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about_Redirection

Updated: May 8, 2014

Applies To: Windows PowerShell 2.0, Windows PowerShell 3.0, Windows PowerShell 4.0

TOPIC
    about_Redirection

SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Explains how to redirect output from Windows PowerShell to text files.

LONG DESCRIPTION
    By default, Windows PowerShell sends its command output to the Windows
    PowerShell console. However, you can direct the output to a text 
    file, and you can redirect error output to the regular output stream.

    You can use the following methods to redirect output:

        - Use the Out-File cmdlet, which sends command output to a text file. 
          Typically, you use the Out-File cmdlet when you need to use its 
          parameters, such as the Encoding, Force, Width, or NoClobber 
          parameters.

        - Use the Tee-Object cmdlet, which sends command output to a text file 
          and then sends it to the pipeline.

        - Use the Windows PowerShell redirection operators.

  WINDOWS POWERSHELL REDIRECTION OPERATORS
      The redirection operators enable you to send particular types of output
                to files and to the success output stream.

      The Windows PowerShell redirection operators use the following characters 
      to represent each output type:
        *   All output
        1   Success output
        2   Errors
        3   Warning messages
        4   Verbose output
        5   Debug messages

              NOTE: The All (*), Warning (3), Verbose (4) and Debug (5) redirection operators were introduced
                            in Windows PowerShell 3.0. They do not work in earlier versions of Windows PowerShell.

      The Windows PowerShell redirection operators are as follows.
      Operator  Description                Example  
      --------  ----------------------     ------------------------------
      >         Sends output to the        Get-Process > Process.txt
                specified file.

      >>        Appends the output to      dir *.ps1 >> Scripts.txt
                the contents of the  
                specified file.

      2>        Sends errors to the        Get-Process none 2> Errors.txt
                specified file.
 
      2>>       Appends errors to          Get-Process none 2>> Save-Errors.txt
                the contents of the 
                specified file.
 
      2>&1      Sends errors (2) and       Get-Process none, Powershell 2>&1
                success output (1) 
                to the success 
                output stream.

      3>        Sends warnings to the      Write-Warning "Test!" 3> Warnings.txt
                specified file.

      3>>       Appends warnings to        Write-Warning "Test!" 3>> Save-Warnings.txt
                the contents of the 
                specified file.

      3>&1      Sends warnings (3) and     function Test-Warning 
                success output (1)         {  Get-Process PowerShell; 
                to the success                Write-Warning "Test!" }
                output stream.             Test-Warning 3>&1

      4>        Sends verbose output to    Import-Module * -Verbose 4> Verbose.txt
                the specified file.

      4>>       Appends verbose output     Import-Module * -Verbose 4>> Save-Verbose.txt
                to the contents of the 
                specified file.

      4>&1      Sends verbose output (4)   Import-Module * -Verbose 4>&1
                and success output (1)    
                to the success output
                stream.              
 
      5>        Sends debug messages to    Write-Debug "Starting" 5> Debug.txt
                the specified file.

      5>>       Appends debug messages     Write-Debug "Saving" 5>> Save-Debug.txt
                to the contents of the 
                specified file.

      5>&1      Sends debug messages (5)   function Test-Debug 
                and success output (1)     { Get-Process PowerShell 
                to the success output        Write-Debug "PS" }
                stream.                    Test-Debug 5>&1

      *>        Sends all output types     function Test-Output
                to the specified file.     { Get-Process PowerShell, none  
                                             Write-Warning "Test!"
      *>>       Appends all output types     Write-Verbose "Test Verbose"
                to the contents of the       Write-Debug "Test Debug" } 
                specified file.            
                                           Test-Output *> Test-Output.txt
      *>&1      Sends all output types     Test-Output *>> Test-Output.txt
                (*) to the success output  Test-Output *>&1      
                stream.     


    The syntax of the redirection operators is as follows:

       <input> <operator> [<path>\]<file>
 
    If the specified file already exists, the redirection operators that do not
    append data (> and n>) overwrite the current contents of the file without 
    warning. However, if the file is a read-only, hidden, or system file, the 
    redirection fails. The append redirection operators (>> and n>>) do not 
    write to a read-only file, but they append content to a system or hidden 
    file.
 

    To force the redirection of content to a read-only, hidden, or system file,
    use the Out-File cmdlet with its Force parameter. When you are writing to 
    files, the redirection operators use Unicode encoding. If the file has a 
    different encoding, the output might not be formatted correctly. To
    redirect content to non-Unicode files, use the Out-File cmdlet with its
    Encoding parameter.


SEE ALSO
    Out-File
    Tee-Object
    about_Operators
    about_Command_Syntax
    about_Path_Syntax



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