Active Directory Replication
The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) is a built-in process that runs on all domain controllers and creates the replication topology for the forest. By default, the KCC runs at 15-minute intervals and designates the replication routes between domain controllers on the basis of the most favorable connections that are available at the time. The KCC creates replication connections between domain controllers in the same site automatically. When there is more than one site, configure links between the sites; the KCC can then create the connections automatically between the sites as well.
Topology concepts and components
Although replication has the effect of synchronizing Active Directory information for an entire forest of domain controllers, the actual process of replication occurs between two domain controllers at a time. Creation of replication topology involves the determination of what domain controller replicates with what other domain controller or domain controllers. When this determination is made for the entire set of domain controllers in a specific site (taking into account that each domain controller must be able to receive changes from all domain controllers in the forest that store the same information), the result is the replication topology for replication within the site. When a forest has domain controllers in more than one site, some of the replication connections between computers must span sites, and a topology for replication between sites is also created.
The total topology is actually composed of several underlying topologies: one for each combination of directory partitions that must be replicated. Domain controllers that store the same domain directory partition must have connections to each other, and all domain controllers must be able to replicate the schema and configuration directory partitions. The schema and configuration directory partitions are replicated over a separate topology; however, where the connections for these directory partitions are identical between domain controllers — for example, two domain controllers store the same domain directory partition — a single connection can be used.
The routes for the following combinations of directory partitions are aggregated to arrive at the overall topology:
Configuration and schema within a site.
Each domain directory partition within a site.
Global Catalog read-only, partial directory partitions within a site.
Configuration and schema between sites.
Each domain directory partition between sites.
Global Catalog read-only, partial directory partitions between sites.
Active Directory uses information stored in the forest-wide configuration directory partition to establish and implement the replication topology. Several configuration objects define the components that are required by replication:
The sites and the domain controllers that are associated with them.
The connections that identify the routes that replication takes between domain controllers within sites.
The links that make replication connections between sites possible.
The transports that the links use to communicate between sites.
The KCC uses these and other objects and their properties to create and manage the connections by which directory updates are transferred and to specify one or more domain controllers from which a particular server requests changes. The domain controllers that replicate directly with each other are called replication partners. Each time the KCC runs (every 15 minutes, by default), these partnerships are added, removed, or modified automatically, as necessary, on the basis of what domain controllers are available and how close they are to each other on the network.
The KCC uses the following components to manage replication:
Connections. The KCC creates connections that enable domain controllers to replicate with each other. A connection defines a one-way, inbound route from one domain controller, the source, to another domain controller, the destination. The KCC reuses existing connections where it can, deletes unused connections, and creates new connections if none exist that meet the current need.
Servers. Each domain controller is represented by a server object. The server has a child object, NTDS Settings, which stores the inbound connections; that is, the connection objects for a server designate the connections from source domain controllers to the server object.
Sites. Sites define sets of domain controllers that are well connected in terms of speed and cost. Domain controllers in the same site replicate on the basis of notification: when a domain controller has changes, it notifies its replication partners. Then the notified partner requests the changes, and replication takes place. Because there is no concern about replication speed or cost, replication within sites occurs as needed rather than as scheduled.
Note: To allow for the possibility of network failure, which might cause one or more notifications to be missed, a default schedule of once per hour is applied to replication within a site, in addition to change notification.
Replication between sites occurs according to a schedule; authorized administrators can use the schedule to determine the most beneficial time for replication to occur on the basis of network traffic and cost. A site is the equivalent of a set of one or more Internet Protocol (IP) subnets.
Note: Under circumstances where connections cannot be initiated between both sites (for example, when one site requires a dial-up connection), reciprocal replication can be initiated on the basis of changes rather than a schedule.
Subnets. Computers on TCP/IP networks are assigned to sites based on their location in a subnet or a set of subnets. Subnets group computers in a way that identifies their physical proximity on the network. Subnet information is used during the process of domain controller location to find a domain controller in the same site as the computer that is logging on. This information also is used during Active Directory replication to determine the best routes between domain controllers.
Site Links. For replication to occur between two sites, a link must be established between the sites. Site links are not generated automatically and can be created in Active Directory Sites and Services. Unless a site link is in place, the KCC cannot create connections automatically between computers in the two sites, and replication between the sites cannot take place. Each site link contains the schedule that determines when replication can occur between the sites that it connects. The Active Directory Sites and Services user interface guarantees that every site is placed in at least one site link. A site link can contain more than two sites, in which case all the sites are equally well connected.
Bridgehead Servers. To communicate across site links, the KCC automatically designates a single server, called the bridgehead server, in each site to perform site-to-site replication. Subsequent replication occurs by replication within a site. When site links are established, authorized administrators can designate the bridgehead servers that they want to receive replication between sites. By designating a specific server to receive replication between sites, rather than using any available server, authorized administrators can specify the most beneficial conditions for the connection between sites. Bridgehead servers ensure that most replication occurs within sites rather than between sites.
Site Link Bridges. When more than two sites are linked for replication and use the same transport, all of the site links are "bridged" in terms of cost by default, assuming that the site links have common sites. When site links are bridged, they are transitive. That is, all site links for a specific transport implicitly belong to a single site link bridge for that transport. So in the common case of a fully routed IP network (in which all sites can communicate with each other by IP), administrators do not have to configure any site link bridges. If the IP network is not fully routed, the transitive site link feature can be turned off for the IP transport (the Bridge all site links option on the General tab in the IP transport object property sheet or SMTP transport object property sheet). In this case, all IP site links are considered intransitive, and site link bridges are configured. A site link bridge is the equivalent of a disjoint network; all site links within the bridge can route transitively, but they do not route outside the bridge.