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Install the Hyper-V Role and Configure a Virtual Machine

Published: February 29, 2012

Updated: August 29, 2012

Applies To: Windows Server 2012



This content shows you how to install the Hyper-V role on a computer running Windows Server® 2012. It also provides basic instructions for creating and configuring a virtual machine after Hyper-V is installed. It doesn’t provide configuration instructions for specific usage scenarios, such as configuring Hyper-V to use scale-out file servers. Instead, it provides links to other documents that provide those instructions, when available.

In this document

noteNote
This topic includes sample Windows PowerShell cmdlets that you can use to automate some of the procedures described. For more information, see Using Cmdlets.

Before you attempt to install the Hyper-V role, make sure that you have the following:

  • A computer running Windows Server 2012.

  • A user account with the appropriate administrator rights:

    • To install or uninstall a server role, role service or feature, you must be logged on to a server as an administrator. If you are logged on to a local computer with an account that does not have administrator rights on the remote server and are using Server Manager on the local computer, right-click the remote server in the Servers tile, and then click Manage As to provide an account that has administrator rights. For more information, see Install or Uninstall Roles, Role Services, or Features.

    • To create and configure a virtual machine (steps 2-4), you can use either an account that is a member of the local Hyper-V Administrators group, or the Administrators group. The Hyper-V Administrators group is a new local security group that provides users with the ability to manage all aspects of Hyper-V without requiring membership in the local Administrators group.

  • Enough memory to run all the virtual machines that you plan to run at the same time.

  • Software for the virtual machine. For example, to test a particular workload, you will need installation media for the operating system and the workload. If you want to test certain features of Windows Server 2012, you can use the same installation media in the virtual machine that you used to install Windows Server 2012 on the physical computer.

Review the following considerations. These are not required, but can help you make the most appropriate choices when you install the role. Consider:

  • Where to store the files used by virtual machines.

  • Whether to create a virtual switch when you install the role. Virtual machines require a virtual switch connected to a physical network adapter to access a physical network. If you create the switch when you install the role, a name is assigned to the virtual switch automatically. If you plan to perform tests that rely on a specific switch name, you can modify the name of the virtual switch after you install the role. Or, wait until after you install the role to create the switch.

  • Whether you want to perform live migrations from one computer running Hyper-V to another.

Add the Hyper-V role to the installation of Windows Server 2012 so you can create and run virtual machines on this computer.

Do this step using Windows PowerShell

  1. If Server Manager is already open, go on to the next step. If Server Manager is not already open, open it by doing one of the following:

    • On the Windows desktop, start Server Manager by clicking Server Manager in the Windows taskbar.

    • On the Windows Start page, type any part of the name Server Manager. Click the shortcut for Server Manager when it is displayed on the Start page in the Apps results. To pin the Server Manager shortcut to the Start page, right-click the shortcut, and then click Pin to Start.

  2. On the Manage menu, click Add Roles and Features.

  3. On the Before you begin page, verify that your destination server and network environment are prepared for the role and feature you want to install. Click Next.

  4. On the Select installation type page, select Role-based or feature-based installation and then click Next.

  5. On the Select destination server page, select a server from the server pool and then click Next.

  6. On the Select server roles page, select Hyper-V.

  7. To add the tools that you use to create and manage virtual machines, click Add Features. On the Features page, click Next.

  8. On the Create Virtual Switches page, Virtual Machine Migration page, and Default Stores page, select the appropriate options.

  9. On the Confirm installation selections page, select Restart the destination server automatically if required, and then click Install.

  10. When installation is finished, verify the installation by opening the All Servers page in Server Manager, selecting a server on which you installed Hyper-V, and viewing the Roles and Features tile on the page for the selected server.

PowerShell Logo Windows PowerShell equivalent commands

The following Windows PowerShell cmdlet or cmdlets perform the same function as the preceding procedure. Enter each cmdlet on a single line, even though they may appear word-wrapped across several lines here because of formatting constraints.

In Windows PowerShell, unlike in the Add Roles and Features Wizard, management tools and snap-ins for a role are not included by default. To include management tools as part of a role installation, add the -IncludeManagementTools parameter to the cmdlet. If you are installing roles and features on a server that is running the Server Core installation option of Windows Server 2012, and you add a role’s management tools to an installation, you are prompted to change the installation option to a minimal-shell option that allows the management tools to run. Otherwise, management tools and snap-ins cannot be installed on servers that are running the Server Core installation option of Windows Server.

  1. Do one of the following to open a Windows PowerShell session with elevated user rights.

    • On the Windows desktop, right-click Windows PowerShell on the taskbar, and then click Run as Administrator.

    • On the Windows Start page, type any part of the name Windows PowerShell. Right-click the shortcut for Windows PowerShell when it is displayed on the Start page in the Apps results, click Advanced, and then click Run as Administrator. To pin the Windows PowerShell shortcut to the Start page, right-click the shortcut, and then click Pin to Start.

  2. Type the following, and then press Enter, where computer_name represents a remote computer on which you want to install Hyper-V. To install Hyper-V directly from a console session, do not include -ComputerName <computer_name> in the command.

    Install-WindowsFeature –Name Hyper-V -ComputerName <computer_name> -IncludeManagementTools -Restart
    
  3. To view a list of available and installed roles and features on the local server, type Get-WindowsFeature and then press Enter. The results of the cmdlet contain the command names of roles and features that have been added to this computer.

    noteNote
    In Windows PowerShell 3.0, there is no need to import the Server Manager cmdlet module into the Windows PowerShell session before running cmdlets that are part of the module. A module is automatically imported the first time you run a cmdlet that is part of the module. Also, Windows PowerShell cmdlets are not case-sensitive.

  4. When the installation is finished, verify installation by running the Get-WindowsFeature. If you installed Hyper-V remotely, include the ComputerName parameter (Get-WindowsFeature -ComputerName <computer_name>) to view a list of roles and features that are installed on the server.

This step requires that the Hyper-V management tools included with Windows Server 2012 are installed on this computer, or another computer that you can use to access this computer remotely. You cannot use an earlier version of the Hyper-V tools to perform the step.

Review the following considerations. These are not required, but can help you make the most appropriate choices when you install the role. Consider:

  • What to name the virtual machine. The name provides you with a way to identify the virtual machine. For example, you might use a name that identifies the type of server you want to configure on this virtual machine, such as a web server. Or, you might use a name that identifies the guest operating system.

  • How you will install the operating system. You can install from a physical media or an image (.iso) file. You also can use a virtual hard disk on which an operating system has already been installed.

Do this step using Windows PowerShell

  1. Open Hyper-V Manager. From the Server Manager Tools menu, click Hyper-V Manager.

  2. From the navigation pane of Hyper-V Manager, select the computer running Hyper-V.

  3. From the Actions pane, click New and then click Virtual Machine.

  4. The New Virtual Machine wizard opens. Click Next.

  5. On the Specify Name and Location page, type an appropriate name.

  6. On the Assign Memory page, specify enough memory to start the guest operating system.

  7. On the Configure Networking page, connect the virtual machine to the switch you created when you installed Hyper-V.

  8. On the Connect Virtual Hard Disk and Installation Options pages, choose the option that is appropriate for how you plan to install the guest operating system:

    • If you will install the guest operating system from a DVD or an image file (an .ISO file), choose Create a virtual hard disk. Click Next, and then click the option that describes the type of media you will use. For example, to use an .iso file, click Install an operating system from a boot CD/DVD and then specify the path to the .iso file.

    • If the guest operating system is already installed in a virtual hard disk, choose Use an existing virtual hard disk and click Next. Then, choose Install an operating system later.

  9. On the Summary page, verify your selections and then click Finish.

PowerShell Logo Windows PowerShell equivalent commands

The following Windows PowerShell cmdlet or cmdlets perform the same function as the preceding procedure. Enter each cmdlet on a single line, even though they may appear word-wrapped across several lines here because of formatting constraints.

Run the following command to create a virtual machine named web server with 1 GB of startup memory and use an existing virtual hard disk in which a guest operating system has already been installed.

New-VM –Name “web server” –MemoryStartupBytes 1GB –VHDPath d:\vhd\BaseImage.vhdx

This step assumes that you configured the boot media for the virtual machine when you created the virtual machine.

noteNote
This step must be completed through the GUI. It cannot be automated or performed within a Windows PowerShell session.

  1. From Hyper-V Manager, in the Virtual Machines section of the results pane, right-click the name of the virtual machine and click Connect.

  2. The Virtual Machine Connection tool opens.

  3. From the Action menu in the Virtual Machine Connection window, click Start.

  4. The virtual machine starts, searches the startup devices, and loads the installation package.

  5. Proceed through the installation.

Hyper-V includes a software package for supported guest operating systems that improves integration between the physical computer and the virtual machine. This package is referred to as integration services.

noteNote
This step must be completed through the GUI. It cannot be automated or performed within a Windows PowerShell session.

  1. Open Hyper-V Manager. From the Server Manager Tools menu, click Hyper-V Manager.

  2. Connect to the virtual machine. From the Virtual Machines section of the results pane, using one of the following methods:

    • Right-click the name of the virtual machine and click Connect.

    • Select the name of the virtual machine. In the Action pane, click Connect.

  3. The Virtual Machine Connection tool opens. From the Action menu of Virtual Machine Connection, click Insert Integration Services Setup Disk. This action loads the setup disk in the virtual DVD drive.

  4. Depending on the operating system being installed, you may need to start the installation manually. Click anywhere in the guest operating system window and navigate to the CD drive. Use the method that is appropriate for the guest operating system to start the installation package from the CD drive.

  5. After the installation finishes, all integration services are available for use.

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