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Connecting with sqlcmd

SQL Server 2012

The sqlcmd utility is available in the Microsoft ODBC Driver for SQL Server on Linux.

The following commands show first how to use Windows Authentication and second, how to use SQL Server Authentication.

sqlcmd –E –Sxxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
sqlcmd –Sxxx.xxx.xxx.xxx –Uxxx -Pxxx

In the current release, the following sqlcmd options are available:

-?

Display sqlcmd usage.

-a

Request a packet size.

-b

Terminate batch job if there is an error.

-c batch_terminator

Specify the batch terminator.

-C

Trust server certificate.

-d database_name

Issue a USE database_name statement when you start sqlcmd.

-D

Causes the value passed to the sqlcmd -S option to be interpreted as a data source name (DSN). For more information, see "DSN Support in sqlcmd and bcp" at the end of this topic.

-e

Write input scripts to the standard output device (stdout).

-E

Use trusted connection, integrated authentication.

For more information about making trusted connections that use integrated authentication from a Linux client:

-h number_of_rows

Specify the number of rows to print between the column headings.

-H

Specify a workstation name.

-i input_file[,input_file[,…]]

Identify the file that contains a batch of SQL statements or stored procedures.

-I

Set the SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER connection option to ON.

-k

Remove or replace control characters.

-K application_intent

Declares the application workload type when connecting to a server. The only currently supported value is ReadOnly. If -K is not specified, sqlcmd does not support connectivity to a secondary replica in an AlwaysOn availability group. For more information, see ODBC Driver on Linux Support for High Availability, Disaster Recovery.

Note Note

-K is not supported in the CTP for SUSE Linux. You can, however, specify the ApplicationIntent=ReadOnly keyword in a DSN file passed to sqlcmd. For more information, see "DSN Support in sqlcmd and bcp" at the end of this topic.

-l

Specify the number of seconds before a sqlcmd login to the ODBC driver times out when you try to connect to a server.

-m error_level

Control which error messages are sent to stdout.

-M multisubnet_failover

Always specify -M when connecting to the availability group listener of a SQL Server 2012 availability group or a SQL Server 2012 Failover Cluster Instance. -M provides for faster detection of and connection to the (currently) active server. If –M is not specified, -M is off. For more information about AlwaysOn Availability Groups, see ODBC Driver on Linux Support for High Availability, Disaster Recovery.

Note Note

-M is not supported in the CTP for SUSE Linux. You can, however, specify the MultiSubnetFailover=Yes keyword in a DSN file passed to sqlcmd. For more information, see "DSN Support in sqlcmd and bcp" at the end of this topic.

-N

Encrypt connection.

-o output_file

Identify the file that receives output from sqlcmd.

-p

Print performance statistics for every result set.

-P

Specify a user password.

-q commandline_query

Execute a query when sqlcmd starts, but does not exit sqlcmd when the query has finished running.

-Q commandline_query

Execute a query when sqlcmd starts. sqlcmd will exit when the query finishes.

-r

Redirects error messages to stderr.

-R

Causes the driver to use client regional settings to convert currency and date and time data to character data. Currently only uses en_US (US English) formatting.

-s column_separator_char

Specify the column-separator character.

-S [protocol:] server[,port]

Specify the instance of SQL Server to which to connect. Or, if -D is used, a DSN. The ODBC driver on Linux requires -S. For the ODBC driver on Linux, tcp is the only valid protocol.

-t query_timeout

Specify the number of seconds before a command (or SQL statement) times out.

-u

Specify that output_file is stored in Unicode format, regardless of the format of input_file.

-U login_id

Specify a user login ID.

-V error_severity_level

Control the severity level that is used to set the ERRORLEVEL variable.

-w column_width

Specify the screen width for output.

-W

Remove trailing spaces from a column.

-x

Disable variable substitution.

-X

Disable commands, startup script, and environment variables.

-y variable_length_type_display_width

Set the sqlcmd scripting variable SQLCMDMAXFIXEDTYPEWIDTH.

-Y fixed_length_type_display_width

Set the sqlcmd scripting variable SQLCMDMAXVARTYPEWIDTH.

In the current release, the following sqlcmd commands are available:

  • [:]!!

  • :Connect

  • :Error

  • [:]EXIT

  • GO [count]

  • :Help

  • :List

  • :Listvar

  • :On Error

  • :Out

  • :Perftrace

  • [:]QUIT

  • :r

  • :RESET

  • :setvar

In the current release, the following sqlcmd options are not available:

-A

Log in to SQL Server with a Dedicated Administrator Connection (DAC). For information on how to make a dedicated administrator connection (DAC), see Programming Guidelines.

-f code_page

Specify the input and output code pages.

-L

List the locally configured server computers, and the names of the server computers that are broadcasting on the network.

-v

Create a sqlcmd scripting variable that can be used in a sqlcmd script.

You can use the following alternative method:

  • Put the parameters inside one file. Which you can then append to another file. This will help you use a parameter file to replace the values. Create a file called a.sql (the parameter file) with the following content:

    :setvar ColumnName object_id
    :setvar TableName sys.objects
    
  • Create a file called b.sql,with the parameters for replacement:

    select $(ColumnName) from $(TableName)
    
  • At the command line, combine a.sql and b.sql into c.sql, using the following commands:

    cat a.sql > c.sql

    cat b.sql >> c.sql

  • Run sqlcmd and use c.sql as input file:

    slqcmd -S<…> -P<..> –U<..> -I c.sql

-z password

Change password.

-Z password

Change password and exit.

In the current release, the following sqlcmd commands are not available:

  • :ED

  • :ServerList

  • :XML

You can specify a data source name (DSN) instead of a server name in the sqlcmd or bcp -S option (or sqlcmd :Connect command) if you specify -D. -D causes the -S option to retrieve the specified DSN. sqlcmd or bcp connect to the server specified in the DSN.

System DSNs are stored in the odbc.ini file in the ODBC SysConfigDir directory (/etc/odbc.ini on standard installations). User DSNs are stored in .odbc.ini in a user's home directory (~/.odbc.ini).

The following entries are supported in a DSN on Linux:

  • ApplicationIntent=ReadOnly

  • Database= database_name

  • Driver=ODBC Driver 11 for SQL Server

  • MultiSubnetFailover=Yes

  • Server= server_name_or_IP_address

  • Trusted_Connection=yes|no

In a DSN, only the DRIVER entry is required, but to connect to a server, sqlcmd or bcp need the value in the SERVER entry.

If the same option is specified in both the DSN and the sqlcmd or bcp command line, the sqlcmd or bcp option override the value used in the DSN. For example, if the DSN has a DATABASE entry and the sqlcmd command line includes -d, the value passed to -d is used. If Trusted_Connection=yes is specified in the DSN, Kerberos authentication is used, and user name (–U) and password (–P) , if provided, is ignored.

Existing scripts that invoke isql can be modified to use sqlcmd by defining the following alias: alias isql="sqlcmd –D".

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