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Windows Server 2003 Glossary - G

Updated: March 7, 2008

Applies To: Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2003 with SP2

For more Windows Server terms, see the Windows Server 2008 Glossary.

Glossary - G

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gateway

A dedicated device (or a set of services running on a dedicated computer) that routes network traffic and enables communication between different networking protocols. A gateway is a multiprotocol Internet Protocol (IP) router that translates between different transport protocols or data formats.

See also: device   Internet Protocol (IP)   

GDI objects

Objects from the Graphics Device Interface (GDI) library of application programming interfaces (APIs) for graphics output devices. In Task Manager, the number of GDI objects currently used by a process.

See also: application programming interface (API)   Task Manager   

Generic Application resource

An application that is supported as a cluster resource by a Resource DLL.

See also: Resource DLL   

Generic Security Services Application Programming Interface (GSS-API)

A generic API for performing client-server authentication that can be implemented over any authentication system. GSS-API makes it possible for applications to use the same API with different authentication mechanisms.

Generic Service resource

A Windows service that is supported as a cluster resource by a Resource DLL.

See also: Resource DLL   service   

GID

See other term: group identifier (GID)  

global account

In an Active Directory network, a normal user account in a user`s domain. Most user accounts are global accounts. If there are multiple domains in the network, it is best if each user in the network has only one user account in only one domain, and each user`s access to other domains is accomplished through the establishment of domain trust relationships. In Microsoft Provisioning System, the Exchange server maintains a list of global catalogs, and it maintains a load balance across global catalogs.

See also: Active Directory   domain   global catalog   

global catalog

A directory database that applications and clients can query to locate any object in a forest. The global catalog is hosted on one or more domain controllers in the forest. It contains a partial replica of every domain directory partition in the forest. These partial replicas include replicas of every object in the forest, as follows: the attributes most frequently used in search operations and the attributes required to locate a full replica of the object. In Microsoft Provisioning System, the Exchange server maintains a list of global catalogs, and it maintains a load balance across global catalogs.

See also: Active Directory   attribute   domain controller   forest   replication   

global group

A security or distribution group that can contain users, groups, and computers from its own domain as members. Global security groups can be granted rights and permissions for resources in any domain in the forest.

See also: group   local group   member server   permission   user account   

globally unique identifier (GUID)

A 16-byte value generated from the unique identifier on a device, the current date and time, and a sequence number. A GUID is used to identify a particular device or component.

See also: device   

glue chasing

In DNS, queries to resolve delegation name server (NS) resource records that do not have corresponding glue address (A) resource records in the same zone.

See also: address (A) resource record   delegation   Domain Name System (DNS)   glue record   name server (NS) resource record   zone   

glue record

In DNS, a delegation resource record used for locating the authoritative DNS servers for a delegated zone. These records are used to glue zones together and provide an effective delegation and referral path for other DNS servers to follow when resolving a name.

See also: authoritative   delegation   DNS server   Domain Name System (DNS)   glue chasing   resource record (RR)   zone   

GPMC

GPO

See other term: Group Policy object (GPO)  

GPO link

See other term: Group Policy object link  

GPT

See other term: GUID partition table (GPT)  

graphics mode

A display mode in which lines and characters on the screen are drawn pixel by pixel. Graphics mode displays images by grouping individual dots into shapes, such as the arrowhead of a mouse pointer. It can also preview character formatting, such as boldface and italics, as it will appear in print.

See also: character mode   

gratuitous ARP

An Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Request frame sent by a host for the host`s own Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address when the TCP/IP protocol obtains addressing information. Gratuitous ARPs are used to check for duplicate IPv4 addresses on the subnet. If the host receives a reply to the gratuitous ARP request from another host or computer, it detects a conflict for its configured IPv4 address and will not use it.

See also: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)   frame   host   IP address   subnet   

group

A collection of users, computers, contacts, and other groups. Groups can be used as security or as e-mail distribution collections. Distribution groups are used only for e-mail. Security groups are used both to grant access to resources and as e-mail distribution lists.

See also: domain   global group   local group   

group account

A collection of user accounts. By making a user account a member of a group, you give the related user all the rights and permissions granted to the group.

See also: group   user account   

group identifier (GID)

An identifier in UNIX that associates a user with a group of other users that have something in common. A user can be a member of one or more groups.

group memberships

The groups to which a user account belongs. Permissions and rights granted to a group are also provided to its members. In most cases, the actions a user can perform in Windows are determined by the group memberships of the user account to which the user is logged on.

See also: group   user account   

Group Policy

The infrastructure within Active Directory directory service that enables directory-based change and configuration management of user and computer settings, including security and user data. You use Group Policy to define configurations for groups of users and computers. With Group Policy, you can specify policy settings for registry-based policies, security, software installation, scripts, folder redirection, remote installation services, and Internet Explorer maintenance. The Group Policy settings that you create are contained in a Group Policy object (GPO). By associating a GPO with selected Active Directory system containers—sites, domains, and organizational units—you can apply the GPO`s policy settings to the users and computers in those Active Directory containers. To create an individual GPO, use the Group Policy Object Editor. To manage Group Policy objects across an enterprise, you can use the Group Policy Management console.

See also: Active Directory   Group Policy Management console (GPMC)   Group Policy object (GPO)   Group Policy Object Editor   Group Policy object link   

Group Policy Management console (GPMC)

An optional tool that unifies and centralizes administration of Group Policy.

See also: Group Policy   

Group Policy object (GPO)

A collection of Group Policy settings. GPOs are essentially the documents created by the Group Policy Object Editor. GPOs are stored at the domain level, and they affect users and computers that are contained in sites, domains, and organizational units. In addition, each computer has exactly one group of policy settings stored locally, called the local Group Policy object.

See also: Group Policy   Group Policy Management console (GPMC)   Group Policy Object Editor   Group Policy object link   

Group Policy Object Editor

The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that is used to edit Group Policy objects (GPOs).

See also: Group Policy Management console (GPMC)   Group Policy object (GPO)   Group Policy object link   Microsoft Management Console (MMC)   

Group Policy object link

A method of applying settings in a Group Policy object (GPO) to an Active Directory container (site, domain, or organizational unit). Linking a GPO applies the settings of that GPO to the users and computers in a site, domain, or organizational unit and, by default, to the users and computers in all child containers.

See also: Active Directory   Group Policy Management console (GPMC)   Group Policy object (GPO)   inheritance   precedence   

Group Policy Security Settings

The subtrees of the Group Policy Object Editor that allow a security administrator to manually configure security levels assigned to a Group Policy object (GPO) or local computer policy.

See also: Group Policy object (GPO)   Group Policy Object Editor   

GSS-API

guest

A user who does not have a user account or who does not provide a password.

See also: password   user account   

Guest account

A built-in account used to log on to a computer running Windows when a user does not have an account on the computer or domain or in any of the domains trusted by the computer`s domain.

See also: domain   user account   

GUI mode

The portion of Setup that uses a graphical user interface (GUI).

See also: Setup   text mode   

GUID

See other term: globally unique identifier (GUID)  

GUID partition table (GPT)

A disk-partitioning scheme that is used by the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI). GPT offers more advantages than master boot record (MBR) partitioning because it allows up to 128 partitions per disk, provides support for volumes up to 18 exabytes in size, allows primary and backup partition tables for redundancy, and supports unique disk and partition IDs (GUIDs).

See also: Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)   Itanium   master boot record (MBR)   

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