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Novell Netware Connectivity

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Managing Windows NT Server 4
NetWare Connectivity Options for Windows NT Server
Installing, Configuring, and Using Microsoft's NWLink
Gateway Services for NetWare (GSNW)
Migrating from NetWare to Windows NT Server
Other Microsoft NetWare Connectivity Tools
Recap

Managing Windows NT Server 4

Howard Hilliker with Robert J. Cooper III, William N. Matsoukas, Brad McGehee, Carla Rose

Chapter 12

Contents: NetWare Connectivity Options for Windows NT Server, Installing, Configuring, and Using Microsoft's NWLink, Gateway Services for NetWare (GSNW), Migrating from NetWare to Windows NT Server, Other Microsoft NetWare Connectivity Tools

Contents from New Riders

If your Windows NT Server network needs to communicate with a NetWare network, don't worry. Microsoft has a wide assortment of built-in and optional tools to make connectivity between them easy and transparent.

With the rivalry between network software market leaders Novell and Microsoft, you might not think that Microsoft would make inter-connectivity easy. But Microsoft did not become the world software leader by being petty. Microsoft knows that if it wants to eventually win the network operating system battle, it must give users the freedom to pick and choose the pieces of their networks. Microsoft hopes that after network administrators have had a taste of Windows NT, administrators will be won over by Windows NT's power and ease-of-use. This philosophy must be working; Windows NT is now the fastest growing segment of the network operating system market.

Included with Windows NT, right out of the box, are NWLink, Microsoft's 32-bit version of NetWare's IPX/SPX protocol; Gateway Services for NetWare (GSNW), which enables Microsoft clients to access NetWare servers without a NetWare client; and the Migration tool for NetWare, NWConv, which helps administrators to migrate users and files from NetWare servers to Windows NT Servers.

Microsoft also offers two optional programs that make the job of integrating Windows NT and NetWare easier. The File and Print Services for NetWare program enables NetWare clients to directly access file and print services from Windows NT Server. The Directory Service Manager for NetWare program enables administrators to automatically manage user accounts on multiple NetWare servers directly from Windows NT Server.

NetWare Connectivity Options for Windows NT Server

Before configuring Windows NT Server to interconnect with NetWare servers, you need a little background on the differences between the two network operating systems. Also, you need to learn exactly what interconnectivity can and cannot accomplish.

Internetwork Operating System Connectivity

Windows NT Server and NetWare cannot easily talk to each other because of two major reasons: differences in network transport protocols and client redirectors. The following sections examine each of these, one at a time.

Network Transport Protocols

A transport protocol refers to the special language used by a network operating system to transfer messages and data from a network client workstation to a network server. NetWare uses the Novell-designed IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange) transport protocol. This means that if a client workstation cannot speak IPX/SPX, it cannot communicate with a NetWare server.

NetWare also supports TCP/IP, a nonproprietary transport protocol, but Windows NT Server's NetWare connectivity tools do not support TCP/IP for interconnectivity to NetWare.

To solve the protocol dilemma, Windows NT Server offers a transport protocol called NWLink, which is an NDIS (Network Device Interface Specification)-compliant version of NetWare's IPX/SPX protocol. NWLink enables computers running Windows NT Server to communicate to other Windows NT-based computers or NetWare servers using the IPX/SPX transport protocol.

Having a compatible transport protocol is only part of the picture. Before a Windows NT Server can interconnect with a NetWare server, a common client redirector must exist.

Client Redirectors

A client redirector refers to the software required to access a server over a network. Whenever a client workstation requests file or print services from a server, the client redirector software issues special commands understood by the server software.

NetWare uses a special client redirector language called NCP (NetWare Core Protocol) to communicate between clients and servers. Windows NT, on the other hand, uses a client redirector language called SMB (Server Message Blocks). As you might imagine, these two languages are not compatible (see fig. 12.1).

To deal with redirector incompatibility, Windows NT includes its own NetWare-compatible client redirector, in addition to its standard Windows NT-based client redirector. The Windows NT NetWare-compatible client redirector emulates a NetWare client redirector by speaking NCP. This gives Windows NT Server the capability to use a NetWare server's file and print services.

With the combination of NWLink and the NetWare-compatible client redirector, Windows NT Server can interconnect with any NetWare server.

How Windows NT Server and NetWare Work Together in a Network

When mixing Windows NT Server and NetWare in the same network, you essentially have three possibilities:

  • A few NetWare application or file and print servers exist in a mostly Windows NT-based network.

  • A few Windows NT Server application servers exist in a mostly NetWare-based file and print server network.

  • A fairly even mix of Windows NT and NetWare servers exist in the same network, including a mix of Windows-based and NetWare-based client workstations.

Take a look at each of these scenarios and examine how they might interconnect.

NetWare Application or File and Print Servers in a Mostly Windows NT-Based Network

Whether you like it or not, you may not be able to get rid of all your NetWare servers, even if it is your goal to run a 100 percent Windows NT Server-based network. It always seems that someone in your organization still has a need for some legacy application that only runs under NetWare. This can create a problem if your client workstations are all Windows-based because they will not be able to directly access the NetWare servers unless they have a NetWare-compatible client redirector loaded.

If you face this situation, you are in good hands; Windows NT Server's GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) is your ideal solution. Its design enables your Windows-based clients to transparently use resources on NetWare servers without having to use a NetWare-compatible redirector. A discussion of GSNW follows shortly.

A Few Windows NT Application Servers in a Mostly NetWare-Based File and Print Server Network

If your network follows this scenario, you are probably one of those administrators who still believes that NetWare is the ideal network operating system. You may have been forced to add Windows NT application servers in your otherwise pure NetWare network because the application software you need to run your organization does not run under NetWare. Some examples of this include Microsoft's Exchange Server, SQL Server, and SNA Server.

Given this environment, all your client workstations will probably be running some version of a NetWare client redirector. As mentioned before, this presents somewhat of a problem: a NetWare client redirector cannot speak with a Windows NT Server.

The nature of your solution depends on several variables. First, is the application software running on the Windows NT Server a true client/server application? If it is, you may be in luck. Many true client/server applications can bypass the redirector software on a client workstation and communicate directly with the application running on the Windows NT Server. This means you do not have to add Windows-based client redirector software to your current client workstations. All you need to do is ensure that NWLink is running on the Windows NT Server.

But your luck may not hold. If the specialized Windows NT-based software requires a Windows-based client redirector, you have no choice but to add one on each client workstation that needs to access the Windows NT Server.

If your client workstations are running Windows 95 or Windows NT Workstation, your job will be relatively easy because each of these have a built-in NetWare client redirector. But if your client workstations are DOS or Windows 3.x-based, you have your work cut out for you.

See Chapter 17, "Administrating Windows NT Server Clients," p. 477, for more details regarding client connectivity issues.

Another alternative to this dilemma is to consider Microsoft's File and Print Services for NetWare. This optional program runs on a Windows NT Server and makes a NetWare client think that the Windows NT Server is a NetWare 3.x server. Depending on your needs, this software may solve your problems.

A Mixed Network of Windows NT Server and NetWare Servers

If this scenario describes your current network, you have your work cut out for you. You are probably making the slow transition from a NetWare network to a Windows NT network, or perhaps your network is the result of one or more corporate mergers or takeovers.

To make everything work, you will probably use some combination of NWLink, GSNW, and multiple client redirectors. Given the constant change at most organizations, you will probably find yourself rearranging your network on a regular basis.

Besides the mentioned connectivity options, you should review Microsoft's File and Print Services for NetWare and Directory Service Manager for NetWare programs. Both programs can help distressed network administrators. More information on these two optional NetWare connectivity products follows later in this chapter.

Interconnecting Windows NT Server with NetWare 2.x, 3.x, and 4.x

Over the years, Novell has given the world several major versions of its software. But unlike most software, many NetWare users have not upgraded to the latest versions. This upgrade hesitancy means that many old NetWare installations are still running. Microsoft knows all about this, and has made it easy for you to either interconnect or migrate with Windows NT Server, whether you are using NetWare 2.x, 3.x, or 4.x.

Although most Windows NT Server to NetWare connectivity works the same for all these versions, exceptions will be mentioned as required in the upcoming sections.

Installing, Configuring, and Using Microsoft's NWLink

Microsoft's NWLink (NetWare Link IPX/SPX Compatible Transport) is a 32-bit implementation of NetWare's IPX/SPX transport protocol, and is the basis for all Windows NT to NetWare connectivity. Without it, connectivity is limited to the TCP/IP transport protocol, which is not commonly used in most NetWare networks. Additionally, TCP/IP does not support Microsoft's NetWare interconnectivity tools.

NWLink can also be used as a transport protocol to connect Windows NT and Windows-based clients, such as Windows 95 or Windows NT Workstation.

NWLink Features

NWLink provides every feature offered by NetWare's IPX/SPX transport protocol, and more. It supports:

  • SPX II, a NetWare enhancement to SPX that supports windowing and the capability to set a maximum frame size.

  • Windows Sockets, an applications programming interface (API) used by many existing NetWare applications.

  • NetBIOS, another API, which supports the sending and receiving of NetWare NetBIOS packets between NetWare client workstations running NetWare Net-BIOS and Windows NT running NWLink NetBIOS.

  • MS-DOS®, Microsoft Windows 3.x and Windows for Workgroups 3.x, Windows 95, or Windows NT Workstation clients using the following IPC (interprocess communication) mechanisms: Windows Sockets, Remote Procedure Calls, and NetWare NetBIOS.

  • The capability to enable NetWare client workstations to access Windows NT-based applications, such as Exchange Server, SNA Server, and SQL Server.

  • Multiple Bindings, which means that NWLink can be bound to multiple network interface cards and to multiple frame types.

  • Auto Detect Frame Type, which automatically detects the frame type being used by the NetWare servers on a network.

  • Windows NT's Performance Monitor program, which enables administrators to monitor NWLink network traffic.

In other words, NWLink cannot only do everything NetWare's IPX/SPX can, it can do it better.

Routing IPX

NT Server 4's Multiple Protocol Router offers IPX routing. In earlier versions of Windows NT, NWLink and IPX/SPX could not be routed between two network cards in the same server. This has been changed with Windows NT Server 4. NWLink can now be routed if needed.

To enable routing under version 4, go to the Control Panel and double-click on the Network icon. From the Network dialog box, click on the Protocols tab. Next, select NWLink from the list of protocols and click on the Properties button. Then click on the Routing tab. From here, you can enable routing if you have two or more network interface cards in the server. If you implement routing, you must specify a unique Internal Network Number for each network interface card. You can choose any unique Internal Network Numbers you want, as long as it does not exceed eight hexadecimal numbers.

How to Install NWLink

Installing NWLink is easy and fast. Follow the directions applicable to your version of Windows NT Server.

If you're running Windows NT 3.51, follow these steps:

  1. Double-click on the Network icon located within the Control Panel. The Network Settings dialog box appears.

  2. Click on the Add Software button. The Add Network Software dialog box appears.

  3. Scroll down the Network Software list and highlight the NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible Transport option.

  4. Click on the Continue button.

  5. Enter the path of the Windows NT Server 3.51 files in the Windows NT Setup dialog box, and then choose Continue.

  6. After all the files are copied, the Network Software dialog box reappears. Choose OK. A prompt appears for you to reboot your server in order for the protocol to be activated.

If you're using Windows NT 4, follow these steps:

  1. In the Control Panel, double-click on the Network icon. The Network dialog box appears.

  2. Select the Protocols tab. Choose Add. The Select Network Protocol dialog box appears (see fig. 12.2).

  3. Select NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible Transport from the list of available protocols. Choose OK. The Windows NT Setup dialog box appears.

  4. Enter the path of the Windows NT Server 4 files in the text box, and then choose Continue.

  5. After all the files are copied, the Network dialog box reappears. Choose Close. A prompt appears for you to reboot your server. Choose Yes to reboot the server.

How to Configure NWLink

After installation, NWLink needs to be configured if the defaults do not work well for your network. When configuring NWLink, you may want to configure two areas: Auto Frame Type Detection and Auto Internal Network Number Detection.

How Auto Frame Type Detection Works

A convenient feature of NWLink is its capability of detecting the frame type used by the NetWare servers you are using. This means you should not normally have to set it manually, as you do when configuring a NetWare server. Frame type refers to the way a network interface card formats data to be transmitted over a network cable. For client workstations and servers to communicate via NWLink, they must use the same frame type. If the same frame type is not used, they cannot communicate.

NetWare's IPX/SPX can use one or more of several different frame types, depending on the network topology being used. If you have an Ethernet network, for example, your frame type choices include 802.2, 802.3, Ethernet II, or Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP). If you are running token ring, the frame types might be 802.2, SNAP, and so on.

Auto Frame Detection works when Windows NT Server is first booted by determining which frame type is currently being used on the network, if any. In an Ethernet network, if it cannot find any frame type currently being used, it chooses the 802.2 frame type (the most commonly accepted frame type). If it finds a single frame type currently being used, it automatically selects it.

If Auto Frame Detection finds more than one frame type running on the network, it selects only one, choosing the frame type in the following order: 802.2, 802.3, Ethernet II, and SNAP.

If all NetWare servers on your network use the same frame type, Auto Frame Detection works fine because Auto Frame Detection can only find and use one frame type. If your NetWare servers use more than one frame type, you cannot use Auto Frame Detection; you must manually specify to Windows NT all the frame types used. If you need multiple frame types, you must add them manually.

Real World

Although Auto Frame Detection usually works, it can be fooled. When it looks at the network to find out the frame type being used and it does not find any, it selects 802.2. But what happens if your NetWare server or servers are currently down, and they use a frame type other than 802.2? And what happens when a NetWare server comes back online using a frame type other than 802.2? What happens is that your Windows NT Servers and NetWare servers will not be able to communicate because of the mismatched frame type. How do you solve this problem? Manually set the frame type to the standard NetWare frame type you are using. This way, it is always correct.

Assigning the Internal Network Number

After setting the frame type correctly, you must also ensure that the Internal Network Number is set correctly. NetWare networks assign a unique 8-digit, hexadecimal Internal Network Number for each network segment.

Like the frame type, Windows NT auto detects the Internal Network Number. But unlike the frame type, this is usually done correctly. You can allow Windows NT Server to detect the Internal Network Number and not worry about it. Should you run into problems, you can always go back and change it manually to the required Internal Network Number. The required Internal Network Number can be found by examining the NetWare server that is to be accessed over the network.

Generally, the only time auto detection of the Internal Network Number does not work is when NWLink is being used as an applications server that uses NetWare's Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) or if IPX/SPX routing is enabled.

How to Manually Configure Frame Types

To manually choose frame types, follow these steps pertaining to your version of Windows NT Server.

If you're running Windows NT 3.51, follow these steps:

  1. In the Control Panel, double-click on the Network icon. The Network Settings dialog box appears.

  2. Select the NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible Transport in the Installed Network Software list, and then click on the Configure button. The NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible Protocol dialog box appears.

  3. Choose the Manual Frame Type Selection option.

  4. To add a manual frame type, highlight the desired frame type and click on the Add button.

  5. You may also assign a manual frame type to a specific Internal Network Number if required. Usually, you want to leave the default (00000000) as is, which indicates that Windows NT Server will automatically detect the network number.

  6. Repeat this process to add any additional frame types.

  7. After adding all the necessary manual frame types, choose Close from the Network dialog box. A prompt appears for you to restart your server to effect the changes.

If you're running Windows NT 4, follow these steps:

  1. In the Control Panel, double-click on the Network icon. The Network dialog box appears. Select the Protocols tab.

  2. Choose Add. The Select Network Protocol dialog box appears.

  3. Select NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible Transport from the list of protocols, and then choose Properties. The NWLink IPX/SPX Properties dialog box appears (see fig. 12.3).

  4. From the General tab (the default), select the Manual Frame Type Detection option.

  5. To add a manual frame type, choose Add. The Manual Frame Detection dialog box appears, displaying a list of possible frame types.

  6. Choose the appropriate frame type from the drop-down list, and then choose Add. The Manual Frame Detection dialog box reappears, and the frame type you added displays.

  7. You may also assign a manual frame type to a specific Internal Network Number if required. Usually, you want to the leave the default (00000000) as is, which indicates that Windows NT Server will automatically detect the network number.

  8. Repeat this process to add any additional frame types.

  9. After adding all the necessary manual frame types, choose Close from the Network dialog box. A prompt appears for you to reboot your server. Choose Yes to reboot.

Gateway Services for NetWare (GSNW)

GSNW provides two important NetWare connectivity features for administrators: a NetWare client redirector, and a non-dedicated gateway that enables Microsoft-based client workstations to access file and print services on NetWare servers.

With the NetWare client redirector capability, Windows NT administrators can transparently access file and print services on any NetWare server connected to the network by using Explorer or Network Neighborhood. GSNW supports not only NetWare 2.x and 3.x servers, but also Novell Directory Services (NDS) or bindery emulation on NetWare 4.x servers. NetWare logon script support is also included.

With GSNW, any Microsoft-based client workstation (without a NetWare client redirector) with access to the gateway on a Windows NT Server can access file and print services on designated NetWare servers. This is transparent to users. Users can also run many NetWare utilities and NetWare-aware applications by using the gateway.

How the GSNW Gateway Works

As previously discussed, Microsoft-based and NetWare-based networks use a different language to communicate between the client workstations and the servers. Microsoft uses SMB and NetWare uses NCP. One way to enable Microsoft-based clients to communicate with NetWare servers is to include a NetWare client redirector on the Windows NT Server client workstations. This enables the client workstations to speak NCP, and to communicate with NetWare servers.

Although the redirector works, it is not always convenient or feasible. To load a NetWare client redirector on a Microsoft-based client, the client workstation must have the necessary RAM to run a second client redirector (besides the Microsoft client redirector). Cost may sometimes exclude this option.

GSNW resolves this problem. After GSNW is loaded on a Windows NT Server, it transparently translates between SMB and NCP, enabling Microsoft-based client workstations to access NetWare file and print resources.

Take a look at how GSNW works. On a Windows NT Server with GSNW loaded, the administrator creates shares to any NetWare server he wants, very similar to how shares are created using File Manager or Explorer on Windows NT. Even share permissions are created the same. In addition, any NetWare print queues available on the shared NetWare servers are automatically available to Microsoft-based client workstation users after a gateway is established.

After these shares have been created, Windows-based client workstations can access these NetWare shares on the Windows NT Server just as if accessing standard Windows NT shares. The user never knows the difference. This means that your Windows-based clients do not need a NetWare-based client redirector to access file and print servers on NetWare servers.

After a GSNW gateway is established with a NetWare server, it only uses two NetWare server connections. The NetWare Client service uses one connection, and GSNW uses the other. This is true even if dozens of Microsoft-based client workstations access a NetWare server through the gateway.

Benefits of Using a GSNW Gateway

The following list identifies the benefits of using GSNW on a Windows NT Server:

  • By eliminating the need to load NetWare client redirector software on every Microsoft-based client workstation, you save a lot of initial installation time and any follow-up support that might be needed.

  • If the current workstations do not have enough RAM to run more than one client redirector, you avoid the expense of buying additional RAM by using GSNW.

  • From the user's perspective, life is easier because the user does not have to learn how to use a second set of network commands.

  • Although not a big dollar consideration, using the GSNW gateway can reduce the number of licensed connections you need for your client workstations to access a NetWare server, saving your organization money.

  • Under the NetWare licensing model, you must have a license for every connection made to a NetWare server. NetWare licenses its software based on actual concurrent connections, not the number of users who access the server. Because of this, you do not need a NetWare licensed connection for any of the Windows-based client workstations that access a NetWare server via the GSNW gateway. The only licensed connections you need are the two required for the NetWare client and gateway services.

Limitations of the GSNW Gateway

The GSNW gateway offers many benefits, but it is not the answer for all networks. Microsoft considers the GSNW gateway to be nondedicated. This means that performance can suffer if the GSNW gateway is used for unlimited NetWare server access.

No easy way exists to determine the maximum number of Windows-based client workstations that can access NetWare servers via the GSNW gateway. This is a function of the power of the Windows NT Server running the gateway, the power of the NetWare servers being accessed, and the bandwidth of your network. It also depends on how the gateway is used, and how often. Because of this, you must experiment for yourself to find the upper limit.

NetWare File Attributes Are Not Translated Exactly

When users access files on NetWare servers via the GSNW gateway, file attributes may not be exactly as expected. In most cases, this is not a problem; but you should be aware of potential areas for concern. Windows NT translates NetWare file attributes as shown in table 12.1.

Table 12.1 NetWare to Windows NT Server File Attribute Translation

NetWare File Attributes

Windows NT File Attributes

Read Only, Delete Inhibit, Rename Inhibit

Read Only

Archive

Archive

System

System

Hidden

Hidden

Planning to Use GSNW

Before you install GSNW and configure it for your network, you should consider the following:

  • Determine exactly which Windows-based client workstations need access to NetWare servers, and which client workstations will access the NetWare servers lightly and heavily.

  • Determine which NetWare servers need to be accessed by Microsoft-based client workstations.

  • Determine the number of GSNW gateways you need to best balance the load you expect on each gateway. You can run one gateway per Windows NT Server.

  • If some client workstations access the NetWare servers heavily, consider having them access the NetWare servers by using their own installed NetWare client redirector rather than using the GSNW gateway. The overall performance of your system determines the best mix.

  • After reviewing your network's needs, begin implementing the plan, one gateway at a time. As you install each one, check the performance for acceptability. If not acceptable, alter your plan accordingly.

Installing and Configuring GSNW

Installing GSNW includes several steps:

  1. If you have not already done so, install NWLink on all the Windows NT Servers where you intend to install GSNW. (See "Installing, Configuring, and Using Microsoft's NWLink," earlier in this chapter.)

  2. Prepare your NetWare servers. (See "How to Prepare NetWare Servers," later in this chapter.)

  3. Install the GSNW service on all Windows NT Servers. (See "How to Install the GSNW Service on Windows NT Servers," later in this chapter.)

  4. Configure GSNW, create shares, and set permissions. (See "How to Configure GSNW, Create Shares, and Set Permissions," later in this chapter.)

  5. Configure your Windows-based client workstations to use the shares and printers available on the NetWare servers. (See "Configuring the Windows-Based Client Workstations," later in this chapter.)

    Before you install GSNW on to a Windows NT Server, you must remove any pre-existing non-Microsoft NetWare redirectors, such as NetWare Services for Windows NT, which is available from Novell.

How to Prepare NetWare Servers

Preparing NetWare servers for use with GSNW varies slightly, depending on which version of NetWare you are using. The following paragraphs note these differences.

For 2.x and 3.x NetWare servers, create a user account and password to be used by GSNW to establish the communications link. Use the same account name on all the NetWare servers for ease of administration. The name of the user account is not important; but if you want to save yourself much administrative headache, use the name Administrator, and use the same password you use on your Windows NT domain. This account should be set to never expire and should have Supervisor equivalence to make your job as easy as possible. Although you do not have to give the account Supervisor equivalence, you will find your administrative chores much more difficult if it is not. Then add this account to a group called NTGATEWAY. It must be spelled exactly this way.

On NetWare 4.x servers, you must take some slightly different steps. If you are not using NetWare 4.x, skip this step. GSNW only works by using NetWare's bindery emulation. It does not support NDS. This means that for every NDS container on the NetWare servers that you want to be accessed through GSNW, you must use the NetWare SET command on the NetWare 4.x server to enable bindery emulation for that container. After you have made a container available to bindery emulation, you must create a user within that container with the appropriate security rights, as discussed previously. Add the user that you created in every container you made available to bindery emulation to the NTGATEWAY account that you created in every container.

What about security? Although it is possible to assign security on the NetWare servers, it is much easier to manage security at the actual gateway. Security management is discussed later in this chapter.

Real World

When using GSNW, Windows NT tries to authenticate you as a NetWare server user by using your Windows NT administrative logon name and password. If your logon name and password are the same on both the Windows NT Server and the NetWare servers, this authentication is automatic and invisible to you. If your logon name and password for your Windows NT domain is different from your NetWare Preferred Server (or Default Tree and Context for 4.x users) logon name and password, you must log on twice: one logon for Windows NT, and one logon for NetWare. Avoid this problem by using the same user name and password on all servers.

How to Install the GSNW Service on Windows NT Servers

After the NetWare servers are configured, you can install the GSNW service on each Windows NT Server. To do so, follow the procedures applicable to your version of Windows NT Server.

If you're running Windows NT 3.51, follow these steps:

  1. Be certain that you are logged on to the Windows NT Server as a member of the Administrators group before you begin.

  2. In the Control Panel, double-click on the Network icon. The Network Settings dialog box appears.

  3. Click on the Add Software button. The Add Network Software dialog box appears.

  4. Choose Gateway Services for NetWare from the Network Software scroll-down list, and then click on the Continue button.

  5. The Windows NT Setup dialog box appears. Enter the path to the Windows NT Server files, and then choose Continue.

  6. After all the necessary files have been copied, you will be returned to the Network Settings dialog box. Click on the OK button.

  7. After a few moments, a prompt appears for you to restart the server. To restart, click on the Restart Now button.

  8. After the server reboots, log on. The Select Preferred Server for NetWare dialog box appears. This dialog box only appears one time after you first install GSNW. Enter your preferred logon server in the Preferred Server box.

  9. After entering the required information, the desktop appears as normal. To verify that GSNW has been loaded, check the Control Panel for an icon labeled GSNW. This is where GSNW is configured.

If you're running Windows NT 4, follow these steps:

  1. Be certain that you are logged on to the Windows NT Server as a member of the Administrators group before you begin.

  2. In the Control Panel, double-click on the Network icon. The Network dialog box appears. Select the Services tab.

  3. On the Services tab, choose Add. The Select Network Service dialog box appears (see fig. 12.4).

  4. Select Gateway (and Client) Services for NetWare from the list, and then choose OK.

  5. The Windows NT Setup dialog box appears. Enter the path to the Windows NT Server files, and then choose Continue.

  6. After a few moments, you are asked if you want to reboot your system now. Choose Yes.

  7. After the server reboots, log on. The Select Preferred Server for NetWare dialog box appears. This dialog box only appears one time after you first install GSNW.

    If you are connecting to NetWare 2.x or 3.x servers, enter your preferred logon server in the Preferred Server box. If you are connecting to a NetWare 4.x server, you must enter both the name of the NDS Tree and the NDS Context for your NetWare logon account.

    If your account name and password on both the NetWare server and the Windows NT Server are not identical, a prompt appears for you to enter the NetWare logon name and password.

  8. In the same dialog box, you must specify whether you want your NetWare logon script to run when you log on to Windows NT Server. If you select Run Logon Script, the script will be executed in a command window during Windows NT logon.

    Windows NT Server 4 supports NetWare logon scripts.

  9. After entering the required information, the desktop appears as normal. To verify that GSNW has been loaded, check the Control Panel for an icon labeled GSNW. This is where GSNW is configured.

    After installing GSNW, NetWare resources are, by default, placed in the browser list when browsing. If you do not want this to happen, you can change the network browse order in the Services panel of the Network dialog box. Choose the Network Access Order button. In the Network Access Order dialog box, you can change the order of network browsing.

How to Configure GSNW, Create Shares, and Set Permissions

After GSNW has been installed and the server has rebooted, the NetWare client redirector component of GSNW is loaded and active. If you go to either the File Manager under version 3.51, or the Explorer or Network Neighborhood under 4, you now see NetWare or Compatible Network as an option you can select. If you select it, you will see a listing of all the NetWare servers on your network. Assuming that your Windows NT logon name and password are the same on all NetWare servers, you can access any NetWare server you want.

If your Windows NT Server logon name and password are not the same as the NetWare server you are accessing, and you did not log on in a separate step to the NetWare server when you logged on to Windows NT, a prompt appears for you to enter the appropriate NetWare logon name and password when you attempt to access any of the NetWare servers displayed in File Manager, Explorer, or Network Neighborhood.

Before GSNW can become a gateway for Windows-based client workstations, it must be configured, shares created, and permissions set. To configure the GSNW gateway, follow these steps:

  1. In the Control Panel, double-click on the GSNW icon. The Gateway Service for NetWare dialog box appears.

  2. Click on the Gateway button. The Configure Gateway dialog box appears.

  3. To enable the gateway, select the Enable Gateway check box. This turns on the gateway (see fig. 12.5).

  4. In the Gateway Account text box, enter the NetWare user account you created on the NetWare server. (This user account must be a member of the NTGATEWAY group on the NetWare Server.)

  5. Enter the password for the user account twice, first in the Password text box, and again in the Confirm Password box.

    After the GSNW gateway is enabled, the next step is to share the NetWare servers as required by your user's needs.

  6. In the Configure Gateway dialog box, choose Add. The New Share dialog box appears.

  7. For every folder you want to share from the NetWare server, you must create a new share. To create a share, enter a share name in the Share Name box. This is the share name that Windows clients see when they browse this Windows NT Server (see fig. 12.6).

  8. In the Network Path box, enter the path for the NetWare folder you are sharing. If the NetWare server is version 2.x or 3.x, enter the path name using the UNC format \\NetWare_servername\volume_name\folder_name. If the NetWare server is 4.x, choose Help for more information on how to enter NDS names in a path.

    When creating multiple shares, you can specify folders from different NetWare servers, assuming they have been prepared as described earlier.

  9. The Comment box is optional and can contain any descriptive information that users may find helpful when they browse for the share.

  10. The Use Drive is filled in with a default drive letter, starting with Z:, and so on in descending order. This drive letter is used on the Windows NT Server by the gateway and appears in File Manager or Explorer. It is required for the gateway to work.

  11. The User Limit box enables you to limit the number of Windows clients that can attach to the share you are creating. As previously discussed, you may want to limit the number of connections due to the load limits of GSNW.

  12. Choose OK when done. The share is created, and you are returned to the Configure Gateway dialog box, where the share is displayed in a list.

  13. Repeat this process for every NetWare folder on every NetWare server you want to share.

  14. Finally, you must set the proper share permissions to protect the data on the NetWare servers. Permissions on NetWare shares are created identically to permissions on Windows NT shares.

See Chapter 9, "Administrating Windows NT Server Drives, Directories, and Files," p. 247, for information on the different types of share permissions Windows NT supports.

To set permissions on a GSNW share, follow these steps:

  1. In the Configure Gateway dialog box, select the share. The share is highlighted.

  2. Choose the Permissions button. The Permissions dialog box appears.

  3. By default, the Everyone group is automatically assigned Full Rights to the share. In most cases, you will want to delete this permission and assign your own, based on your users' needs.

  4. Remove or add permissions just as when creating a share by using File Manager or Explorer.

    After a NetWare share has been configured through GSNW, it stays available until the gateway Windows NT Server is turned off. Logging off the Windows NT Server does not disconnect NetWare shares.

Configuring the Windows-Based Client Workstations

After the GSNW gateway is set up, you, your assistants, or even the users themselves can use Windows-based client operating systems to connect to any of the NetWare shares you have created with GSNW. These shares look and work identically to any Windows NT share.

If any of your Windows-based client workstations need access to a shared printer on a NetWare server, all you or your users need to do is use the Print Manager to browse for the NetWare server with the required printer, select the proper print queue (all the print queues for each NetWare server display in the browse list), and connect to the print share. If the workstation does not already have the proper printer driver installed, it must be installed. After the connection is made, any application software can be used to print to the NetWare-based printer.

GSNW Troubleshooting Tips

If after NWLink and GSNW are installed you cannot see any NetWare servers in a browse list from the Windows NT Server, first check to see that NWLink is properly loaded. If so, check to see that the frame types being used on the Windows NT Server and NetWare servers are the same. They must be the same. If this still does not solve the problem, check NWLink's bindings to see if they are properly enabled.

If you get the message Gateway Service for NetWare terminated with the following error: The system cannot find the specified file, GSNW was not properly installed., remove GSNW, and then reinstall it by using the Network option in the Control Panel.

If you get the message The NWLink service depends on the NWLinksys services that failed to start because of the following error: The system cannot find the file specified, NWLink was not installed properly., remove NWLink, and then reinstall it by using the Network icon in the Control Panel.

If you get the message Error binding to adapter card cardname, your network interface card is not working or its settings are incorrect. Isolate the problem and take the necessary actions to fix the problem.

If when you try to log on to a NetWare server, you get a message telling you that you cannot connect because of a lack of available connections, you probably have exceeded the number of licensed NetWare connections on the server that you are being authenticated on. Remember, GSNW uses two NetWare connections, so you must have two available NetWare connections to be authenticated and for GSNW to work.

Every time you log on to a Windows NT Server with GSNW installed on it, you must log on twice: one time for the Windows NT Server domain and one time for the NetWare preferred server or preferred tree and context. If you only want to log on one time, be certain that you have an account on the NetWare server that matches your Windows NT Server user name and password.

If after GSNW is installed and configured, you are unable to share any of the folders on the NetWare servers, first check to see that you have properly created a group named NTGATEWAY on the NetWare server. Also check that you have created a gateway account (preferably using your NT Server domain logon account and password), and have placed this account in the NTGATEWAY group on the NetWare server. If this still does not work, ensure that the gateway account you created has the necessary NetWare permissions.

If Windows-based client workstations are unable to connect to NetWare shares, or they are able to connect, but are unable to access the files on the share, first check the permissions on the gateway account on the NetWare server. Ideally, the gateway account should have Supervisor equivalence. If this does not solve the problem, check the permissions assigned to the NetWare shares using GSNW.

Migrating from NetWare to Windows NT Server

Included with Windows NT Server is a utility called NWConv, which makes it easy to migrate users and data from a NetWare server to a Windows NT Server.

With NWConv, you can migrate:

  • NetWare user accounts, along with most user information.

  • NetWare user groups.

  • All or selected folders and files, while preserving permissions.

  • One or more NetWare servers to one or more Windows NT Servers.

  • NetWare logon scripts, if you are also running Microsoft's File and Print Services for NetWare on the Windows NT Server.

  • You can also perform trial migrations before the actual migration in order to reduce migration errors.

Migration Paths

The migration tool, NWConv, is not the only way to migrate. You always have the option of doing a manual migration. You can create all new user accounts on the Windows NT Server, and use the NetWare client redirector on the Windows NT Server to make a connection between the Windows NT Server and NetWare server, and use Explorer to manually copy files from server to server.

So which option is better, using NWConv or doing a manual migration? This depends on what kind of shape your NetWare server is in. If your NetWare users' names are inconsistently named, group memberships do not match users' requirements, and other user settings are not being taken advantage of for proper security and ease of administration, you might consider starting from scratch, entering all the user names consistently, taking full advantage of Windows NT's capabilities.

The same goes for the file structure. If programs and files are not being used any more, or if the current permissions set on files and folders are not consistent or optimized for security, you may want to manually move the necessary files and folders to the Windows NT Server and use File Manager or Explorer to assign permissions.

You must evaluate your own situation, and decide what works best for you.

Hardware and Software Requirements for Performing a Migration

Before you can perform a migration, you need to check the following hardware and software configurations:

  • Be certain that your Windows NT Server has enough hard disk space to migrate all the files and folders from the NetWare server.

  • To migrate NetWare permissions when migrating files and folders, the Windows NT Server partition must be formatted as NTFS.

  • NWLink must be loaded on the Windows NT Server.

  • GSNW must be loaded on the Windows NT Server.

  • You must have Supervisor rights on the NetWare server and Administrative rights on the Windows NT Server.

  • If you are migrating to an Windows NT Server across a domain, you must have the appropriate trust relationships established.

  • NWConv can only be run on Windows NT Servers that function as domain controllers (PDCs or BDCs).

  • NWConv can be run from the server to which you are migrating, or remotely from another computer running Windows NT Server or Windows NT Workstation.

Planning the Migration

To make the migration as easy as possible, you need to think through and plan the entire process as much as possible. Some points you should consider include:

  • Identify exactly what you want to migrate. For example, which users, groups, and folders do you want to migrate?

  • Which Windows NT Server or servers will receive these users and files?

  • Determine the best order to migrate NetWare servers to your Windows NT Servers, assuming you are migrating more than one NetWare server. Generally, your job is made easier if you migrate NetWare servers with the most user accounts first, the second largest number next, and so on. This makes it easier to deal with the problem of duplicate user names.

  • You also should consider the order you will be transferring NetWare volumes to Windows NT Servers. By default, NWConv merges all volumes of the same name as a single shared folder when migrating data from more than one NetWare server. You may not want this, and must plan how you want to handle it. You'll learn more about this later.

In addition to the preceding items, you need to consider exactly what will and will not be migrated by NWConv.

What Will Be Migrated

NWConv will migrate the following NetWare information to Windows NT:

  • User accounts, including account information

  • Group accounts

  • Account permissions, where applicable

  • Folder structures and files

  • NetWare logon scripts (if you are also running Microsoft's File and Print Services for NetWare)

What Will Not Be Migrated

Fortunately, almost everything is migrated, but some things are not:

  • Print server and queue information are not migrated because Windows NT handles printers much better than NetWare.

  • NetWare 2.x and 3.x user-defined objects are not migrated because these bindery objects have no Windows NT equivalent. NetWare 4.x NDS objects are also not migrated. NWConv uses the NetWare 4.x bindery emulation capability for migration; it does not support NDS.

  • Some of the NetWare user account restrictions are not migrated. NetWare account restrictions that are not migrated to Windows NT Server include: Limit Concurrent Connections, Grace Logins, Station Restrictions, and User Disk Volume Restrictions.

  • The NetWare User Account Manager, and the File Server Console Operator group accounts are not migrated because Windows NT does not support them.

  • Passwords are not migrated because NetWare encrypts them and NT is unable to decrypt them.

  • User accounts with NetWare Supervisor equivalence are not automatically made a member of the Domain Administrators global group on Windows NT Server. If desired, you can override this.

How NetWare Permissions Migrate

NetWare and Windows NT file directory permissions are slightly different; if Windows NT does not have an equivalent in NetWare, that permission is not migrated. In practice, the differences in permissions should not present any problems.

Table 12.2 describes how NetWare directory permissions are migrated to Windows NT directory permissions.

Table 12.2 NetWare and Windows NT Server Directory Permissions

NetWare Directory Permissions

Windows NT Server Permissions

Supervisor (S)

Full Control (All)

Read (R)

Read (RX)

Write (W)

Change (RWXD)

Erase (E)

Change (RWXD)

Modify (M)

Change (RWXD)

Create (C)

Add (WX)

File Scan (F)

List (RX)

Access Control (A)

Change Permission (P)

Table 12.3 shows how NetWare file permissions are migrated to Windows NT file permissions.

Table 12.3 NetWare and Windows NT Server File Permissions

NetWare File Permissions

Windows NT Server Permissions

Supervisor (S)

Full Control (All)

Read (R)

Read (RX)

Write (W)

Change (RWXD)

Erase (E)

Change (RWXD)

Modify (M)

Change (RWXD)

Access Control (A)

Change Permission (P)

Missing Passwords and Duplicate User and Group Accounts

When planning the migration, the final steps concern how you intend to deal with missing passwords and duplicate user accounts.

When you configure the migration tool, NWConv gives you several options:

  • No password is assigned to each migrated account. This is obviously not a good choice from a security perspective.

  • All assigned passwords are the same password (a password that you assign).

  • The assigned password is the user's user account name. This is still not great security, but it is probably your best option.

Most importantly, you want to force users to choose a new password the first time they log on. Although there is little to no security between the time you migrate and when the users first log on, this is a risk you may have to take. If security is critical for you, you can migrate all the users by using a mapping file. This enables you to manually assign unique passwords to every user during the migration. More on mapping files later.

As you know, you cannot enter the same user account or group name more than one time. What happens if some of the same user accounts being migrated to Windows NT already exist on the Windows NT Server? Or what if you are migrating multiple NetWare servers to Windows NT, and they have the same user or group accounts on more than one server?

NWConv gives you several ways to cope with these problems:

  • Log an error to a log file when duplicate user or group names occur, while at the same time not migrating the duplicated user or group. The log file can provide the information you need to fix the problem later.

  • Ignore the duplicate user or group name and don't migrate it (not a great choice).

  • Overwrite the Windows NT user or group account information with the information from the NetWare server. This can cause all kinds of unexpected problems.

  • Add a prefix you designate to the duplicate user or group account while migrating the information. This may be your best bet; it offers you the flexibility to fix problems on the Windows NT side after the migration.

You should consider and address all these issues before you begin your migration.

Before You Begin NWConv

Before you begin NWConv to start a migration, be certain that the NetWare account you are using has Supervisor rights for the NetWare server or servers you plan to migrate. If not, you want to add your Windows NT Server user account to the NetWare server or servers and give the account Supervisor equivalence. You must also have Windows NT Server Administrative rights to conduct a migration.

You must also check to see that you have not mapped any drives from File Manager or Explorer to any of the NetWare servers you want to migrate. If any drives are mapped, unmap them before attempting the migration; otherwise, you will get an error message during the migration process.

How to Start NWConv

An NWConv icon is automatically installed into the Administrative Tools menu when Windows NT Server 4 is loaded. Under version 3.51, the NWConv icon must be manually added to the Administrative Tools group. To start the program, choose it from the Administrative Tools menu from the Start menu, or run it from the Run option from the Start menu.

How to Configure NWConv

Configuring NWConv is a several step process. Although most defaults work for most migrations, you may want to change them as described later.

How to Select Servers to Migrate

After starting NWConv for the first time, you are immediately asked to specify which NetWare server(s) you want to migrate from, and which Windows NT Server(s) you want to migrate to. Even if you migrate more than one NetWare server to one or more Windows NT Servers, you do the migration one NetWare server to one Windows NT Server at a time. NWConv remembers these settings; they are displayed each time you restart NWConv.

To change your NetWare or Windows NT Server selections, choose Delete from the Migration Tool for NetWare dialog box to remove any NetWare or Windows NT Servers. To add any NetWare or Windows NT Servers, choose Add.

After you select the servers, the Migration Tool for NetWare dialog box enables you to set specific user and file migration options.

To set User Options, choose this option from the Migration Tool for NetWare dialog box. The User and Group Options dialog box appears. To set File Options, choose this option from the Migration Tool for NetWare dialog box. The File Options dialog box appears.

How to Migrate Users and Groups

From the User and Group Options dialog box, you must first decide whether you want to migrate any users or groups (see fig. 12.7). By default, the Transfer Users and Groups check box is selected; this tells NWConv that you want to migrate all users and groups. You do not have a choice to migrate only part of the users and groups. It is an all or nothing proposition.

Next, you can choose if you want to use a mappings file. This ASCII file, which you create, enables you to map old user or group account names to new user or group account names, and even enter unique passwords for every user. Although this can be a lot of extra work now, it can save you much administrative time in the future.

How to Create a Mapping File

If the NWConv user and group options do not meet all your needs, you can create a custom mapping file that enables you to clean up inconsistent user and group names, along with adding unique passwords to user accounts.

You can create a mapping file manually using an ASCII editor, or you can have NWConv create one for you that you can edit. NWConv can automatically create the mapping file along with all the necessary section headings, including all the names of all user and group accounts from the NetWare server you are migrating from. All you must do is edit the file to make the necessary changes.

To have NWConv create the mapping file for you, choose the Create button next to the Use Mappings in File option. A prompt appears for you to enter a file name. After you enter a file name and choose OK, the file is created for you automatically. You are given the option at this time to edit the file, or you can always edit it later by choosing Edit from the User and Group Options dialog box.

After the file is created, you can edit it with any ASCII editor, such as Notepad, make any changes to names, and add passwords.

The mapping file includes two sections: [USERS] and [GROUPS]. Each user or group is on a line by itself. Each line in the [USERS] section follows this format:

old_username,new_username,[password]

The old_username is the current user name from the NetWare server. The new_username is the new name with which you want to replace the old_username. If you want the old_username to remain the same, do not enter a new_username. Password is the unique password you have assigned the user, assuming you want to go through all the trouble of entering and distributing them to users. If you do not enter a password, no password is assigned.

Each line of the [GROUP] section follows this format:

old_groupname,new_groupname

Like user names, the old_groupname represents the group names on the NetWare server being migrated. To change any of the group names, enter the new group name as new_groupname.

If you do not want a particular user name or group name to be migrated, delete the line.

Selecting Password Options

As mentioned earlier, passwords do not migrate from NetWare to Windows NT. This means you must choose how to deal with the missing passwords. You can choose:

  • No Password

  • Password is Username

  • Password isU (you choose a common password)

Choose the option that best meets your needs. You also want to be certain to select the User Must Change Password check box; you want your users to be forced to enter a new password the first time they log on to Windows NT with their new Windows NT user account.

Selecting Usernames Options

The odds are that you will run into one or more duplicate user names when migrating from NetWare. To deal with this probability, you have these four choices:

  • Log Error. The duplicate user name is not transferred, but the error is logged in the ERROR.LOG file.

  • Ignore. The duplicate user name is not transferred, and the error is not logged.

  • Overwrite With New Info. The NetWare user account name and user information overwrites the current Windows NT Server.

  • Add Prefix. You can select a prefix, such as letters or numbers, that will distinguish the duplicate user name on the NetWare server from the same user name on the Windows NT Server.

If you are going to do a trial migration, you may want to choose the Log Error option. This option enables you to fix any problems on the NetWare server before the actual migration. But if you are doing an actual migration, you may want to consider the Add Prefix option because it enables you the greatest flexibility for fixing any potential duplicate user name problems.

Selecting Group Name Options

Like with user names, you will probably encounter duplicate group names; you need to decide how to deal with them. Your options include:

  • Log Error. The duplicate group name is not transferred, but the error is logged in the ERROR.LOG file.

  • Ignore. The duplicate group name is not transferred, and the error is not logged.

  • Add Prefix. You can select a prefix, such as letters or numbers, that will distinguish the duplicate group name from the NetWare server from the same name group name on the Windows NT Server.

Like with duplicate user names, you may want to use the Log Error option during trail migrations and the Add Prefix option when doing an actual migration.

Selecting Default Options

Generally, you should not have to change the default settings that appear on the Defaults tab in the User and Group Options dialog box. When the Use Supervisor Defaults is selected (it is by default), the NetWare Supervisor's account will be used for Windows NT Server Account Policies for the migrated NetWare user accounts.

By default, NWConv does not automatically add user accounts from the NetWare server to the Windows NT Server Administrators Group, even if the user account on the NetWare server was a member of the Supervisor's group. If you do not like this default, you can change it; NWConv will perform this task for you.

How to Migrate Folders and Files

After specifying which user and group accounts you want to migrate, your next task is to select the folders and files you want to migrate. To make your selection, choose File Options from the Migration Tool for NetWare dialog box. The File Options dialog box appears (see fig. 12.8).

Selecting Where to Migrate Folders and Files

By default, all NetWare volumes are automatically migrated to Windows NT Server. If you do not want a particular volume to be migrated, you can prevent one or more NetWare volumes from being migrated by choosing the Delete option from the File Options dialog box.

Also by default, NetWare volumes are migrated to the Windows NT Server and use the same volume names as found on the NetWare server. If you do not want to use the same volume names, specify a different name on the Windows NT Server by choosing the Modify button from the File Options dialog box.

This is especially important if you are migrating volumes from multiple NetWare servers, and the servers have common volume names, such as SYS or DATA. If you do not specify where the folders and files from the NetWare server will be migrated to on the Windows NT Server, they will all be merged into the same folder, which may not be what you want.

Selecting Which Folders and Files to Migrate

With the exception of the SYSTEM, LOGIN, MAIL, and ETC folders on the NetWare administrative volumes and all hidden and system files, all folders and files on NetWare servers are automatically selected for migration. If you do not want all NetWare folders and files to be migrated, you can deselect those by choosing the Files option from the File Options dialog box.

The Files option displays the Files To Transfer dialog box, which enables you to select—by checking a box—which shares or files you want to migrate (see fig. 12.9).

How to Migrate NetWare Logon Scripts

If the Windows NT Server you are migrating to is running File and Print Services for NetWare, you can use NWConv to migrate users' logon scripts. To do this, be certain that you select (it is not selected by default) the MAIL folder in the Files To Transfer dialog box. This automatically migrates all NetWare logon scripts.

Trial Migrations

Before performing an actual migration, you should perform one or more trial migrations. A trial migration enables you to test your settings, and check any of the three log files generated to see how successful the migration was—all without incurring problems on your production system.

A trial migration does everything an actual migration does without actually doing it. You should always perform at least one trial migration, and as many as necessary until you are confident that the migration will go exactly as planned.

Every time you run a trial, or actual migration, NWConv creates a new set of log files that you can use to document the success of the migration. The three log files include:

  • LOGFILE.LOG documents everything migrated. By default, every user and group is logged in detail.

  • SUMMARY.LOG includes a summary of the entire migration, including the number of users, groups, and files migrated.

  • ERROR.LOG includes all errors, such as duplicate user and group names. Use this record to make corrections in the migration before conducting the actual migration. You should examine this log file carefully.

How to Perform a Trial Migration

Before performing a trial migration, make any appropriate changes to the NWConv settings. To start the trial migration, choose Trial Migration from the Migration Tool for NetWare dialog box. A confirmation dialog box appears. Choose Yes to continue, and the trial migration begins. Upon completion, you are given the option of viewing the log files.

If you ever need to view the log files later, you can view them by choosing Logging from the Migration Tool for NetWare dialog box.

Performing the Migration

After you conduct one or more trial migrations and are happy with the results, you are ready to perform the actual migration. Before you begin, be certain that no users are currently logged on to the NetWare server you are migrating from, and that all the files on the server are closed.

To perform the migration, choose Start Migration from the Migration Tool for NetWare dialog box. A confirmation dialog box appears. Choose Yes to continue, and the migration begins. Depending on the number of user and group accounts, and the number of folders and files to be migrated, this could take some time.

After the Migration

After the migration, you should view the ERROR.LOG again for potential problems. Also, you should spot check the migrated user and group accounts, along with the folders and files, to see that they were migrated to the Windows NT Server as expected.

If you need to migrate additional NetWare servers, begin the process previously described. Each migration from a NetWare server should be looked at as a separate step.

Troubleshooting Tips

If NWConv will not load, you must have both NWLink and GSNW loaded on the Windows NT Server before you can run NWConv.

If you are unable to migrate from a NetWare 4.x server, be certain that you have established the correct bindery emulation on the NetWare server. NWConv does not understand Novell Directory Services (NDS); thus, you must manually set bindery emulation for every container you want to migrate to a Windows NT Server.

You get an error message indicating that you do not have permissions to perform a migration. To perform a migration, you must have Supervisor rights on the NetWare server and Administrative rights on the Windows NT Server.

After the migration is completed, the folders and files migrated to the Windows NT Server do not have the same permissions they did on the NetWare server. To migrate permissions with folders and files, they must be migrated to an NTFS partition on the Windows NT Server. Permissions are lost when folders and files are migrated to a FAT partition.

Other Microsoft NetWare Connectivity Tools

Besides NWLink, GSNW, and NWConv, Microsoft offers some optional additional NetWare connectivity tools: File and Print Services for NetWare and Directory Service Manager for NetWare. These two products run on Windows NT Server and are purchased separately.

File and Print Services for NetWare

File and Print Services for NetWare turns a Windows NT Server into a NetWare 3.12-compatible file and print server. With this service loaded, NetWare clients think that the Windows NT Server is a NetWare server, and can access the file and print services on the Windows NT Server, without having a Microsoft client redirector.

This tool makes it easier for administrators who are moving from NetWare servers to Windows NT Servers because current NetWare client workstations do not have to immediately upgrade to Microsoft clients. Administrators can migrate NetWare 2.x and 3.x servers to one or more Windows NT Servers, and the NetWare clients will not know what happened. Later, when time is available, the administrator can migrate the NetWare client workstations to Microsoft clients.

Directory Service Manager for NetWare

Directory Service Manager for NetWare is a clever utility that enables Windows NT administrators to manage NetWare 2.x and 3.x servers (4.x servers in bindery emulation mode) from a Windows NT Server. This service copies NetWare user and group account information to a Windows NT Server, and then propagates any changes made to the accounts on the Windows NT Server back to the NetWare servers; administrators do not have to go to every NetWare server to make changes when a user account changes. They only have to make the change on the Windows NT Server. The changes are made automatically to all the NetWare servers.

Recap

This chapter is particularly valuable to Novell NetWare CNA or CNE professionals involved in a Windows NT Server migration process. It details NetWare compatibility and conversion tools to guide you through the NetWare to Windows NT Server migration.

Additionally, the chapter investigates Windows NT Server and Novell NetWare interconnectivity issues. If your Novell network site is planning to add a Windows NT Server or two, this chapter demonstrates just how easy the process can be to connect the two different systems.

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