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How Do I Provision Groups to AD DS

Updated: May 11, 2010

Applies To: Forefront Identity Manager 2010

One basic requirement for an identity management system is the ability to provision resources to an external system.

This guide walks you through the main building blocks that are involved in the process of provisioning groups from Microsoft® Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 R2 to Active Directory® Domain Services (AD DS), outlines how you can verify whether your scenario works as expected, provides suggestions for managing Active Directory groups by using FIM 2010, and lists additional sources for information.

Before You Begin

In this section, you will find information about the scope of this document.

In general, “How Do I” guides are targeted at readers who already have basic experience with the process of synchronizing objects with FIM as covered in the related Getting Started (http://go.microsoft.com/FWLink/?LinkId=190486) Guides.

Audience

This guide is intended for information technology (IT) professionals who already have a basic understanding of how the FIM synchronization process works and are interested in getting hands-on experience and more conceptual information about specific scenarios.

Prerequisite knowledge

This document assumes that you have access to a running instance of FIM and that you have experience in configuring simple synchronization scenarios as outlined in the following documents:

The content in this document is scoped to function as an extension to these introductory documents.

Scope

The scenario outlined in this document has been simplified to address the requirements of a basic lab environment. The focus is to give you an understanding of the concepts and technologies discussed.

This document helps you develop a solution that involves managing groups in AD DS by using FIM.

Time requirements

The procedures in this document require 120 to 150 minutes to complete.

These time estimates assume that the testing environment is already configured and does not include the time required to set up the test environment.

Getting support

If you have questions regarding the content of this document or if you have general feedback you would like to discuss, feel free to post a message to the Forefront Identity Manager 2010 forum (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189654).

Scenario description

Fabrikam, a fictitious company, is planning to use FIM to manage the groups in the corporation’s AD DS by using FIM. As part of this process, Fabrikam needs to provision groups to AD DS. To start with the initial testing, Fabrikam has installed a basic lab environment that consists of FIM and AD DS. In this lab environment, Fabrikam is testing a scenario that consists of a group that was manually created in the FIM Portal. The objective of this scenario is to provision the group to AD DS.

When managing groups with FIM, you should first test the synchronization of the group objects, and then add an attribute flow mapping for the member attribute. This approach simplifies the process of troubleshooting your environment. The scenario outlined in this document follows this recommendation. After provisioning a test security group to AD DS, the scenario will be extended with a flow of the member attribute.

Scenario design

To use this guide, you need three architectural components:

  • Active Directory domain controller

  • Computer running FIM Synchronization Service

  • Computer running FIM Portal

The following illustration outlines the required environment.

Required environment

You can run all components on one computer.

noteNote
For more information about setting up FIM, see the FIM Installation Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165845).

Scenario components list

The following table lists the components that are a part of the scenario in this guide.

 

Organizational unit icon

Organizational unit

FIM objects – Organizational unit (OU) that is used as a target for the provisioned group.

User account icon

User accounts

  • ADMA – Active Directory user account with sufficient rights to connect to AD DS.

  • FIMMA - Active Directory user account with sufficient rights to connect to FIM.

Management agents and run profiles icon

Management agents and run profiles

  • Fabrikam ADMA – Management agent that exchanges data with AD DS.

  • Fabrikam FIMMA - Management agent that exchanges data with FIM.

Synchronization rules icon

Synchronization rules

Fabrikam Group Outbound Synchronization Rule – Outbound synchronization rule that provisions users to AD DS.

Sets icon

Sets

All groups – Set with dynamic membership for all group objects in FIM.

Workflows icon

Workflows

AD Group Provisioning Workflow - Workflow to bring the FIM user into the scope of the AD Outbound Synchronization Rule.

Management policy rules

Management policy rules

AD Group Provisioning Management Policy Rule - Management policy rule (MPR) that triggers when a resource becomes a member of the All Contractors set.

FIM security group icon

FIM security group

Test security group - Universal security group in FIM that you provision to AD DS.

Scenario steps

The scenario outlined in this guide consists of the building blocks shown in the following figure.

Scenario building blocks

Configuring the External Systems

In this section, you will find instructions for the resources that you need to create that are outside of your FIM environment.

Step 1: Create the OU

You need the OU as a container for the provisioned sample user. For more information about creating OUs, see Create a New Organizational Unit (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189655).

 

Step 1
Organizational unit icon

Create an OU called FIMObjects in your AD DS.

Step 2: Create the Active Directory user accounts

For the scenario in this guide, you need two Active Directory user accounts:

  • ADMA - Used by the Active Directory management agent.

  • FIMMA – Used by the FIM Service management agent.

In both cases, it is sufficient to create regular user accounts. More information about the specific requirements of both accounts is found later in this document. For more information about creating users, see Create a New User Account (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189656).

 

Step 2
User account icon

Create two Active Directory user accounts based on the previous description.

Configuring the FIM Synchronization Service

For the configuration steps in this section, you need to start the FIM Synchronization Service Manager.

Creating the management agents

For the scenario in this guide, you need to create two management agents:

  • Fabrikam ADMA – management agent for AD DS.

  • Fabrikam FIMMA – management agent for FIM Service management agent.

Step 3: Create the Fabrikam ADMA management agent

When you configure a management agent for AD DS, you need to specify an account that is used by the management agent in the data exchange with AD DS. You should use a regular user account. However, to import data from AD DS, the account must have the right to poll changes from the DirSync control. If you want your management agent to export data to AD DS, you need to grant the account sufficient rights on the target OUs. For more information about this topic, see Configuring the ADMA Account (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189657).

To create a group in AD DS, you are required to flow out the object's DN and the groupType. In addition to this, it is a good practice to flow:

  • display name – Use to make your groups recognizable

  • managedBy – Use to show the owner of the group in FIM

  • member – To track the members of a group

  • sAMAccountName – the NetBIOS name of a security group

In AD DS, it is still common for users to use the sAMAccountName attribute to log on to the directory service. If you do not specify a value for this attribute, the directory service generates a random value for it. However, these random values are not user friendly, which is why a user-friendly version of this attribute is typically part of an export to AD DS. To enable a user to log on to AD DS, you also need to include a password created by using the unicodePwd attribute in your export logic.

noteNote
Ensure that the value you specify as unicodePwd complies with the password policies of your target AD DS.

When you set a password for AD DS accounts, you also need to create an account as an enabled account. You accomplish this by setting the userAccountControl attribute. For more information about the userAccountControl attribute, see Using FIM to Enable or Disable Accounts in Active Directory (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189658).

The following table lists the most important scenario-specific settings that you need to configure.

 

Management agent designer page Configuration

Create management agent

  1. Management agent for: AD DS

  2. Name: Fabrikam ADMA

Connect to Active Directory forest

  1. Select directory partitions: “DC=Fabrikam,DC=com”

  2. Click Containers to open the Select Containers dialog box and ensure that FIMObjects is the only OU that is selected.

Select Object types

In addition to the already selected Object types, select group.

Select attributes

  1. Click Show All.

  2. Select the following attributes:

    • displayName

    • groupType

    • managedBy

    • member

    • sAMAccountName

 

Step 3
Management agents and run profiles icon

Create the management agent based on the previous description.

noteNote
For more information, see the following topics in Help:

  • Create a Management Agent

  • Connect to an Active Directory Forest

  • Using the Management Agent for Active Directory

  • Configure Directory Partitions

ImportantImportant
Ensure that you have an import attribute flow rule configured for the ExpectedRulesList attribute.

Step 4: Create the Fabrikam FIMMA management agent

When you configure a FIM Service management agent, you need to specify an account that is used by the management agent in the data exchange with the FIM Service.

You should use a regular user account. The account must be the same account as the one you specified during the installation of FIM. For a script that you can use to determine the name of the FIMMA account that you specified during setup and to test whether this account is still valid, see Using Windows PowerShell to Do a FIM MA Account Configuration Quick Test (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189659).

The following table lists the most important scenario-specific settings you need to configure.

 

Management agent designer page Configuration

Create management agent

  1. Management agent for: FIM Service Management Agent

  2. Name: Fabrikam FIMMA

Connect to database

Use the following settings:

  • Server: localhost

  • Database: FIMService

  • FIM Service base address: http://localhost:5725

Provide the information about the account you created for this management agent.

Select Object types

In addition to the already selected Object types, select Group and Person.

Configure Object type mappings

In addition to the already existing object type mappings, add the following Data Source Object Type to Metaverse Object Type mappings:

  • Group to group

  • Person to person

Configure attribute flow

In addition to the already existing attribute flow mappings, add the following attribute flow mappings:

Attribute flow mappings

 

Step 4
Management agents and run profiles icon

Create the management agent based on the previous description.

noteNote
For more information, see the following topics in Help:

  • Create a Management Agent

  • Connect to an Active Directory database

  • Using the Management Agent for Active Directory

  • Configure Directory Partitions

ImportantImportant
Ensure that you have an import attribute flow rule configured for the ExpectedRulesList attribute.

Step 5: Create the run profiles

The following table lists the run profiles you need to create for the scenario in this guide.

 

Management agent Run profile

Fabrikam ADMA

  1. Full import

  2. Full synchronization

  3. Delta import

  4. Delta synchronization

  5. Export

Fabrikam FIMMA

  1. Full import

  2. Full synchronization

  3. Delta import

  4. Delta synchronization

  5. Export

 

Step 5
Management agents and run profiles icon

Create run profiles for each management agent according to the previous table.

noteNote
For more information, see the Create a Management Agent Run Profile in FIM Help.

ImportantImportant
Verify that provisioning is enabled in your environment. You can do this by running the script, Using Windows PowerShell to Enable Provisioning (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189660).

Configuring the FIM Service

For the scenario in this guide, you need to configure a provisioning policy as shown in the following figure.

Provisioning policy

The objective of this provisioning policy is to bring groups into the scope of the AD User Outbound Synchronization Rule. By bringing your resource into the scope of the synchronization rule, you enable the synchronization engine to provision your resource to AD DS according to your configuration.

To configure the FIM Service, navigate in Windows Internet Explorer® to http://localhost/identitymanagement. On the FIM Portal page, to create the provisioning policy, go to the related pages from the Administration section. To verify your configuration, you should run the script in Using Windows PowerShell to document your provisioning policy configuration (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189661).

Synchronization rule triple configuration

Step 6: Create the synchronization rule

In AD DS, each group has a type and a scope. The group type is either security or distribution. Each group type can have three different scopes:

  • Domain local

  • Global

  • Universal

The following screen shot shows the related configuration dialog box for groups in AD DS.

New Object dialog box

The FIM schema defines two separate attributes to track the type and the scope information of a group. However, in AD DS, only one attribute, groupType, is used to track this information.

When you configure an outbound synchronization rule for AD DS, you need to configure an outbound attribute flow mapping that merges the values for the type and the scope into one attribute value.

To calculate the required groupType value, you can use the following table.

 

Type Scope GroupType

Distribution

Global

Domain local

Universal

2

4

8

Security

Global

Domain local

Universal

-2147483646

-2147483644

-2147483640

In your export attribute flow mapping, you can use this table to define a universal custom expression that handles all cases for groups. This custom expression consists of a nested IIF statement that differentiates on the first level between the two possible group types. In a second step, the related scope value is determined within another nested IIF statement.

The following tables show the configuration of the related outbound synchronization rule.

 

Synchronization rule configuration

Name

Fabrikam Group Outbound Synchronization Rule

Description

Created Time

3/22/2010

Precedence

1

Data Flow Direction

Outbound

Dependency

 

Scope

Metaverse Resource Type

group

External System

Fabrikam ADMA

External System Resource Type

group

 

Relationship

Create Resource In External System

True

Enable Deprovisioning

False

 

Relationship criteria

ILM Attribute

accountName

Data Source Attribute

sAMAccountName

 

Initial outbound attribute flows

Allow Nulls

false

Destination

dn

Source

+("CN=",displayName,",OU=FIMObjects,DC=fabrikam,DC=com")

 

Persistent outbound attribute flows

Allow Nulls

Destination

Source

false

sAMAccountName

accountName

false

managedBy

displayedOwner

false

displayName

displayName

false

member

member

false

groupType

CustomExpression(IIF(Eq(type,"Distribution"),IIF(Eq(scope,"Universal"),8, IIF(Eq(scope,"Global"),2,4)), IIF(Eq(scope,"Universal"),-2147483640, IIF(Eq(scope,"Global"),-2147483646,-2147483644))))

 

Step 6
Synchronization rules icon

Create a synchronization rule according to the data in the previous tables.

ImportantImportant
Verify that you have selected Initial Flow Only for the attribute flow that has the DN as the destination.

Step 7: Create the workflow

The objective of the AD Provisioning Workflow is to bring the group into the scope of the Fabrikam Group Outbound Synchronization Rule. The following tables show the configuration.

 

Workflow configuration

Name

Active Directory Group Provisioning Workflow

Description

Workflow Type

Action

Run On Policy Update

False

 

Synchronization rule

Name

Fabrikam Group Outbound Synchronization Rule

Action

Add

 

Step 7
Workflows icon

Create a workflow according to the data in the previous tables.

Step 8: Create the management policy rule

The required MPR is of type Set Transition and triggers when a resource becomes a member of the All Groups set. The following tables show the configuration.

 

Management policy rule configuration

Name

AD Group Provisioning Management Policy Rule

Description

Type

Set Transition

Grants Permissions

False

Disabled

False

 

Transition definition

Transition Type

Transition In

Transition Set

All Groups

 

Policy workflows

Type

Action

Display Name

Active Directory Group Provisioning Workflow

 

Step 8
Management policy rules

Create an MPR according to the data in the previous tables.

Initializing your Environment

The objectives of the initialization phase are as follows:

  • Enable the required MPRs for group synchronization.

  • Bring your synchronization rule into the metaverse.

  • Bring your Active Directory structure into the Active Directory connector space.

Step 9: Enable management policy rules

To synchronize group objects in your environment, you need to enable the following MPRs.

 

Display name

Synchronization: Synchronization account can read group resources it synchronizes

Synchronization: Synchronization account controls group resources it synchronizes

 

Step 9
Management policy rules

Enable the MPRs listed in the previous table.

Step 10: Run the run profiles

The following table lists the run profiles that are part of the initialization phase.

 

Run Management agent Run profile

1

Fabrikam FIMMA

Full import

2

Full synchronization

3

Export

4

Delta import

5

Fabrikam ADMA

Full import

6

Full synchronization

 

Step 10
Management agents and run profiles icon

Run the run profiles according to the previous table.

noteNote
You should verify that your outbound synchronization rule has been successfully projected into the metaverse.

Testing the Configuration

The objective of this section is to test your actual configuration. To test the configuration, you:

  1. Create a sample security group in the FIM Portal.

  2. Verify the provisioning requisites of the sample group.

  3. Provision the sample group to AD DS.

  4. Verify that the group exists in AD DS.

Step 11: Create a sample security group in FIM

The following table lists the properties of the sample security group.

 

Attribute Value

Display Name

Test Security Group

Domain

Fabrikam

Account Name

TSGroup

Scope

Universal

Member Selection

Manual

 

Step 11
FIM security group icon

Create a sample security group according the data in the previous table.

Verify the provisioning requisites of the sample user

To provision the sample user to AD DS, two prerequisites must be satisfied:

  1. The user must be a member of the All Contractors set.

  2. Set user must be in the scope of the outbound synchronization rule.

Step 12: Verify the user is a member of All Groups

To verify whether the user is a member of the All Groups Set, you open the set, and then click View Members.

Screen shot of View Members

 

Step 12
Sets icon

Verify that the user is a member of the All Groups set.

Step 13: Verify the user is in the scope of the outbound synchronization rule

To verify whether the group is in the scope of the synchronization rule, open the group's properties in Advanced View. The Expected Rules List attribute should list the Fabrikam Group Outbound Synchronization Rule. The following screen shot shows an example of the Expected Rules List attribute.

Screen shot of expected rules list

As an alternative, you can also use the script in Using Windows PowerShell to Display the Value of the ERL Attribute of a Group (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189662) from the FIM ScriptBox (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189663).

 

Step 13
FIM security group icon

Verify that the user is in the scope of the Fabrikam Group Outbound Synchronization Rule.

Step 14: Synchronize the sample group

Before you start the first synchronization cycle for a test object, you should track the expected state of your object after each run profile that you run in a test plan. Your test plan should include next to the general state of your object (created, updated, or deleted) also the attribute values that you expect. Use your test plan to verify your test plan expectations. If a step does not return the expected results, do not proceed with to the next step until you have resolved the discrepancy between your expected result and the actual result.

To verify your expectations, you can use the synchronization statistics as a first indicator. For example, if you expect new objects to be staged in a connector space, but the import statistics returns no “Adds,” there is obviously something in your environment that does not work as expected.

Screen shot of synchronization statistics

While the synchronization statistics can give you a first indication of whether your scenario works as expected, you should use the Search Connector Space and the Metaverse Search feature of the Synchronization Service Manager to verify the expected attribute values.

To synchronize the user to AD DS

  1. Import the security group into the FIM MA connector space.

  2. Project the security group into the metaverse.

  3. Provision the security group to the Active Directory connector space.

  4. Export status information to FIM.

  5. Export the security group to AD DS.

  6. Confirm the creation of the security group.

To accomplish these tasks, you run the following run profiles.

 

Management agent Run profile

Fabrikam FIMMA

  1. Delta import

  2. Delta synchronization

  3. Export

  4. Delta import

Fabrikam FIMMA

  1. Export

  2. Delta import

After the import from the FIM Service database, Test Security Group and the ExpectedRuleEntry object that links Test Security Group to the AD Group Outbound Synchronization Rule are staged in the Fabrikam FIMMA connector space. When you review the Test Security Groups' properties in the connector space, next to the attribute values that you have configured in the FIM Portal, you also find a valid reference to the Expected Rule Entry object. The following screen shot shows an example of this.

Import tab on the Connector Space dialog box

The objective of the delta synchronization run on your Fabrikam FIMMA is to perform several operations:

  • Projection – The new security group object and the related Expected Rule Entry object are projected into the metaverse.

  • Provisioning – The newly projected TSGroup object is provisioned into the connector space of the Fabrikam ADMA.

  • Export Attribute Flows – Export attribute flows occur on both management agents. On the Fabrikam ADMA, the newly provisioned TSGroup object is populated with new attribute values. On the Fabrikam FIMMA, the existing TSGroup object and the related ExpectedRuleEntry object are updated with attribute values that are a result of the projection.

Screen shot of synchronization statistics

As already indicated by the synchronization statistics, a provisioning activity has taken place on the connector space of the Fabrikam ADMA. When you review the metaverse object properties of Britta Simon, you find that this activity is a result of the ExpectedRulesList attribute that has been populated with a valid reference.

Screen shot of metaverse properties

During the following export on the Fabrikam FIMMA, the synchronization rule status of Test Security Group is updated from Pending to Applied, which indicates that your outbound synchronization rule is now active on the object in the metaverse.

Screen shot of applied status

Because a new object has been provisioned to the ADMA connector space, you should have one Add pending export on this management agent. By using a script made for this purpose, you can see one reported Add pending export for the Fabrikam ADMA. To use the script, see Using Windows PowerShell to Display the Export State of a Management Agent (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189664).

Screen shot of pending exports

In FIM, each export run requires a following delta import to complete the export operation. The delta import that you run after a previous export run is known as a confirming import. Confirming imports are required to enable the FIM Synchronization Service to make appropriate update requirements during successive synchronization runs.

 

Step 14
Management agents and run profiles icon

Run the run profiles according to the instructions in this section.

Step 15: Verify the provisioned user in AD DS

To verify that your sample user has been provisioned to AD DS, you open the FIMObjects OU. Test Security Group should be located in the FIMObjects OU.

Screen shot of test security group in FIMObjects

 

Step 15
Organizational unit icon

Verify that your sample user exists in the FIMObjects OU.

Extending your group synchronization logic

Because you have successfully synchronized a group object to AD DS, you are now ready to add more components to your synchronization logic. This includes the:

  • Owner of a group

  • Members of a group

The owner of a group and the member of a group have one thing in common—both attributes are reference attributes. When you synchronize reference attributes in FIM, you need to ensure that both objects, the referencing attribute and the referenced attribute, are available in all layers of the synchronization service. The synchronization service preserves existing reference relationships and also enforces referential integrity. This means that the synchronization service ensures that the references of referencing objects are pointing to valid objects.

The following illustration outlines this process using the member attribute of a group.

Illustration showing referential integrity

Keeping references intact across the various data layers (connector space, metaverse, external system) involves a transformation of the reference value into a format that is used by each layer. For example, in FIM, references are expressed in the form of GUID values. However, in AD DS, reference values are implemented in the form of DNs. During a synchronization run and also during an import from and an export to a data source, the synchronization engine applies the necessary transformation of the reference values. While groups can contain groups as members, which is also known as group nesting, a group can also have users as members. To preserve the references that point to user objects, you need to extend your synchronization logic with the components that are required to synchronize user objects.

For the required deployment instructions for synchronizing user objects in your environment, see How Do I Provision Users to Active Directory Domain Services (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189665). You should extend your group synchronization scenario with the user synchronization logic that is outlined in this document.

After implementing the synchronization logic for users, you should add the sample user Britta Simon as a member to the security group, add Britta to the owners of the groups, and make her the displayed owner. After a synchronization cycle to AD DS, you find that Britta Simon is the new owner of the group.

Group Properties dialog box Managed By tab

In addition, you also find that Britta is a member of your sample security group.

Group Properties dialog box Members tab

For more information about reference attributes, see Design Concepts for Managing Reference Attributes (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189666).

Summary

The objective of this document is to introduce you to the main building blocks for synchronizing a group in FIM to AD DS. In your initial testing, you should first start with the minimum of attributes that are required to complete a task and add more attributes to your scenario when the general steps work as expected. Keeping the complexity to a minimal level simplifies the process of troubleshooting.

When you test your configuration, it is very likely that you delete and recreate new test objects. For objects with a populated ExpectedRulesList attribute, this can result in orphaned ERE objects. For a description of how you can remove these objects from your test environment, see A Method to Remove Orphaned ExpectedRuleEntry Objects from Your Environment (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189667).

For a production environment, when you manage Active Directory groups by using FIM, you should consider including the following attributes into your synchronization logic.

 

FIM Attribute Active Directory attribute Description

-

dn

Attribute that is used in AD DS to store the location of an object

displayName

displayName

User-friendly name to identify an object in the user interface

accountName

sAMAccountName

NetBIOS name of the object in AD DS

displayedOwner

managedBy

Single-valued attribute to store the owner of a group in AD DS

Score and type

groupType

Attribute used to store the scope and the type of a group in AD DS

member

member

Multivalued attribute

alias

Alias

Mail nickname for a mail-enabled group

See Also

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