer and creates an SPD file, which is a simplified version of the PPD file containing only information used by the Windows 98 PostScript driver. 

    Note Windows 98 does not support editing of PPD, SPD, or INF files. If you need to change these files, contact Adobe Systems. 

  • Tracking of PostScript virtual memory availability in the printer. This allows you to print more complex documents. 

  • Easy-to-use Properties dialog boxes for configuring printer driver settings. 

  • Support for installable device options, as described in the PPD file, through the user interface. 

Installing and Configuring Printers

You can install printers in Windows 98 in the following ways:

  • After Setup using the Add Printer Wizard. 

  • During Setup when using custom setup scripts, as described in Appendix D, "Msbatch.inf Parameters for Setup Scripts." 

  • With Point and Print. 

  • With Plug and Play. 

If you are upgrading from an earlier version of Windows, Windows 98 Setup automatically migrates all previously installed printers.

Standard Installation Using the Add Printer Wizard

Windows 98 provides the Add Printer Wizard to simplify installing printers, and a central place — the Printers folder — for running the wizard and for managing printing processes. You can open the Printers folder in the following ways:

  • From the Start menu, point to Settings, and then click Printers

  • In My Computer, double-click Printers. 

  • In Control Panel, double-click Printers. 

To install a printer with the Add Printer Wizard.
  • In the Printers folder, double-click Add Printer. The Add Printer Wizard leads you though the process of setting up and configuring a printer. 

    The only difference between installing a network printer and a local printer with the Add Printer Wizard is that you must specify the path to the network printer or browse to find its network location. 

Printing from the Active Desktop

Once you have installed a printer, you can create a shortcut to it on your Active Desktop. This enables you to quickly print a document by simply dragging it onto the shortcut you create.

To print a document from the Active Desktop
  1. On the Start menu, point to Settings, and then click Printers

  2. Right-click the printer's icon and drag it onto the Active Desktop. 

  3. Click Create Shortcut(s) Here

  4. Drag a document from My Documents, Windows Explorer, or My Computer onto the printer shortcut on your Active Desktop. 

Remote Installation Using Point and Print

Point and Print allows users to install a printer over a network by providing printer driver information. A user "points" to a print server in one of three ways:

  • By using the Add Printer Wizard and browsing to or typing the path of the print server. 

  • By typing the path of the print server in the Run dialog box on the Start menu. 

  • By opening the print server's print queue using Network Neighborhood or Windows Explorer. 

The type of information retrieved depends on the type of print server to which you connect and can include the following:

  • Printer driver files. 

  • The name of the server on which printer driver files are stored. 

  • Printer model information, which specifies which printer driver to retrieve from the Windows directory on a local computer or on the network. 

Configuring a Windows 98 Print Server for Point and Print

A computer running Windows 98 can function as a print server by providing printer drivers and settings (such as paper size, memory, and page orientation) to another computer running Windows 98. You must share the printer, enabling file and print sharing services for either Microsoft networks or NetWare networks. You can apply user-level security to the shared printer. For information, see Chapter 9, "Security," and Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing."

Configuring a Windows NT Print Server for Point and Print

A computer running Windows 98 can connect to a Windows NT print server to retrieve Point and Print information. The printer model name on the Windows NT print server must be the same as the printer model name in the Windows 98 INF files. If the printer model names are the same, Windows 98 installs the printer driver files from the directory on the local computer or network location from which Windows 98 was installed. If these names are not the same, Windows 98 prompts you for the printer model. Windows 98 cannot retrieve the printer settings from a Windows NT print server, so you need to adjust printer settings, such as paper size, on the computer running Windows 98.

A Microsoft Windows NT Client Access License is required if the computer running Windows 98 will be connecting to print servers running Windows NT Server. For information, see Chapter 16, "Windows 98 on Microsoft Networks," or contact your Microsoft reseller.

Configuring a NetWare Print Server for Point and Print

A client computer running Windows 98 can connect to an appropriately configured NetWare print server to retrieve printer driver files. You can configure a NetWare print server to store printer driver files in the NetWare bindery or the Novell Directory Services (NDS) directory tree, or to store references in the bindery or directory tree to other print servers that store the printer drivers. To configure the NetWare print server for the bindery, you must have Supervisor privileges on the server, and the client computer must be running Client for NetWare Networks. You must also have Supervisor privileges to the Root object on the NDS tree the first time you implement Point and Print on that NDS tree. However, you do not need Supervisor privileges for subsequent implementations of Point and Print on that NDS tree.

When requested, the NetWare print server automatically copies the printer drivers to the specified path on the client computer running Windows 98. You should specify the printer driver path before you specify a model name. Because printer settings cannot be retrieved from a NetWare print server, you need to adjust printer settings, such as paper size, on the computer running Windows 98.

To configure the NetWare 3.x server for Point and Print using the Microsoft Client for NetWare Networks
  1. Log on as Supervisor. 

  2. On the Desktop, right-click Network Neighborhood, and then click Find Computer

  3. In the Find Computer dialog box, type the name of the print server, and then click Find Now. Double-click its icon in the Name list box. 

  4. In the print server's dialog box, right-click the icon for the printer, and then click Point and Print Setup

  5. In the context menu, click Set Driver Path

  6. Type the universal naming convention (UNC) path (in the form \\server\volume\directory) for the driver files. For example:

    \\novsvr\sys\drivers\epson24
    
  7. Right-click the Printer icon, and then click Point and Print Setup

  8. In the context menu, click Set Printer Model

  9. In the Select dialog box, click the printer manufacturer in the Manufacturers list and the printer in the Models list. Click OK

To configure the NetWare 3.x server for Point and Print using the Microsoft Service for NDS
  1. On the Desktop, double click Network Neighborhood, and then right-click the printer you want to configure. 

  2. Click Properties, and then click the Point and Print Setup tab. 

    Note To use the Point and Print Setup tab, you must be a trustee for the printer object. You must also have the Supervisor Object and Supervisor Property rights for the printer. 

  3. Click Enable Point and Print

  4. In the text box, type the UNC path to a directory where the drivers are stored. Make sure you have Write access to this folder, and that your users have Read access to it. 

  5. Click Set Printer Model, and then select the appropriate driver from the list of manufacturers and models. 

  6. Click OK to apply the changes and copy the files to the server. 

Installing a NetWare Printer with Point and Print

After you have configured the NetWare print server to store Point and Print information, you can connect to a printer on the NetWare print server using the following procedure.

To use Point and Print to connect to a NetWare printer
  1. In Network Neighborhood, double-click the NetWare server icon. 

  2. Drag the print queue from the NetWare server window to your Printers folder. 

  3. Follow the online instructions. The Add Printer Wizard prompts you to type a name for this printer. 

    Windows 98 automatically copies the files for the printer driver (including DRV, DLL, HLP, and other files, as needed) to the Windows System directory. 

Automatic Installation Using Plug and Play

For Plug and Play–compliant printers, all you need to do is plug the printer cable into a port, make sure the printer is turned on, and start Windows 98. The printer reports its device ID to Windows 98, which searches INF files to find the ID that matches the values reported by the printer, and then proceeds with installation in the following ways:

  • If an exact match is found, Windows 98 automatically installs the correct printer support. 

  • If an exact match is not found, but a compatible printer driver is found, Windows 98 displays a dialog box showing that the printer was found and that a compatible printer driver is available. You can then provide a disk containing a Windows 98 printer driver that is an exact match or ask Windows 98 to install the compatible driver it has found. 

    If you do not want Windows 98 to install a driver at all, you still need to walk through the wizard, however you can tell it to look for an existing driver (related to a device other than your printer). When the wizard displays the final dialog box, you will get the message "Windows has not installed a driver for this device…Unknown Device." You can click Finish at this point to complete the wizard. Windows 98 automatically determines the best printer driver to use. 

Additional Printer Support

This section describes additional software tools supplied with Windows 98 to support printing from several commonly used third-party network print servers.

Using the Hewlett-Packard JetAdmin Utility

Windows 98 includes the latest version (2.54) of the Hewlett-Packard JetAdmin utility, an administrative tool used to install and configure HP printers connected to a network using an HP JetDirect print server. This new version supports the latest printer models from HP. The HP JetAdmin utility lets you:

  • Set up a new interface and printer or change an existing configuration. 

  • Modify printer settings. 

  • Configure the HP JetDirect interface and printer. 

  • Add or remove print queues. 

  • Select drivers to install and assign Windows 98 printer drivers to a network printer. 

  • Select the printer operating mode and set the printer description. 

For more information about this product, see HP JetAdmin Help.

Installing JetAdmin 2.54 from the Compact Disc

You install JetAdmin 2.54 from the Windows 98 compact disc. It is located in the Drivers\Printers\Jetadmin directory. The installation instructions are in the Jareadme.txt file in the Disk1 folder of this directory.

Note Before installing this version of JetAdmin, you should remove any previous versions from your computer. To do so, in Control Panel, click Add/Remove Programs, and then select the previous version of JetAdmin that you want to remove.

Using the Microsoft Remote Procedure Call Print Provider

A Windows 98 client computer can obtain complete information about print jobs from a Windows NT print server by using the Microsoft Remote Procedure Call (RPC) Print Provider utility supplied with Windows 98. The Microsoft RPC Print Provider provides the full set of Win32 APIs required for a Windows 98 client computer to administer printer queues on a Windows NT server.

The Microsoft RPC Print Provider is located on the Microsoft Windows 98 Resource Kit compact disc in the Netadmin\Rpcpp folder. For instructions on installing and using this utility, right-click the Rpcpp.txt file in that folder, and then follow the instructions.

Printing Documents

In Windows 98, you can print documents in three ways.

To print a document
  • If the document is open, on the File menu, click Print

    – Or – 

    If the document is not open, right-click the document in Windows Explorer, and then click Print

    – Or – 

    Drag the document icon onto the printer icon in the Printers folder or on your Active Desktop. 

Tip To create a printer icon on your Active Desktop, use the right mouse button to drag a printer's icon from the Printers folder to the Active Desktop, and then click Create Shortcut(s) Here on the pop-up menu.

With the Microsoft protected-mode network clients and networks from other vendors supporting UNC paths, you no longer need a physical redirection to a network printer in order to print.

Some 16-bit applications do not work with UNC printer names. If you use a network client that does not support UNC connections, or if you need to have a redirected LPT port to support printing from a particular application, you can still make a connection to a printer by using the appropriate network commands (such as net use lpt1: \\server\printer or capture lpt1:).

To change printer settings
  1. On the Start menu, point to Settings, and then click Printers

    – Or – 

    In Control Panel, double-click Printers. 

  2. Right-click the printer icon, and then in the context menu, click Properties

Managing Printer Queues

You can use the Print Queue dialog box to manage printer queues and print jobs remotely. For example, if you have administrative privileges for a printer, you can pause and purge printer queues; users can pause or purge their own print jobs.

To view documents waiting to be printed
  • In the Printers folder or on the Active Desktop, click the icon for the printer. 

    This shows the print queue and the print jobs it contains. 

Deferred Printing Support

Windows 98 supports deferred printing to network printers. If a network printer is not available, a user can still generate the print job, which is stored on the user's computer for later printing. This feature is useful when a portable computer has been removed from its docking station, when working at a remote site, or when a network printer connection is temporarily lost because of network or printer problems.

If a network printer is not available, or if a portable computer has been removed from its docking station, that printer icon will be dimmed, and that printer will be set to work offline. Any jobs printed to that printer are stored on the user's hard disk.

You can set any printer in the Printers folder to work offline using the following procedure.

To prepare for deferred print jobs
  1. On the Start menu, point to Settings, and then click Printers

    – Or – 

    In Control Panel, double-click Printers. 

  2. Right-click the printer icon, and then click Use Printer Offline. The printer will be dimmed. 

Imaging Support in Windows 98

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Windows 98 includes extensive new features for color management and still imaging.

Image Color Matching (ICM) 2.0 support. New ICM 2.0 standards ensure the integrity and consistency of colors, from source to display to output WYSIWYG. ICM 2.0 also has a faster default Color Management Module (CMM); supports up to eight channel color spaces, including RGB, sRGB, and CMYK; and provides flexible profile management APIs.

Images from TWAIN-compliant devices. You can now acquire images from TWAIN-compliant input devices, such as scanners or still image digital cameras, directly into TWAIN-compliant applications, such as Microsoft Picture It! The new architecture ensures communication between applications and input devices.

Still imaging architecture and device support. Windows 98 includes a new architecture for still image devices. The Windows 98 still imaging architecture (STI) enables device manufacturers to enhance the user's experience with still image devices. STI-compliant devices appear in Control Panel upon installation. The devices' Properties provide for device configuration and testing.

Image Color Matching 2.0 Support

Image Color Matching (ICM) 2.0 ensures the consistency and integrity of colors throughout the publishing process. Figure 11.4 outlines a typical publishing process.

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Figure 11.4 The publishing process 

In this process, images captured from input devices, such as scanners and still image digital cameras, are brought together in editing and composition applications, such as Imaging for Windows by Eastman Kodak, and Microsoft Picture It! Graphic designers use a variety of tools and proofing systems to simulate the final output, which can take the form of film plates for delivery to commercial printing presses, output to a color printer, or graphics for the Internet or corporate intranet.

ICM 2.0 ensures the consistent reproduction of colors throughout this process. When you scan or otherwise acquire an image from an input device, ICM 2.0 maintains the image's original color mapping, from display and editing in applications through printed or electronic output. In other words, ICM 2.0 ensures that the original image colors are accurately interpreted by an input device, displayed on a monitor, and output to a printed or electronic format.

Input devices must either provide an International Color Consortium (ICC) color profile with an acquired image or output sRGB, using the sRGB profile provided by Windows 98. This ensures that display and output devices can properly interpret the color characteristics of the acquired image. Monitors must also include their own color profile, as must printer and other output devices. All components must have an associated color profile so that ICM can manage the color continuity throughout the entire image editing process.

For detailed information about ICM 2.0, see "Technical Notes on Imaging" later in this chapter.

TWAIN Support

TWAIN is an industry-standard software protocol and API that provides easy integration of image data between input devices, such as scanners and still image digital cameras, and software applications. Using TWAIN, Windows 98 and Windows NT 5.0 share the same APIs and architecture for supporting input devices.

Communicating with TWAIN

TWAIN enables users to acquire images directly from an input device while within a TWAIN-compliant application. Hardware vendors can write a single TWAIN-compliant driver for a device, which can then be used by all TWAIN-compliant applications to acquire images. Figure 11.5 presents a simple overview of the relationship between input devices and applications using TWAIN.

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Figure 11.5 TWAIN architectural overview 

Figure 11.5 uses a four-layer protocol to illustrate how applications and input devices communicate using TWAIN. Table 11.1 outlines the four-layer protocol and its function.

Table 11.1 TWAIN architectural layer functions 

Architectural layer

Function

User's application

Represents the user's application, such as Microsoft Picture It!, used to scan or otherwise acquire an image from a TWAIN-compliant input device, such as a scanner or still image digital camera.. The application requesting an image sends the request to the TWAIN data source.

TWAIN data source

Implements instructions and communications required for transferring the image.

Device driver

Represents the input device.
The software elements that control acquisitions, called data sources, reside in this layer. A data source is typically a TWAIN-compliant driver written by a hardware vendor to get data from a hardware device and pass it to a TWAIN-compliant application.

Still image device

Represents a physical input device, such as a scanner or still image digital camera.

For a more detailed schematic and discussion of TWAIN's implementation in the Windows 98 STI, see "Technical Notes on Imaging" later in this chapter.

Acquiring Images from within TWAIN-Compliant Applications

TWAIN-compliant applications present two commands on the File menu for acquiring images from TWAIN-compliant input devices: Select Source, and Acquire or Scan.

The Select Source command allows a user to select a specific input device from which to acquire the image. The Select Source dialog box lets the user select from the available input devices.

The Acquire or Scan command begins the process of transferring image data from the selected or default input device to the application. When a user selects this command, a TWAIN-compliant input device will display that device's user interface, allowing the user to configure device-specific options.

Support for Scanners and Still Image Devices

The Windows 98 STI incorporates ICM 2.0 and TWAIN APIs to provide broad support for a variety of still image devices, including physical devices such as scanners and still image digital cameras, and logical devices, such as an image database.

You can now use Plug and Play to install physical devices easily. You can also install, configure, and test specific devices using the new Scanners and Cameras option or the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel. You can install still image devices from serial, parallel, SCSI, and universal serial bus (USB) ports.

Note The Scanners and Cameras option in Control Panel does not appear until you have installed a Plug and Play–compliant still image device or installed a still image device using the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel.

The new still imaging architecture provides simple, seamless transfer of image data between still image devices and applications. You can select input devices, configure device options, and acquire images directly from within any TWAIN-compliant authoring application, or from within any TWAIN-compliant editing application, such as Adobe PhotoShop. For more information about the still imaging architecture, navigate to http://www.microsoft.com/hwdev/tech/default.asp and follow the link for "WDM Still Image Architecture."

For a detailed schematic and discussion of the still imaging architecture, see "Technical Notes on Imaging" later in this chapter.

Win32 Driver Model

The new Win32 Driver Model (WDM) defines a device-driver architecture that provides a common set of I/O services understood by both Windows 98 and future versions of Windows NT. With WDM, developers writing drivers for scanners and still image digital cameras can write a single bus driver or device driver for both operating systems.

For information about support for still imaging devices and drivers in WDM, see Chapter 30, "Hardware Management."

Installing Devices

Windows 98 uses a new INF format for installing still image devices. You can install a scanner, still image digital camera, or other physical still image device in the following ways:

  • Using Plug and Play. 

  • Using the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel or the new Scanners and Cameras option in Control Panel. 

Installing Plug and Play Devices

For Plug and Play–compliant still image devices, all you need to do is plug the device into the appropriate port and start Windows 98. The device reports its device ID to Windows 98, which searches INF files to find the ID that matches the values reported by the device.

  • If the device ID matches, Windows 98 automatically installs the correct drivers and support for the device. 

    If the device ID does not match, but a compatible driver is found, Windows 98 displays a New Hardware Found dialog box showing that information. You can then:

    • Provide a disk containing the device manufacturer's INF file. 

    • Instruct Windows 98 to install the compatible driver it has found. 

    • Instruct Windows 98 not to install a driver at all. 

Installing non – Plug and Play Devices Using the Installation Wizard

You can install non – Plug and Play still image devices using the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel, or using the new Scanners and Cameras option in Control Panel.

If you have previously installed a still image device, click the Scanners and Cameras option in Control Panel to install the new device, and then respond to the wizard.

If you have not previously installed a still image device, there is no Scanners and Cameras option in Control Panel. Instead, click the Add New Hardware option, and then respond to the Add New Hardware Wizard to add the still image device. When the wizard prompts you, supply the location (on a floppy disk, compact disc, or network server) of the INF file provided by the device's manufacturer.

Configuring Devices

You can use the Scanners and Cameras option in Control Panel to configure device-specific options (such as the default size or resolution for scanned images) for an installed still image device. Select the device you want to configure, and then specify options on the Properties tab for that device.

Testing Devices

You can use the Scanners and Cameras option in Control Panel to test a still image device's installation and operation (for example, to calibrate a scanner or scan a test page).

Associating Applications with Device Events

The Windows 98 still image architecture allows you to associate events from a still image device with applications. For example, you can associate data transfer from a scanner with Kodak Imaging. When you begin scanning an image, the still image architecture starts Kodak Imaging and transfers the image data to Kodak Imaging automatically.

To associate applications with device events, use the Events tab of the new Scanners and Cameras option in Control Panel.

Technical Notes on Imaging

This section discusses technical issues about still imaging support in Windows 98.

Image Color Matching 2.0

Image Color Matching (ICM) 2.0 enhances the functionality and performance of ICM 1.0, introduced in Windows 95, while maintaining compatibility. ICM 2.0 supports all of ICM 1.0's capabilities and extends them to include:

  • Support for sRGB as the default color space for images without embedded ICC profiles or specifically tagged color information. 

  • Support for more color spaces, such as CMYK and CIELAB, a theoretical color space defined by the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage. 

  • Support for up to eight color channels for enhanced printing processes, such as HiFi Color. 

  • A faster, higher-quality default Color Management Module (CMM) and support for multiple CMMs. 

  • Cross-platform compatibility through ICC profiles and the ability to define custom profiles. 

With ICM 2.0, applications can support either of two levels of API — one for RGB and one for multiple color spaces. This allows users to manage different device profiles and select alternate CMMs. Figure 11.6 illustrates the architecture of the ICM 2.0 API.

Cc768181.wrk0p10(en-us,TechNet.10).gif 

Figure 11.6 ICM 2.0 architectural overview 

For detailed information and specifications on ICM 2.0, visit the Microsoft SDK Web site at http://www.microsoft.com/msdn/sdk/ .

TWAIN

Hardware vendors can write only one TWAIN-compliant driver for a device, from that device which is then used by all TWAIN-compliant applications when acquiring images. Application developers no longer need to write and support device-specific drivers. Figure 11.7 presents a detailed schematic of the relationship between TWAIN-compliant input devices and applications in the Windows 98 still imaging architecture (STI).

Cc768181.wrk0p11(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

Figure 11.7 TWAIN implementation in the Windows 98 still imaging architecture 

Figure 11.7 uses the following four general groupings of components to illustrate how TWAIN-compliant applications and input devices communicate. Following are descriptions of these components:

  • The top component contains 16-bit and 32-bit TWAIN-compliant applications, such as Microsoft Picture It! These applications communicate with input devices through the TWAIN Source Manager and TWUNKERs. A TWUNKER is a virtual device that allows communications between 32-bit and 16-bit applications. 

  • The next component level, the TWAIN Source Manager and TWUNKERs, use TWAIN APIs to provide communication between applications and TWAIN-compliant data sources, such as input devices and drivers. The TWAIN Source Manager is implemented as a Windows DLL that can manage simultaneous sessions between multiple applications and multiple input devices. The 16-32 and 32-16 TWUNKERs translate commands and data between 16-bit and 32-bit applications. 

  • The TWAIN data sources are essentially 16-bit and 32-bit drivers for TWAIN-compliant input devices provided by hardware vendors. These drivers enable Plug and Play installation of input devices and configuration of device-specific options. 

  • Finally, the still image minidriver represents STI APIs and low-level device minidrivers that convert device-specific commands into hardware commands and actions. 

For more detailed information and specifications on TWAIN, visit the TWAIN Working Group Web site at http://www.twain.org/ .

Still Imaging Architecture

Windows 98 supports physical still image devices, such as flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, handheld scanners, and still image digital cameras, as well as such logical devices as image databases.

Figure 11.8 provides a detailed schematic of the still imaging architecture in Windows 98.

Cc768181.wrk0p12(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

Figure 11.8 The Windows 98 still image architecture (STI) 

The following discussion describes each of these components.

TWAIN or other API. This component represents the TWAIN or other API that acquires and interprets data from still image devices.

ICM 2.0 API. The ICM 2.0 API maintains device color profiles and provides for color space conversion. To define color output from a scanned image, a scanner must either create sRGB output or embed the ICC profile for the image into the image file. A scanner can create sRGB output in two ways:

  • The scanner data source has a proprietary system that corrects from the scanner color space to sRGB. This method is not flexible and requires additional code from the scanner manufacturer that may not be as good as, and may not be compatible with, the method that the operating system uses to generate colors. 

  • The scanner data source calls into ICM, passes ICM the appropriate scanner profile, and points it to the sRGB profile. ICM then generates sRGB output that the device can pass onto the application. 

Still image control panel. This component represents the Scanners and Cameras option in Control Panel. The Scanners and Cameras option lets you install, remove, and test still image devices. You can also associate specific still image device events with the applications to be notified of these events. The Scanners and Cameras option does not appear in Control Panel until you have installed a Plug and Play–compliant still image device or installed a still image device using the Add New Hardware option in Control Panel.

Still image event monitor. This component works behind the scenes to detect events coming from still image devices and dispatch those events to the still image control center.

Still image control center. This component determines how events initiated by still image devices are distributed to applications. The Scanners and Cameras option in Control Panel lets you configure specific device event or application associations.

Still image device driver interface (DDI). This component provides communications with a specific still image device, including enumeration, device capabilities, data and command I/O, and notification of device events, including polling for device activity. The still image DDI uses ICM 2.0 as a repository for a given device's color profile.

The still image DDI provides support for SCSI, parallel, serial, IR, and USB devices. Support for IEEE 1394 and multifunction peripherals (MFP) devices is also incorporated using the Win32 Driver Model (WDM).

User-mode minidrivers. These components are supplied by still image device manufacturers to implement device-specific DDI functionality (such as test, status, and data I/O). They inform the DDI of the device's capabilities and communicate with the specific kernel device driver.

WDM still image drivers. These components use the new Win32 Driver Model to provide a mechanism for packaging a command or data for delivery on a USB or SCSI bus.

Font Support in Windows 98

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Fonts are used to print text, display text on screen, and send text to other output devices. Windows 98 provides a set of Win32-based functions that developers can use to install, select, and query different fonts.

Understanding Fonts

Windows 98 provides four basic kinds of fonts, which are categorized according to how the fonts are rendered for screen or print output:

  • TrueType fonts are stored as mathematical models that define the outline of each character. They are much easier to work with than vector fonts because they appear the same on the screen as they do on the printed page. TrueType fonts can be scaled and rotated. 

    You can distinguish TrueType fonts by the "TT" designation. Fonts without this designation are bitmap fonts. 

  • Raster fonts are stored in files as bitmaps and are rendered as an array of dots for displaying on the screen and printing on paper. Raster fonts cannot be cleanly scaled or rotated. 

  • Vector fonts are rendered from a mathematical model, in which each character is defined as a set of lines drawn between points. Vector fonts can be scaled to any size or aspect ratio. Windows 98 provides one vector font (Modern.fon) to ensure backward compatibility with plotter devices. It is installed in the \Windows\Fonts folder as a hidden file. 

  • OpenType fonts can be used with PostScript outlines only if you have installed Adobe Type Manager (ATM) on your computer. For information about obtaining and installing ATM, contact Adobe Systems. 

Table 11.2 shows the types of fonts that can be printed on different kinds of printers.

Table 11.2 Printer and font compatibility

Printer type

Device fonts

Raster fonts

Vector fonts

TrueType fonts

Dot matrix

X

X

X

HP PCL

X

X

X

PostScript

X

X

X

Plotter

X

X

Font File Names and File Types

Raster and vector font files have .fon file name extensions. TrueType font files have .ttf file name extensions.

In Windows 98, information in the registry points to a single TTF file for TrueType fonts. In addition, Windows 98 includes a hidden file named Ttfcache that contains FOT type data for TrueType fonts to ensure backward compatibility with Windows 3.1. There are two files for each TrueType font in Windows 3.1: the FOT file contains a relatively short header with pointer information, and the TTF file contains the actual font data.

How Windows 98 Loads Fonts

In Windows 98, the locations for all fonts are stored only in the registry. Fonts are moved automatically when an application created for an earlier version of Windows installs a new font in the [fonts] section of Win.ini.

When Windows 98 starts, it loads the raster fonts and TrueType fonts listed in the registry. Following are descriptions of these components:

  • The raster fonts are resolution-dependent and are listed in the registry key named Hkey_Current_Config \Display \Fonts. This supports multiple docking scenarios for portable computers in which there can be a different resolution on the LCD screen from the one on the docking station. The master list of all possible resolutions for raster fonts is stored in the registry under the following key: 

    Hkey_Local_Machine \Software \Microsoft \Windows \CurrentVersion \Fontsize 

  • The TrueType fonts are loaded from the location specified in the following key: 

    Hkey_Local_Machine \Software \Microsoft \Windows \CurrentVersion \Fonts 

Printer drivers, which are loaded later in the startup process, look in Win.ini to load any available soft fonts. These fonts appear within an application's list of available fonts.

Note You can install approximately 1,000 TrueType fonts in Windows 98. Almost all of the installed fonts can be used simultaneously, and the same number can be printed in the same document. The 1,000-font maximum occurs because of the size of registry keys and available storage space for font names in the Graphics Device Interface (GDI).

How Windows 98 Matches Fonts

Windows 98 uses three methods of font matching: table mapping, numeric classification, and manual.

Basic Rules for Font Matching

When an application requests characters to print or display, Windows 98 must find the appropriate font to use from among the fonts installed on your computer. Finding the font can be complex. For example, a document might contain fonts that are not available on the current printer, or there may be more than one font with the same name installed on the computer.

Windows 98 uses the following basic rules for matching a font:

  • If the font is a TrueType font, TrueType renders the character, and the result is sent to the display or to the printer. 

  • If the font is not a TrueType font, Windows 98 uses the font mapping table to determine the most appropriate device font to use. 

Font Mapping Table

When Windows 98 uses the font mapping table to match screen fonts to printer fonts, the characteristics used to find the closest match are, in descending order of importance: the character set, the pitch (variable versus fixed), family, typeface name, height, width, weight, slant, underline, and strikethrough. If the necessary size and bitmap are available, font mapping proceeds in the following sequence:

  1. Use the font found in the printer's ROM. 

  2. Use the font found in the printer's cartridge slot. 

  3. Use the downloadable soft font. 

  4. Use the TrueType font. 

Note The Windows 98 search algorithm for finding fonts is the same as the one in Windows 95 and Windows 3.1.

Manual Matching

You can manually choose from among fonts by comparing their similarities in the Fonts folder.

To manually match fonts
  1. In Control Panel, double-click Fonts. 

  2. Click the View menu, and then click List Fonts By Similarity

    In general, if you choose a TrueType font, Windows 98 sorts the list of fonts in descending order, with the least similar font listed last. 

What Happens if a TrueType Font Becomes Corrupted?

If a TrueType font becomes corrupted, Windows 98 marks that font as unavailable during the remainder of that Windows session and prevents it from being rendered any longer. You can choose to uninstall the font at that point.

Installing Fonts

In Windows 98, fonts are installed on your computer in several ways:

  • Windows 98 automatically installs its screen fonts and TrueType fonts during Setup. 

  • Some applications install soft fonts on your computer as part of the application Setup process. 

  • You can install additional TrueType or other soft fonts from disks or network locations. 

  • You can install printer-resident fonts and cartridge fonts using the printer's Properties sheets in the Printers folder. 

You can view the fonts installed on your computer by opening the Fonts option in Control Panel. The Fonts folder lets you view fonts, compare fonts by similarity, and install new fonts from disks or network locations.

You can remove fonts by dragging their font icons from the Fonts folder to the Recycle Bin.

For more information about adding fonts, in the Windows 98 Help index, search for adding fonts.

Installing Soft Fonts from Disks or Network Locations

You can use the following procedure to install soft fonts from disks or network locations.

Note If you are installing soft fonts from a disk that includes an installation utility supplied by the vendor, you may not need to use the following procedure. The installation utility may automatically install the fonts in Windows 98. Consult the documentation supplied by the vendor.

To install soft fonts from disks or a network location
  1. In Control Panel, double-click Fonts. 

  2. Click the File menu, and then click Install New Font

  3. In the Add Fonts dialog box, use the Folders and Drives boxes to specify the drive and folder containing the fonts you want to install. 

  4. In the List of fonts, select the fonts you want to install, and then click OK

Installing Printer-Resident and Cartridge Fonts

You can also install printer-resident or cartridge fonts by using the installation utility (such as HP JetAdmin) that came with the cartridge or printer, if any, or by using a printer's Properties sheets in the Printers folder.

To open the Printers folder
  • On the Start menu, point to Settings, and then click Printers

    – Or – 

    In Control Panel or My Computer, click the Printers option. 

To install printer-resident or cartridge fonts
  • Use the installation utility that came with the font cartridge or printer. 

    – Or – 

  1. In the Printers folder, right-click the printer's icon, and then in the shortcut menu, click Properties

  2. Click the Fonts tab. The options on the Fonts tab vary depending on the make and model of the printer, and whether any additional printer support software — such as HP JetAdmin — is installed on your computer. 

  3. Select from the list of fonts or font cartridges installed on the printer, and then click OK

    – Or – 

    Click the Install Printer Fonts or similar button, and then select the fonts you want to install. 

Troubleshooting Printing and Fonts

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This section describes the most common problems you might encounter with printing and fonts, and explains the best ways to resolve these problems.

Troubleshooting Printing

Windows 98 provides print troubleshooting topics in Help, which you should use first to resolve printing problems. In Windows 98 Help, select the Index tab, and then type print troubleshooting. If you cannot resolve the problem by using the print troubleshooting topics in Help, check the procedures in this section.

For information on specific printer models and printing problems, read the Printers.txt file in the \Windows directory. This document describes the latest printer models and troubleshooting issues for Windows 98.

Correcting Problems with Printer Installation

This section describes conditions that may interfere with installing a printer and explains how to fix them.

No printers are listed in the Print dialog box. 

If you cannot select a specific model because no list appears, verify that the printer INF file exists. The Msprintx.inf file in the Windows INF directory stores the information displayed in the Manufacturer and Model lists.

A file-copy error occurs during printer installation. 

If an error occurs with a file copying operation while running the Add Printer Wizard, the wizard displays the specific error information, including the source and destination paths and file names it was trying to copy when the error occurred. To continue, verify the location of the specified files, and then retry the installation.

Correcting Specific Printing Problems

This section describes problems or errors that might occur when printing and explains how to fix them.

You cannot print to a local or network printer. 

If you encounter this problem, do the following:

  • Clear the print buffer. Turn the printer's power off, wait about five seconds, turn the printer on, and then try printing again. 

  • Try printing a test page.

  • Verify that there is paper in the printer, the printer is not jammed, and there are no problems with the printer cartridge or toner. 

  • Try printing to a file. 

  • If you can print to a file, try copying the file to the printer port (for local printers). 

To copy a file to a printer port
  • At the MS-DOS prompt, type 

    copy /b filename lpt1:
    

    The switch /b directs the system to print a binary file. 

If copying the file to the printer port prints the document correctly, the problem is in the communication between Windows 98 and the printer. Check the following (and consult your printer's documentation as needed for further information):

  • Check the printer, making sure it is plugged in, turned on, and online. 

  • Check the printer's self-test program. 

  • Check the printer connection and printer cable. 

  • Check the printer configuration. 

You cannot print because of a network-specific printing problem. 

If you encounter this problem, do the following:

  • Make sure other network resources are available. 

  • Try connecting over the network to the print server. 

  • Try removing and adding network protocols. 

If you still cannot print, the printer driver might not be working correctly.

You cannot print because of a printer driver. 

If you encounter this problem, do the following:

  • Try printing using another printer driver. For example, use the Generic/Text Only Printer driver. If this works, check the version of your printer driver, and either reinstall or upgrade the driver. 

  • Try printing from the MS-DOS command prompt to determine whether the description for the printer driver in the registry is invalid. 

To check the printer driver
  1. In the Printers folder, right-click the printer's icon, click Properties, and then click the Details tab. 

  2. Verify that the driver name is correct. 

  3. Click the Paper tab, and then click the About button. Verify that the driver version is the same as the one listed in the manual from the printer manufacturer. 

To fix the registry description for the printer driver
  • Remove the current printer driver and reinstall it. 

If you still cannot print, an application might be conflicting with the printer driver.

You cannot print because of an application conflict. 

If you encounter this problem, do the following:

  1. Try printing from a different application. 

  2. If successful, check the failing application's configuration, and reinstall the application if needed. 

If you still cannot print, determine whether you have a spooling problem.

You cannot print because of spooler problems. 

To determine whether you have a spooling problem, print directly to the port.

To disable all spooling and print directly to the port
  1. In the Printers folder, right-click the printer's icon, click Properties, and then click the Details tab. 

  2. Click Spool Settings

  3. Click Print directly to the printer

You cannot print to a printer shared using a non-Microsoft print server. 

Redirect LPT1 to the shared printer, and then run the Add Printer Wizard to set up the printer on LPT1. For example, if a network printer is connected to LPT1, type the following at the MS-DOS prompt:

net use lpt1: \\servername\sharename 

This command depends on the network you are using. Consult your network documentation to find out how to redirect an LPT port, and then use the Add Printer Wizard in the Printers folder to set up the printer on the LPT port.

You cannot access remote NetWare servers when making a dial-up connection. 

This problem occurs when the computer making the remote connection is also running File and Print Sharing for NetWare Networks. In this case, the file and printer sharing service automatically becomes the default server, but it cannot receive the information needed to find the remote servers. To avoid this problem, disable File and Printer Sharing for NetWare Networks before you make the dial-up connection.

You cannot print because of a bidirectional printer problem. 

To disable bidirectional printing support
  1. In the Printers folder, right-click the printer's icon, click Properties, and then click the Details tab. 

  2. Click Spool Settings

  3. Click Disable bi-directional support for this printer. 

If you can now print successfully, make sure you have an IEEE 1284 – compliant printer cable.

Graphic images do not print correctly, or output is garbled. 

If you encounter this problem, do the following:

  • Disable enhanced metafile (EMF) spooling (see "Enhanced Metafile Spooling" earlier in this chapter). 

  • Print with a PostScript driver, if supported by the printer. If this prints, the problem is a Unidrv.dll error. 

  • If PostScript fails, there is either a problem with the GDI or with the application. To verify that it is an application problem, try printing another file, or try printing from another application. 

  • Try printing shorter jobs or fewer jobs at a time. If you are printing a long document or several documents, the spooler may be printing one page over another. 

  • If the graphic is in encapsulated PostScript (EPS) format, try copying the PostScript file to the printer. 

  • For a PostScript printer, try changing from vector-graphics to raster-graphics mode. Raster-graphics mode uses less memory. 

  • For a PostScript printer, try adjusting the virtual memory settings. 

Pages are only partially printed. 

If you encounter this problem, do the following:

  • If the printed page is missing part of a graphic image, this may mean that the printer has insufficient memory. To check for insufficient printer memory, try reducing print resolution. 

  • Try printing the same graphic image from a different document and application. 

  • Check the printable region by running a print test from the printer. 

  • If the printed page is missing a section of text, check the font that is used, and verify that the font is valid and correctly installed (check the Fonts option). 

  • Try printing from a different document with the same font. 

  • Try printing from the same document with a different font. 

  • Try enabling Print TrueType As Graphics in the Fonts tab of the printer's Properties sheet. 

  • Try simplifying the page by reducing the number of objects, such as lines, or reduce the number of fonts. 

Printing is slow. 

You can try the following:

  • Use the Disk Defragmenter utility to check for excessive hard disk fragmentation, and defragment the hard disk drive. 

  • Check for available disk space for temporary files. 

  • Check for available system resources. 

  • Check the printer driver and reinstall it, if necessary. 

  • Disable the option to send TrueType fonts as bitmaps, as described in the following procedure. 

To disable printing TrueType fonts as bitmaps
  1. In the Printers folder, right-click the printer's icon, and then click Properties

  2. Click the Fonts tab, click Print TrueType as Graphics, and then click OK

A PostScript printer does not have enough virtual memory. 

To change virtual memory settings for a PostScript printer
  1. In the Printers folder, right-click the printer's icon, and then click Properties

  2. Click the Device Options tab, and then increase the value in the Available printer memory (in KB) box. 

You cannot print more than 256 copies of a document. 

Some printers cannot print more than 256 copies of a document. Consult the documentation for your printer to determine the maximum number of copies it can print. This is a known limitation for the following printer models:

  • Canon Bubble-Jet BJ-230 

  • CoStar LabelWriter Pro 

  • HP LaserJet 4 

  • HP LaserJet 4MV PostScript 

  • HP LaserJet Series II 

The computer stalls while printing. 

To troubleshoot a computer that stalls while printing to a local printer
  1. Check the printer driver version, and reinstall the printer driver if needed. 

  2. Check the video driver, and reinstall the video driver if needed. 

  3. Check for adequate free disk space in the Temp folder. 

  4. Delete residual spool files, and then retry printing. (See the procedure "To clear residual spool files" later in this section.) 

You send a document to the printer, but nothing is printed. 

If you encounter this problem, do the following:

  • Check that the system has enough free hard disk space. 

  • If necessary, disable enhanced metafile spooling, as described in "Enhanced Metafile Spooling" earlier in this chapter. 

  • Check that the spooler has cleared the unprinted spool file. 

To clear residual spool files
  1. Delete spool jobs by deleting SPL files in the Windows System\Spool\Printers directory. 

  2. Check the Temp folder and delete all TMP files. All EMFs have file names similar to EMFxxxxx.tmp. 

  3. Restart the computer, and then try printing again. Windows 98 cleans up corrupted SPL files and their corresponding EMFs when you restart the computer. 

Troubleshooting Fonts

This section describes problems with fonts that may occur and explains how to fix them.

A font does not print correctly. 

To ensure that a font is installed correctly
  1. Double-click the Fonts option in Control Panel, and make sure the font is installed. 

  2. Double-click the font, and then click Print

You can also try the following:

  • Print using a different font. 

  • Print a different document using the same font. 

  • Print with a different application using the same font. 

  • Print to a different printer using the same font. 

  • Verify the printer driver version, size, and date. 

  • Try using a printer-resident font. 

  • Print to a file, and then copy the file to a port to see if the driver or the spooler is causing the problem. For example: 

    copy filename.prn /b lpt1:
    
  • If the printer supports PostScript and page composition language (PCL), try printing in each format. 

  • If the font is a TrueType font, open the printer's Properties sheet, and then on the Fonts tab, click Print TrueType As Graphics

  • Print with a different minidriver, such as the Generic/Text Only. 

When printed, a font appears distorted or unreadable. 

If you encounter this problem, do the following:

  • In the application, change to Print Preview mode to see if the font appears correct on-screen. 

  • Change the font size to see if the problem recurs with a larger or smaller font. 

  • Use a different font to see if the original font is corrupted. 

  • Check printer resolution. Most non-TrueType fonts are optimized for 300 dpi or greater. 

  • Cut and paste the formatted text into another application and print it. If the font errors still occur, the problem may be related to the specific font. 

  • Load a PostScript driver, and select Download As TrueType. If the job prints correctly, the problem lies in the printer driver or Unidrv.dll. Otherwise, the problem is probably in the GDI. 

  • Check printer memory. If there are many fonts on the page, you may need more memory. 

  • For a laser printer, in the Fonts tab of the printer's Properties, click Download TrueType fonts as bitmap soft fonts in the TrueType fonts box. 

When printed, fonts overlap. 

  • Try different resolutions, using the same printer. If a higher or lower print resolution works, the printer driver is probably at fault. Try using another printer driver. 

    Note If the problem persists with more than one printer driver, the problem is likely to be at the GDI level. 

  • For a laser printer, in the Fonts tab of the printer's Properties sheet, click Download TrueType Fonts as Bitmap Soft Fonts

  • Try printing the same information with a different font. 

A font does not print properly when underlined or strikethrough text is selected. 

  • Try a different application with the same font. 

  • Print in a different orientation (that is, if portrait, change to landscape). 

  • For a laser printer, in the Fonts tab of the printer's Properties sheet, click Download TrueType Fonts as Bitmap Soft Fonts

You cannot convert PostScript Type1 fonts to TrueType fonts in the Fonts folder. 

Windows 98 does not support this capability. PostScript Type1 fonts will work with Windows 98, but you need to install Adobe Type Manager to manage them on the screen and install them for a printer.

Fonts are clipped when printed. 

  • Recheck the printable region by running a print test from the printer. (There is usually a test button on the printer; press this to run a test.) Adjust the paper orientation if you can. 

  • For a laser printer, in the Fonts tab of the printer's Properties sheet, click Download TrueType Fonts as Bitmap Soft Fonts

  • Check the printer memory settings for the driver and printer. If you are printing large images, the printer memory may be insufficient; try printing small images. 

Some parts of a TrueType font are rotated, but other parts are not. 

  • If this occurs because the printer can only print 180-degree and 90-degree rotation (not odd-degree rotations), redefine the degrees of rotation for the image. 

  • For a laser printer, in the Fonts tab of the printer's Properties sheet, click Download TrueType Fonts as Bitmap Soft Fonts

  • If the problem is font-related, try using another character set, or download TrueType fonts to the printer, and then try again. 

TrueType fonts do not display in an MS-DOS window. 

Changing the displayed font to a TrueType font in an MS-DOS window sometimes does not change the font on the screen. TrueType fonts cannot be displayed in an MS-DOS window if the MS-DOS-based application is running in graphics mode. To work around this problem, run the MS-DOS-based application in text mode, and use bitmap fonts in the MS-DOS window.

To change the font used in an MS-DOS window
  1. In the MS-DOS window, click the MS-DOS icon in the upper-left corner of the window (or press ALT + SPACEBAR). 

  2. Click Properties, and then click the Font tab. 

  3. Under Available Types, click Both Font Types

  4. In the Font Size list, click the font size you want to display, and then click OK

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