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What's New in AD DS: Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell

Updated: January 9, 2009

Applies To: Windows Server 2008 R2

The Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell provides command-line scripting for administrative, configuration, and diagnostic tasks, with a consistent vocabulary and syntax. The Active Directory module enables end-to-end manageability with Exchange Server, Group Policy, and other services.

Windows PowerShell™ is a command-line shell and scripting language that can help information technology (IT) professionals control system administration more easily and achieve greater productivity.

The Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell consolidates a group of cmdlets. You can use these cmdlets to manage your Active Directory domains, Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) configuration sets, and Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instances in a single, self-contained package.

In Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Server 2008, administrators used a variety of command-line tools and Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-ins to connect to their Active Directory domains and AD LDS configuration sets to monitor and manage them. The Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell now provides a centralized experience for administering your directory service.

The following groups might be interested in the Active Directory module:

  • Enterprise IT planners and designers

  • Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) management teams

  • AD DS administrators

  • The Active Directory module can be installed only on computers that are running Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012. The Active Directory module cannot be installed on computers running Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003, or Windows Server 2008.

  • You can also install the Active Directory module on Windows 7 or Windows 8 Release Preview as part of Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). However, if you want to install the Active Directory module to remotely manage an Active Directory domain, an AD LDS instance or configuration set, or an Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instance, you must have at least one Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 domain controller in your domain or at least one instance in an AD LDS configuration set that is running on a Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 server.

The Active Directory module consists of the Active Directory module provider and the Active Directory module cmdlets.

Administrators can use the Active Directory module provider to easily navigate and access data that is stored in Active Directory domains, Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instances, and AD LDS instances and configuration sets. The Active Directory module provider exposes the Active Directory database through a hierarchical navigation system, which is very similar to the file system. For example, while you are using the Active Directory module, you can use the following commands to navigate through your directory:

  • cd

  • dir

  • remove

  • .

  • ..

You can use the Active Directory module provider to map Active Directory domains, AD LDS instances, and Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instances to specific provider drives. When the Active Directory module is first loaded, a default Active Directory drive (AD:) is mounted. To connect to that drive, run the cd AD: command. To connect a new provider drive to an Active Directory domain, an AD LDS server, or an Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instance, you can use the following cmdlet:

New-PSDrive -Name <name of the drive> -PSProvider ActiveDirectory -Root "<DN of the partition/NC>" –Server <server or domain name (NetBIOS/FQDN)[:port number]> -Credential <domain name>\<username>

 

Parameter Description

-Name <name of the drive>

Specifies the name of the drive that is being added.

-PSProvider ActiveDirectory

The name of the provider, in this case, ActiveDirectory.

-Root "<DN of the partition/NC>"

Specifies the internal root or path of the provider.

–Server <server or domain name (NetBIOS/FQDN)[:port number]>

Specifies the server that hosts your Active Directory domain or an AD LDS instance.

-Credential <domain name>\<username>

Specifies the credentials that you must have to connect to the Active Directory domain or the AD LDS server.

You can use the Active Directory module cmdlets to perform various administrative, configuration, and diagnostic tasks in your AD DS and AD LDS environments. You can use the Active Directory module to manage existing Active Directory user and computer accounts, groups, organizational units (OUs), domains and forests, domain controllers, and password policies, or to create new ones.

The following table lists all the cmdlets that are available in this release of the Active Directory module in Windows Server 2008 R2.

noteNote
For more information on Active Directory PowerShell features that are new to Windows Server 2012, please refer to the following topics:

 

Cmdlet Description

Disable-ADAccount

Disables an Active Directory account.

Enable-ADAccount

Enables an Active Directory account.

Search-ADAccount

Gets Active Directory user, computer, and service accounts.

Unlock-ADAccount

Unlocks an Active Directory account.

Get-ADAccountAuthorizationGroup

Gets the Active Directory security groups that contain an account.

Set-ADAccountControl

Modifies user account control (UAC) values for an Active Directory account.

Clear-ADAccountExpiration

Clears the expiration date for an Active Directory account.

Set-ADAccountExpiration

Sets the expiration date for an Active Directory account.

Set-ADAccountPassword

Modifies the password of an Active Directory account.

Get-ADAccountResultantPasswordReplicationPolicy

Gets the resultant password replication policy for an Active Directory account.

Get-ADComputer

Gets one or more Active Directory computers.

New-ADComputer

Creates a new Active Directory computer.

Remove-ADComputer

Removes an Active Directory computer.

Set-ADComputer

Modifies an Active Directory computer.

Add-ADComputerServiceAccount

Adds one or more service accounts to an Active Directory computer.

Get-ADComputerServiceAccount

Gets the service accounts that are hosted by an Active Directory computer.

Remove-ADComputerServiceAccount

Removes one or more service accounts from a computer.

Get-ADDefaultDomainPasswordPolicy

Gets the default password policy for an Active Directory domain.

Set-ADDefaultDomainPasswordPolicy

Modifies the default password policy for an Active Directory domain.

Move-ADDirectoryServer

Moves a domain controller in AD DS to a new site.

Move-ADDirectoryServerOperationMasterRole

Moves operation master (also known as flexible single master operations or FSMO) roles to an Active Directory domain controller.

Get-ADDomain

Gets an Active Directory domain.

Set-ADDomain

Modifies an Active Directory domain.

Get-ADDomainController

Gets one or more Active Directory domain controllers, based on discoverable services criteria, search parameters, or by providing a domain controller identifier, such as the NetBIOS name.

Add-ADDomainControllerPasswordReplicationPolicy

Adds users, computers, and groups to the Allowed List or the Denied List of the read-only domain controller (RODC) Password Replication Policy (PRP).

Get-ADDomainControllerPasswordReplicationPolicy

Gets the members of the Allowed List or the Denied List of the RODC PRP.

Remove-ADDomainControllerPasswordReplicationPolicy

Removes users, computers, and groups from the Allowed List or the Denied List of the RODC PRP.

Get-ADDomainControllerPasswordReplicationPolicyUsage

Gets the resultant password policy of the specified ADAccount on the specified RODC.

Set-ADDomainMode

Sets the domain functional level for an Active Directory domain.

Get-ADFineGrainedPasswordPolicy

Gets one or more Active Directory fine-grained password policies.

New-ADFineGrainedPasswordPolicy

Creates a new Active Directory fine-grained password policy.

Remove-ADFineGrainedPasswordPolicy

Removes an Active Directory fine-grained password policy.

Set-ADFineGrainedPasswordPolicy

Modifies an Active Directory fine-grained password policy.

Add-ADFineGrainedPasswordPolicySubject

Applies a fine-grained password policy to one more users and groups.

Get-ADFineGrainedPasswordPolicySubject

Gets the users and groups to which a fine-grained password policy is applied.

Remove-ADFineGrainedPasswordPolicySubject

Removes one or more users from a fine-grained password policy.

Get-ADForest

Gets an Active Directory forest.

Set-ADForest

Modifies an Active Directory forest.

Set-ADForestMode

Sets the forest mode for an Active Directory forest.

Get-ADGroup

Gets one or more Active Directory groups.

New-ADGroup

Creates an Active Directory group.

Remove-ADGroup

Removes an Active Directory group.

Set-ADGroup

Modifies an Active Directory group.

Add-ADGroupMember

Adds one or more members to an Active Directory group.

Get-ADGroupMember

Gets the members of an Active Directory group.

Remove-ADGroupMember

Removes one or more members from an Active Directory group.

Get-ADObject

Gets one or more Active Directory objects.

Move-ADObject

Moves an Active Directory object or a container of objects to a different container or domain.

New-ADObject

Creates an Active Directory object.

Remove-ADObject

Removes an Active Directory object.

Rename-ADObject

Changes the name of an Active Directory object.

Restore-ADObject

Restores an Active Directory object.

Set-ADObject

Modifies an Active Directory object.

Disable-ADOptionalFeature

Disables an Active Directory optional feature.

Enable-ADOptionalFeature

Enables an Active Directory optional feature.

Get-ADOptionalFeature

Gets one or more Active Directory optional features.

Get-ADOrganizationalUnit

Gets one or more Active Directory OUs.

New-ADOrganizationalUnit

Creates a new Active Directory OU.

Remove-ADOrganizationalUnit

Removes an Active Directory OU.

Set-ADOrganizationalUnit

Modifies an Active Directory OU.

Add-ADPrincipalGroupMembership

Adds a member to one or more Active Directory groups.

Get-ADPrincipalGroupMembership

Gets the Active Directory groups that have a specified user, computer, or group.

Remove-ADPrincipalGroupMembership

Removes a member from one or more Active Directory groups.

Get-ADRootDSE

Gets the root of a domain controller information tree.

Get-ADServiceAccount

Gets one or more Active Directory service accounts.

Install-ADServiceAccount

Installs an Active Directory service account on a computer.

New-ADServiceAccount

Creates a new Active Directory service account.

Remove-ADServiceAccount

Remove an Active Directory service account.

Set-ADServiceAccount

Modifies an Active Directory service account.

Uninstall-ADServiceAccount

Uninstalls an Active Directory service account from a computer.

Reset-ADServiceAccountPassword

Resets the service account password for a computer.

Get-ADUser

Gets one or more Active Directory users.

New-ADUser

Creates a new Active Directory user.

Remove-ADUser

Removes an Active Directory user.

Set-ADUser

Modifies an Active Directory user.

Get-ADUserResultantPasswordPolicy

Gets the resultant password policy for a user.

noteNote
To list all the cmdlets that are available in the Active Directory module, use the Get-Command *-AD* cmdlet.

For more information about—or for the syntax for—any of the Active Directory module cmdlets, use the Get-Help <cmdlet name> cmdlet, where <cmdlet name> is the name of the cmdlet that you want to research. For more detailed information, you can run any of the following cmdlets:

  • Get-Help <cmdlet name> -Detailed

  • Get-Help <cmdlet name> -Full

  • Get-Help <cmdlet name> -Detailed

  • Get-Help <cmdlet name> -Examples

You can install the Active Directory module by using any of the following methods:

  • By default, on a Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 server when you install the AD DS or AD LDS server roles

  • By default, when you make a Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 server a domain controller by running Dcpromo.exe

    noteNote
    In Windows Server 2012, Dcpromo.exe is deprecated and installation of AD DS is done through Server Manager or using Windows PowerShell commands. For more information, Install Active Directory Domain Services.

  • As part of the RSAT feature on a Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 server

  • As part of the RSAT feature on a Windows 7 or Windows 8 Release Preview computer

    ImportantImportant
    If you want to use Active Directory module in Windows 7 or Windows 8 Release Preview to remotely manage an Active Directory domain, an AD LDS instance or configuration set, or an Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instance, you must have at least one Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 domain controller in your domain or at least one instance in an AD LDS configuration set that is running on a Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 server.

  • By default, the Active Directory module is installed with the following features:

    • Windows PowerShell

    • The Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5.1 or 4.5

    For the Active Directory module to function correctly, Windows PowerShell and the .NET Framework 3.5.1 or 4.5 must be installed.

  • If you want to use the Active Directory module to manage an Active Directory domain, an AD LDS instance or configuration set, or an Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instance, the Active Directory Web Services (ADWS) service must be installed on at least one domain controller in this domain or on one server that hosts your AD LDS instance. For more information about ADWS, see What's New in AD DS: Active Directory Web Services.

    WarningWarning
    To function correctly, the Active Directory module relies on ADWS service, which requires TCP port 9389 to be open on the domain controller where ADWS service is running. If you configure your firewall by using a Group Policy object (GPO), you must update the GPO to make sure that this port is open for ADWS.

noteNote
In Windows Server 2008 R2, when the Active Directory module is installed, to start it click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell. You can also load the Active Directory module manually by running the Import-Module ActiveDirectory command at the Windows PowerShell prompt. In Windows Server 2012, the Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell can be accessed using Start screen tile, and module autoloading enables you to use Active Directory PowerShell commands without having to first import the module into your Windows PowerShell session.

The Active Directory module is available in the following editions of Windows and Windows Server:

  • Windows Server 2012 Foundation

  • Standard

  • Datacenter

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter

  • Windows 7

The Active Directory module is not available in the following editions of Windows Server:

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 for Itanium-Based Systems

  • Windows Web Server 2008 R2

For more information about Windows PowerShell, see Windows PowerShell (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=102372).

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