Windows Server 2003 Glossary - R
Updated: March 7, 2008
Applies To: Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2003 with SP2
For more Windows Server terms, see the Windows Server 2008 Glossary.
Glossary - R
See other term: registration authority (RA)
See other term: Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
A fault-tolerant volume with data and parity striped intermittently across three or more physical disks. Parity is a calculated value that is used to reconstruct data after a failure. If a portion of a physical disk fails, Windows recreates the data that was on the failed portion from the remaining data and parity. You can create RAID-5 volumes only on dynamic disks on computers running the Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 families of operating systems. You cannot mirror or extend RAID-5 volumes. In Windows NT 4.0, a RAID-5 volume was known as a striped set with parity.
See also: dynamic disk dynamic volume fault tolerance parity volume
See other term: random access memory (RAM)
random access memory (RAM)
Memory that can be read from or written to by a computer or other devices. Information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off.
See also: virtual memory
Fonts that are stored as bitmaps. Raster fonts are designed with a specific size and resolution for a specific printer and cannot be scaled or rotated. If a printer does not support raster fonts, it will not print them. The five raster fonts are Courier, MS Sans Serif, MS Serif, Small, and Symbol. Also called bit-mapped fonts.
See also: font printer
A socket that provides direct access to lower-level network protocols.
See also: socket
read-only memory (ROM)
A semiconductor circuit that contains information that cannot be modified.
A set of security principles, in a non-Windows networked environment, that are subject to Kerberos authentication.
See also: Kerberos V5 authentication protocol
An identifying prefix or suffix appended to a user name to enable appropriate routing and authentication during a remote logon process.
See also: authentication routing user name
A trust between non-Windows Kerberos V5 realms, such as a UNIX realm, and Active Directory domains. Realm trusts can be transitive, nontransitive, one-way, or two-way.
See also: Active Directory domain Kerberos V5 authentication protocol nontransitive trust one-way trust realm transitive trust two-way trust
Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)
An Internet protocol for transporting real-time traffic over multicast and unicast network services.
See also: protocol unicast
A state used by DHCP clients to extend and renew their address lease when the current lease is close to expiring. In this state, the client broadcasts to the network to locate any DHCP server that can either renew or replace its currently leased configuration. The rebinding state begins when 87.5 percent of the client's lease time has elapsed.
See also: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) lease
Between a pair of replicating servers, the member that is receiving replicated content over a connection.
The process of making the client lease information stored in the DHCP server database consistent with a duplicate copy of this same information stored in the Windows registry. Using the DHCP Microsoft Management Console (MMC), reconciliation helps restore or recover the contents of the DHCP server database file, Dhcp.mdb, located by default in the %Systemroot%\System32\Dhcp folder.
See also: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) lease Microsoft Management Console (MMC) systemroot
For Message Queuing, a message that can be recovered no matter which computer fails, but that uses more resources and is slower than an express message.
See also: express message Message Queuing
A person who is issued a public key certificate for the purpose of recovering user data that is encrypted with Encrypting File System (EFS).
See also: Encrypting File System (EFS) public key
A command-line interface that provides a limited set of administrative commands that are useful for repairing a computer.
See also: NTFS file system
A type of public key Group Policy object (GPO) used by Encrypting File System (EFS) that provides for one or more user accounts to be designated as recovery agents.
See also: Encrypting File System (EFS) Group Policy object (GPO) public key recovery agent user account
A query made to a DNS server in which the requester asks the server to assume the full workload and responsibility for providing a complete answer to the query. The DNS server will then use separate iterative queries to other DNS servers on behalf of the requester to assist in completing an answer for the recursive query.
See also: DNS server iterative query recursive resolution
One of the two process types (iterative and recursive) for DNS name resolution. In this process, a resolver (a DNS client) will request that a DNS server provide a complete answer to a query that does not include pointers to other DNS servers. When a client makes a query and requests that the server use recursive resolution to answer, it effectively shifts the workload of resolving the query from the client to the DNS server. If the DNS server supports and uses recursive resolution, it contacts other DNS servers as necessary (using iterative queries on behalf of the client) until it obtains a definitive answer to the query. This type of resolution allows the client resolver to be small and simple.
See also: DNS server Domain Name System (DNS) iteration iterative query recursive query
The place in which Windows stores deleted files. You can retrieve files you deleted in error, or you can empty the Recycle Bin to create more disk space.
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
A method used to standardize and categorize fault-tolerant disk systems. RAID levels provide various mixes of performance, reliability, and cost. Some servers provide three of the RAID levels: Level 0 (striping), Level 1 (mirroring), and Level 5 (RAID-5).
See also: fault tolerance RAID-5 volume
An ordered list of targets that a client computer receives from a domain controller or namespace server when the user accesses a namespace root or folder with targets in the namespace.
See also: DFS namespace Distributed File System (DFS) iteration
A server that responds to requests for service from remote installation clients. It refers clients to other remote installation servers where they can install Windows desktop operating systems. The referral server does not directly host client computers for installing the operating system.
In PerformancePoint Planning, to update displayed information with current data. In PerformancePoint Monitoring, the activity of synchronizing dashboards and dashboard elements between the local workspace and Monitoring Server.
See also: refresh rate
An interval of time used by secondary masters of a zone to determine how often to check if their zone data needs to be refreshed. When the refresh interval expires, the secondary master checks with its source for the zone to see if its zone data is still current or if it needs to be updated using a zone transfer. This interval is set in the start-of-authority (SOA) resource record for each zone.
See also: start-of-authority (SOA) resource record zone zone transfer
The frequency with which the video screen is retraced to prevent the image from flickering. The entire image area of most monitors is refreshed approximately 60 times per second.
See also: refresh
Contiguous chunks of storage on a disk.
See also: disk
registered file type
File types that are tracked by the system registry and are recognized by the programs you have installed on your computer.
See also: file type registry
registration authority (RA)
A computer that is configured for an administrator to request and retrieve issued certificates on behalf of other users. An RA does not require that a certification authority be installed on the same computer.
See also: certification authority (CA)
A database repository for information about a computer's configuration. The registry contains information that Windows continually references during operation, such as: profiles for each user; the programs installed on the computer and the types of documents that each can create; property settings for folders and program icons; what hardware exists on the system; which ports are being used. The registry is organized hierarchically as a tree, and it is made up of keys and their subkeys, hives, and entries.
See also: entry hive key registry size limit (RSL) subkey
The default boot option used by most Windows DNS servers. When registry boot is used, DNS is started and initialized using DNS parameters and their values as they are stored in the Windows registry. You can use a Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) boot file as an alternative to this method of boot configuration for DNS.
See also: BIND boot file DNS server Domain Name System (DNS)
registry size limit (RSL)
A universal maximum for the space that registry files (hives) can consume in the paged pool. This maximum prevents an application from filling the paged pool with registry data.
See also: hive paged pool registry
relative distinguished name
The part of the object name that identifies the object as unique from its siblings at its level in the naming hierarchy. For example, in the distinguished name CN=My Name,CN=Users,DC=Microsoft,DC=Com the relative distinguished name of the user object is My Name. The relative distinguished name of the user object`s parent object is Users.
See also: object
relative ID (RID)
The part of a security ID (SID) that uniquely identifies an account or group within a domain.
See also: domain forest group RID master security ID (SID)
The partial DNS domain name configured in individual resource records to locate and qualify the record within a zone. The relative name is joined to the front of the parent domain (domain of origin) for each resource record to form a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) within the zone. In DNS Manager, the relative name will correspond to fields that use record-specific name properties, such as the Host computer name field used in an address (A) resource record.
See also: address (A) resource record Domain Name System (DNS) fully qualified domain name (FQDN) resource record (RR) zone
Part of the integrated Routing and Remote Access service that provides remote networking for telecommuters, mobile workers, and system administrators who monitor and manage servers at multiple branch offices. Users can use Network Connections to dial in to remotely access their networks for services such as file and printer sharing, electronic mail, scheduling, and SQL database access.
remote access policy
A set of conditions and connection parameters that define the characteristics of the incoming connection and the set of constraints imposed on it. Remote access policy determines whether a specific connection attempt is authorized to be accepted.
remote access server
A Windows-based computer running the Routing and Remote Access service and configured to provide remote access.
See also: remote access set-by-caller callback
Remote Access Service (RAS)
A Windows NT 4.0 service that provides remote networking for telecommuters, mobile workers, and system administrators who monitor and manage servers at multiple offices.
The management of one computer by an administrator working at another computer that is connected to the first computer across a network.
See also: remotely administered server
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
A security authentication protocol based on a client/server model and widely used by Internet service providers (ISPs). RADIUS is the most popular means of authenticating and authorizing dial-up, virtual private network (VPN), wireless, and authenticating switch clients today. A RADIUS client is included in the Routing and Remote Access service that ships with the Windows Server 2003 family. A RADIUS server and proxy, named Internet Authentication Service (IAS), is included in Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition; Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition; and Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition.
See also: authentication authorization Internet Authentication Service (IAS) tunnel virtual private network (VPN)
A computer that you can access only by using a communications line or a communications device, such as a network card or a modem.
See also: local computer
remote differential compression (RDC)
A protocol that can be used to efficiently update files over a limited-bandwidth network. RDC detects insertions, removals, and re-arrangements of data in files.
Remote Installation Services (RIS)
Software services that allow an administrator to set up new client computers remotely, without having to visit each client. The target clients must support remote booting.
See also: Single Instance Store (SIS)
remote procedure call (RPC)
A message-passing facility that allows a distributed application to call services that are available on various computers on a network. Used during remote administration of computers.
See also: service
A data management service used to migrate infrequently accessed files from local storage to remote storage. Migrated files are recalled transparently when the user opens the file.
See also: local storage service validation
remotely administered server
A server that you can administer by using a different computer. You typically access this type of server by using a network connection. A remotely administered server can have a local keyboard, mouse, or video card and monitor. If it does not have these peripherals attached, it is also known as a headless server. Such servers are often housed in a physically secure location.
See also: physical security remote administration server
A service used for managing removable media (such as tapes and discs) and storage devices (libraries). Removable Storage allows applications to access and share the same media resources.
See also: library service
In color management, the approach used to map the colors specified in an image file to the color gamut of your monitor or printer. The color gamut is the range of color that a device can produce.
See also: color gamut
Client service referral behavior performed using a DNS query to resolve domain names to locate host computers that are service providers for well-known TCP/IP-based network services. Rendezvous for clients uses queries for resource record types such as mail exchanger (MX) or service (SRV) records.
See also: Domain Name System (DNS) resource record (RR) service
NTFS file system objects that have a definable attribute containing user-controlled data and that are used to extend functionality in the input/output (I/O) subsystem.
See also: attribute NTFS file system object
In Active Directory replication, one instance of a logical Active Directory partition that is synchronized by means of replication between domain controllers that hold copies of the same directory partition. &lt;i&gt;Replica&lt;/i&gt; can also refer to an instance of an object or attribute in a distributed directory. In the File Replication service (FRS), a computer that has been included in the configuration of a specific replica set.
One or more shared folders that participates in replication.
See also: replication shared folder
A folder that is kept synchronized on members of a replication group. A replicated folder has an associated local path on each member.
The process of copying updated data from a data store or file system on a source computer to a matching data store or file system on one or more destination computers to synchronize the data.
A set of servers that participates in the replication of one or more replicated folders.
In Active Directory replication, the delay between the time an update is applied to a given replica of a directory partition and the time it is applied to some other replica of the same directory partition. A server receives changes no sooner than either it is notified of a change from its neighbor in the same site or its periodic replication timer expires. Sometimes referred to as propagation delay.
See also: Active Directory replication directory partition replica
A domain controller that acts as a replication source for a given domain controller. The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) determines which servers are best suited to replicate with each other, and it generates the list of domain controllers that are candidates for replication partners from the list of domain controllers in the site on the basis of connectivity, history of successful replication, and matching of full and partial replicas. A domain controller has some number of direct replication partners with which it replicates for a given directory partition. The other domain controllers in the site replicate transitively with this domain controller.
See also: directory partition domain controller Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) site
Rules that define how and when replication is performed.
See also: replication
In Active Directory replication, the set of physical connections that domain controllers use to replicate directory updates among domain controllers within sites and between sites. In the File Replication service (FRS), the interconnections between replica set members. These interconnections determine the path that data takes as it replicates to all replica set members.
For Message Queuing, a message that contains status information and is sent to report queues on the source computer. Examples include test messages and route tracking messages.
See also: Message Queuing report queue
For Message Queuing, a queue on the source computer that contains report messages. Report queues can be used when sending test messages and tracking message routes.
See also: Message Queuing report message
Request for Comments (RFC)
An official document of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that specifies the details for protocols included in the TCP/IP family.
See also: Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) protocol Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
A specific IP address within a scope permanently reserved for leased use to a specific DHCP client. Client reservations are made in the DHCP database using DHCP Manager and based on a unique client device identifier for each reserved entry.
See also: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) IP address lease scope
DNS client programs used to look up DNS name information. Resolvers can be either a small stub (a limited set of programming routines that provide basic query functionality) or larger programs that provide additional lookup DNS client functions, such as caching.
See also: caching caching resolver Domain Name System (DNS)
Generally, any part of a computer system or network, such as a disk drive, printer, or memory, that can be allotted to a running program or a process. For Device Manager, any of four system components that control how the devices on a computer work. These four system resources are interrupt request (IRQ) lines, direct memory access (DMA) channels, input/output (I/O) ports, and memory addresses. For server clusters, a physical or logical entity that is capable of being managed by a cluster, brought online and taken offline, and moved between nodes. A resource can be owned only by a single node at any point in time.
See also: direct memory access (DMA) input/output (I/O) port interrupt request (IRQ) lines memory address node offline online server cluster
The process of distributing a computer system's facilities to different components of a job in order to perform the job.
A dynamic-link library (DLL) containing an implementation of the Resource application programming interface (API) for a specific type of resource. The Resource DLL is loaded into the address space of its Resource Monitor.
See also: application programming interface (API) dynamic-link library (DLL)
One of two forks (resource fork and data fork) that make up each Macintosh file. The resource fork holds Macintosh operating system resources, such as code, menu, font, and icon definitions. Resource forks have no relevance to personal computers, so the resource forks of files on the server are never accessed by personal computer clients.
See also: data fork
In a server cluster, a defined collection of resources. Resources that are dependent on each other are typically placed within the same resource group.
See also: node resource server cluster
A cluster software component that facilitates communication between a node`s server cluster and one or more of its resources.
See also: node resource server cluster
A federation partner that trusts the Federation Service to issue claims-based security tokens. The resource partner contains published Web-based applications that users in the account partner can access.
resource record (RR)
A standard DNS database structure containing information used to process DNS queries. For example, an address (A) resource record contains an IP address corresponding to a host name. Most of the basic resource record types are defined in RFC 1035, but additional RR types have been defined in other RFCs and approved for use with DNS.
resource record set (RRset)
A collection of more than one resource record returned in a query response by a DNS server. RRsets are used in responses where more than one record is part of the answer.
See also: DNS server resource record (RR)
Classes of resources, such as print spooler, physical disk, and file share, organized by the server cluster. Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition, and Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition, provide Resource DLL files for the most common types of resources. Using the application programming interface (API) provided in the Microsoft Platform Software Development Kit (SDK), other vendors can add support for other resource types.
See also: print spooler Resource DLL server cluster storage-class resource
In Windows remote access, strings expected from the device, which can contain macros.
See also: remote access string
For Message Queuing, a message sent by a receiving application to the response queue specified by a sending application. Any available queue can be specified as a response queue.
See also: Message Queuing queue response queue
For Message Queuing, a queue that is created by the sending application and used by the receiving application to reply to messages. For example, an application might send a response message to a response queue every time the application receives a message.
See also: Message Queuing queue response message
An access token with restricted access to securable objects or performing privileged tasks.
See also: access token object privilege security ID (SID)
Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP)
A feature that simplifies Group Policy implementation and troubleshooting. RSoP uses Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) to determine how policy settings are applied to users and computers. RSoP has two modes: logging mode and planning mode. Logging mode determines the resultant effect of policy settings that have been applied to an existing user and computer based on a site, domain, and organizational unit. Planning mode simulates the resultant effect of policy settings that are applied to a user and computer.
See also: Group Policy Group Policy Management console (GPMC) Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)
The time, in seconds after the refresh interval expires, used by secondary masters of a zone to determine how often to try and retry contacting its source for zone data to see if its replicated zone data needs to be refreshed. This interval is set in the start-of-authority (SOA) resource record for each zone.
A DNS query for a pointer (PTR) resource record that resolves an IP address to its corresponding fully qualified domain name (FQDN).
See also: Domain Name System (DNS) fully qualified domain name (FQDN) IP address pointer (PTR) resource record
A mechanism that stores an encrypted password in such a way that the original password can be unencrypted and retrieved. Some applications require the unencrypted password so that they can perform certain tasks.
See also: encrypted password
See other term: Request for Comments (RFC)
RGB color space
Multidimensional color space consisting of the red, green, and blue intensities that make up a given color. This system is typically used in scanners, digital cameras, computer monitors, and computer printers.
See also: color management color space
See other term: relative ID (RID)
A domain controller that holds the RID operations master role in Active Directory. The RID master is assigned to allocate unique sequences of relative IDs to each domain controller in its domain. As the domain controllers use the IDs allocated, they contact the RID master and are allocated additional sequences as needed. At any time, the RID master role can be assigned to only one domain controller in each domain.
See also: Active Directory domain controller operations master relative ID (RID) security ID (SID) security principal
See other term: Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
See other term: Routing Information Protocol over IPX (RIPX)
See other term: Remote Installation Services (RIS)
Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) cryptographic algorithms
A widely used set of public key algorithms that were published by RSA Data Security, Inc. The RSA cryptographic algorithms are supported by the Microsoft Base Cryptographic Service Provider and the Microsoft Enhanced Cryptographic Service Provider.
See also: cryptographic service provider (CSP) public key cryptography
roaming user profile
A server-based user profile that is downloaded to the local computer when a user logs on and that is updated both locally and on the server when the user logs off. A roaming user profile is available from the server when logging on to a workstation or server computer. When logging on, the user can use the local user profile if it is more current than the copy on the server.
See also: local user profile mandatory user profile user profile
A management technique that is characterized by the use of collections of settings that are based on an object's role within an organization. Role-based administration can be used to manage users, computers, and other file system and directory service objects.
See also: access control entry (ACE) authorization object
In a cluster, the process of systematically upgrading cluster nodes one node at a time. During the upgrade, the remaining cluster nodes continue to provide service.
See also: cluster node
See other term: read-only memory (ROM)
The highest or uppermost level in a hierarchically organized set of information. The root is the point from which further subsets are branched in a logical sequence that moves from a broad or general focus to narrower perspectives.
A self-signed certification authority certificate. It is called a root certificate because it is the certificate for the root authority. The root authority must sign its own certificate because by definition there is no higher certifying authority in the certification hierarchy.
See also: certification authority (CA) certification hierarchy root certification authority
root certification authority
The most trusted certification authority (CA), which is at the top of a certification hierarchy. The root CA has a self-signed certificate. Also called the root authority.
See also: certification authority (CA) certification hierarchy root
The top-level directory (or folder) on a computer, partition or volume, or Macintosh-accessible volume.
See also: Macintosh-accessible volume partition volume
The beginning of the DNS namespace. In Active Directory, the initial domain in an Active Directory tree. Also, the initial domain of a forest.
See also: Active Directory domain Domain Name System (DNS) forest namespace
DNS data stored on a DNS server that identifies the authoritative DNS servers for the root zone of the DNS namespace. The root hints are stored in the file Cache.dns, located in the systemroot\System32\Dns folder.
See also: DNS server Domain Name System (DNS) root servers systemroot
DNS servers that are authoritative for the root of the namespace.
See also: authoritative DNS server root
A Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path of a shared folder that is associated with the namespace root. A domain-based namespace can have multiple root targets, whereas a stand-alone namespace can have a single root target only.
See also: DFS root target
A simple mechanism used by DNS servers to share and distribute loads for network resources. Round robin is used to rotate the order of resource records (RRs) returned in a response to a query when multiple RRs of the same type exist for a queried DNS domain name.
See also: DNS server resource record (RR)
A scripting utility for the Routing and Remote Access service that is a command-line alternative to the router administration user interface available through the Routing and Remote Access Manager.
A device or computer that forwards packets between interfaces based on a network layer destination address. For example, an Internet Protocol (IP) router forwards IP packets based on the destination IP address in the IP header. Routers typically use a routing table, which contains a series of entries for destinations and the corresponding next-hop address and interface to use to forward a packet to its eventual destination.
The process of forwarding a packet through an internetwork from a source host to a destination host.
See also: host packet
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
An industry standard, distance vector routing protocol used in small- to medium-sized Internet Protocol (IP) and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) internetworks.
See also: Internet Protocol (IP) Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) protocol
Routing Information Protocol over IPX (RIPX)
A protocol used by routers to exchange information between routers on an Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) network and by hosts to determine the best router to use when forwarding IPX traffic to a remote IPX network.
See also: host Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol (NWLink) protocol router
For Message Queuing, a communications link established between Windows sites for routing messages. Specially configured Message Queuing servers with routing services enabled are used to create a routing link between sites.
Any of several protocols that enable the exchange of routing table information between routers. Typically, medium- to large-sized TCP/IP internetworks implement routing protocols to simplify the administration of routing tables.
For Message Queuing, a service on a Message Queuing server that provides message routing services. If so configured, this feature can be used on a Message Queuing server to enable computers that use different network protocols to communicate, reduce the number of sessions by acting as a gateway for all incoming or outgoing messages for independent clients, and route messages between sites over a routing link.
See also: gateway independent client Message Queuing Message Queuing server routing link service session concentration site
For Message Queuing, a number used to determine the route messages can take between two sites. This number represents the relative monetary cost of communication over a link. A routing link has a default routing-link cost of 1 and should not be changed unless you have multiple routing links between two sites and you want to enforce message routing over a specific routing link.
See also: Message Queuing routing link site
See other term: remote procedure call (RPC)
See other term: resource record (RR)
See other term: resource record set (RRset)
An accepted industry standard for serial communication connections. Adopted by the Electric Industries Association, this Recommended Standard (RS) defines the specific lines and signal characteristics used by erial communications controllers to standardize the transmission of serial data between devices. The letter C signifies the third in a series.
See also: device
See other term: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) cryptographic algorithms
See other term: registry size limit (RSL)
See other term: Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP)
See other term: Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)
A feature that provides users with a secondary logon capability. By using Run as, users can run applications or commands in a different security context without having to log off. Run as prompts the user for different credentials before running the application or command.
See also: secondary logon security context
runaway recall limit
In Remote Storage, the setting that prohibits a user or an application from recalling files from Remote Storage more than the specified number of times in succession with less than 10 seconds between each recall. Otherwise, applications such as those for virus checking, data backup, indexing, and searching typically read all files on your computer and can cause excessive file recalls and slow performance.
See also: Remote Storage