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New-VirtualDisk

Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1

Updated: June 4, 2014

Applies To: Windows 8.1, Windows PowerShell 4.0, Windows Server 2012 R2

New-VirtualDisk

Creates a new virtual disk in the specified storage pool.

Syntax

Parameter Set: ByFriendlyName
New-VirtualDisk [-StoragePoolFriendlyName] <String[]> -FriendlyName <String> [-AsJob] [-AutoNumberOfColumns] [-AutoWriteCacheSize] [-CimSession <CimSession[]> ] [-Interleave <UInt64> ] [-IsEnclosureAware <Boolean> ] [-NumberOfColumns <UInt16> ] [-NumberOfDataCopies <UInt16> ] [-OtherUsageDescription <String> ] [-PhysicalDiskRedundancy <UInt16> ] [-PhysicalDisksToUse <CimInstance[]> ] [-ProvisioningType <ProvisioningType> ] [-ResiliencySettingName <String> ] [-Size <UInt64> ] [-StorageTiers <CimInstance[]> ] [-StorageTierSizes <UInt64[]> ] [-ThrottleLimit <Int32> ] [-Usage <Usage> ] [-UseMaximumSize] [-WriteCacheSize <UInt64> ] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: ByName
New-VirtualDisk -FriendlyName <String> -StoragePoolName <String[]> [-AsJob] [-AutoNumberOfColumns] [-AutoWriteCacheSize] [-CimSession <CimSession[]> ] [-Interleave <UInt64> ] [-IsEnclosureAware <Boolean> ] [-NumberOfColumns <UInt16> ] [-NumberOfDataCopies <UInt16> ] [-OtherUsageDescription <String> ] [-PhysicalDiskRedundancy <UInt16> ] [-PhysicalDisksToUse <CimInstance[]> ] [-ProvisioningType <ProvisioningType> ] [-ResiliencySettingName <String> ] [-Size <UInt64> ] [-StorageTiers <CimInstance[]> ] [-StorageTierSizes <UInt64[]> ] [-ThrottleLimit <Int32> ] [-Usage <Usage> ] [-UseMaximumSize] [-WriteCacheSize <UInt64> ] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: ByUniqueId
New-VirtualDisk -FriendlyName <String> -StoragePoolUniqueId <String[]> [-AsJob] [-AutoNumberOfColumns] [-AutoWriteCacheSize] [-CimSession <CimSession[]> ] [-Interleave <UInt64> ] [-IsEnclosureAware <Boolean> ] [-NumberOfColumns <UInt16> ] [-NumberOfDataCopies <UInt16> ] [-OtherUsageDescription <String> ] [-PhysicalDiskRedundancy <UInt16> ] [-PhysicalDisksToUse <CimInstance[]> ] [-ProvisioningType <ProvisioningType> ] [-ResiliencySettingName <String> ] [-Size <UInt64> ] [-StorageTiers <CimInstance[]> ] [-StorageTierSizes <UInt64[]> ] [-ThrottleLimit <Int32> ] [-Usage <Usage> ] [-UseMaximumSize] [-WriteCacheSize <UInt64> ] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: InputObject (cdxml)
New-VirtualDisk -FriendlyName <String> -InputObject <CimInstance[]> [-AsJob] [-AutoNumberOfColumns] [-AutoWriteCacheSize] [-CimSession <CimSession[]> ] [-Interleave <UInt64> ] [-IsEnclosureAware <Boolean> ] [-NumberOfColumns <UInt16> ] [-NumberOfDataCopies <UInt16> ] [-OtherUsageDescription <String> ] [-PhysicalDiskRedundancy <UInt16> ] [-PhysicalDisksToUse <CimInstance[]> ] [-ProvisioningType <ProvisioningType> ] [-ResiliencySettingName <String> ] [-Size <UInt64> ] [-StorageTiers <CimInstance[]> ] [-StorageTierSizes <UInt64[]> ] [-ThrottleLimit <Int32> ] [-Usage <Usage> ] [-UseMaximumSize] [-WriteCacheSize <UInt64> ] [ <CommonParameters>]




Detailed Description

The New-VirtualDisk cmdlet creates a new virtual disk in the specified storage pool.

Parameters

-AsJob

Runs the cmdlet as a background job. Use this parameter to run commands that take a long time to complete. The cmdlet immediately returns an object that represents the job and then displays the command prompt. You can continue to work in the session while the job completes. To manage the job, use the *-Job cmdlets. To get the job results, use the Receive-Job cmdlet. For more information about Windows PowerShell® background jobs, see about_Jobs.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-AutoNumberOfColumns

Specifies that the number of columns used by the virtual disk should be automatically determined. Columns represent the number of underlying physical disks across which one stripe of data for a virtual disk is written.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-AutoWriteCacheSize

Indicates that the cmdlet sets the size of the write-back cache to 1 GB for all types of storage spaces, which include simple, mirror, and parity, to create from the pool. If the number or size of the solid-state drives (SSDs) or journal disks in the storage pool is not sufficient and you specify a value of $True for this parameter, the cmdlet sets the write-back cache size to 0 for simple and mirror spaces, and to 32 MB for parity spaces.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-CimSession<CimSession[]>

Runs the cmdlet in a remote session or on a remote computer. Enter a computer name or a session object, such as the output of a New-CimSession or Get-CimSession cmdlet. The default is the current session on the local computer.


Aliases

Session

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-FriendlyName<String>

Specifies the friendly name for the virtual disk. The friendly name is not required to be unique.


Aliases

VirtualDiskFriendlyName

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-InputObject<CimInstance[]>

Accepts a StoragePool object as input, specifying in which storage pool to create the virtual disk.


Aliases

none

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

True (ByValue)

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Interleave<UInt64>

Specifies the interleave value to use during the creation of a virtual disk. The interleave value represents the number of bytes that is written to a single physical disk. Thus Interleave * NumberOfColumns will yield the size of one stripe of user data.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-IsEnclosureAware<Boolean>

Specifies that the virtual disk should use enclosure awareness.

To support deployments that require an added level of fault tolerance, Storage Spaces can associate each copy of data with a particular just-a-bunch-of-disk (JBOD) enclosure. This capability is known as enclosure awareness. With enclosure awareness, if one enclosure fails or goes offline, the data remains available in one or more alternate enclosures.

To use enclosure awareness, you must use JBODs that are certified for use with Storage Spaces and you must have a sufficient number of JBODs and disks to support the resiliency types of the storage spaces you create (generally you’ll need three or four JBODs). For a list of certified JBODs, see the Windows Server Catalog. For more information about enclosure awareness, see Storage Spaces Frequently Asked Questions.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-NumberOfColumns<UInt16>

Specifies the number of columns to use when allocating the virtual disk.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-NumberOfDataCopies<UInt16>

Specifies the number of data copies to create. Specify 2 to create a two-way mirror, or 3 to specify a three-way mirror.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

1

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-OtherUsageDescription<String>

Specifies an OtherUsageDescription string for the virtual disk. You can use the OtherUsageDescription parameter only if you set the Usage parameter to Other or do not include the Usage parameter.


Aliases

VirtualDiskOtherUsageDescription

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-PhysicalDiskRedundancy<UInt16>

Specifies the physical disk redundancy value to use during the creation of a virtual disk. This value represents how many failed physical disks the virtual disk can tolerate without data loss.

-- For two-way mirror spaces, the virtual disk can tolerate 1 failed physical disk without data loss.
-- For three-way mirror spaces, the virtual disk can tolerate 2 failed physical disks without data loss.
-- For single-parity spaces, the virtual disk can tolerate 1 failed physical disk without data loss.
-- For dual-parity spaces the virtual disk can tolerate 2 failed physical disks without data loss.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-PhysicalDisksToUse<CimInstance[]>

Specifies an array of one or more PhysicalDisk objects. The PhysicalDisk objects represent the specific physical disks on which to create this virtual disk.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-ProvisioningType<ProvisioningType>

Specifies the type of provisioning. The acceptable values for this parameter are: Fixed, or Thin. You must specify Fixed for storage spaces that use storage tiers or a clustered storage pool.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-ResiliencySettingName<String>

Specifies the resiliency setting (storage layout) to use for the virtual disk. Acceptable values vary by storage subsystem.

Allowed values for the Storage Spaces subsystem are: Simple, Mirror, or Parity. By default, when you specify Mirror, Storage Spaces creates a two-way mirror, and when you specify Parity, Storage Spaces creates a single-parity space.

To create a three-way mirror space, specify 3 for the NumberofDataCopies parameter or 2 for the PhysicalDiskRedundancy parameter.

To create a dual-parity space, specify 2 for the PhysicalDiskRedundancy parameter and Fixed provisioning for the ProvisioningType parameter.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Size<UInt64>

Specifies the size of the virtual disk to create. The default unit is Bytes; to specify a different unit, enter the size followed by one of the following unit values, with no spaces: Bytes, KB, MB, GB, or TB.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-StoragePoolFriendlyName<String[]>

Specifies the friendly name of the storage pool in which to create the virtual disk. Enter a friendly name, or use wildcard characters to enter a name pattern.


Aliases

none

Required?

true

Position?

1

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

True (ByPropertyName)

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-StoragePoolName<String[]>

Specifies the name of the storage pool in which to create the virtual disk. Enter the name of the storage pool provided by the Storage Management Provider, or use wildcard characters to enter a name pattern.


Aliases

none

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

True (ByPropertyName)

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-StoragePoolUniqueId<String[]>

Specifies the ID of the storage pool in which to create the virtual disk Enter an ID or use wildcard characters to enter a pattern.


Aliases

StoragePoolId

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

True (ByPropertyName)

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-StorageTiers<CimInstance[]>

Specifies an array of storage tiers as a CIMInstance object. The cmdlet adds the storage tiers that you specify to the virtual disk. To obtain a virtual disk object, use the Get-StorageTier cmdlet.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-StorageTierSizes<UInt64[]>

Specifies an array of sizes of the storage tiers that you specify for the StorageTiers parameter.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-ThrottleLimit<Int32>

Specifies the maximum number of concurrent operations that can be established to run the cmdlet. If this parameter is omitted or a value of 0 is entered, then Windows PowerShell® calculates an optimum throttle limit for the cmdlet based on the number of CIM cmdlets that are running on the computer. The throttle limit applies only to the current cmdlet, not to the session or to the computer.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Usage<Usage>

Specifies the intended usage of the virtual disk. You can specify one of the predefined descriptions, or use the default value (Other) and instead use the OtherUsageDescription parameter to specify a custom value.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

Other

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-UseMaximumSize

Creates a virtual disk with the maximimum size possible given the available storage pool space and specified parameters.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-WriteCacheSize<UInt64>

Specifies the size of the write-back cache. The cmdlet creates the write-back cache of the size that you specify when the cmdlet creates the virtual disk space.

The following describes the behavior of this parameter based on the value that you specify:

-- 1. If you do not specify this parameter, the cmdlet sets the value of the WriteCacheSizeDefault property from the storage pool.

-- 2. The default setting of WriteCacheSizeDefault for a storage pool is Auto, which specifies that Windows Server® 2012 R2 automatically selects the optimal write-back cache size for your configuration. You can change the value of WriteCacheSizeDefault to a concrete value at any time.

-- 3. The Auto setting for WriteCacheSize functions as follows:
     a. If any of the following is true, Auto is set to 1 GB:
      i. The storage pool contains at least N drives with enough capacity and you set the Usage parameter to Journal. (N = 1 for simple spaces, N = 2 for two-way mirror and single parity, N = 3 for three-way mirror and dual parity)
      ii. The storage pool contains at least N drives with enough capacity and the media type of the virtual disk is set to SSD (N = 1 for simple spaces, N = 2 for two-way mirror and single parity, N = 3 for three-way mirror and dual parity)
     b. Otherwise, Auto is set to 0 (no log) for simple and mirror spaces, and 32 MB for parity spaces.

-- 4. If you specify Auto or 0 (zero) for this parameter and the storage space is not a parity space, the cmdlet verifies that either 3.a.i or 3.a.ii is true. If either 3.a.i or 3.a.ii is not true, you cannot set WriteCacheSize to Auto or 0.
     a. The objective of these conditions is to help you avoid scenarios in which you force the creation of a write-back cache in situations that result in slower performance.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

<CommonParameters>

This cmdlet supports the common parameters: -Verbose, -Debug, -ErrorAction, -ErrorVariable, -OutBuffer, and -OutVariable. For more information, see    about_CommonParameters.

Inputs

The input type is the type of the objects that you can pipe to the cmdlet.

Outputs

The output type is the type of the objects that the cmdlet emits.

Notes

  • The Microsoft.Management.Infrastructure.CimInstance object is a wrapper class that displays Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) objects. The path after the pound sign (#) provides the namespace and class name for the underlying WMI object.

Examples

Example 1: Creating a 100 GB virtual disk using default settings

This example creates a virtual disk named UserData from the storage pool named CompanyData that is 100GB in size, using the storage pool default settings for unspecified parameters.


PS C:\> New-VirtualDisk -StoragePoolFriendlyName CompanyData -FriendlyName UserData -Size 100GB

Example 2: Creating a thinly-provisioned mirror

This example creates a virtual disk named DataWarehouse, which is 42TB in size, uses the Mirror resiliency setting, and is thinly provisioned.


PS C:\> New-VirtualDisk -StoragePoolFriendlyName CompanyData -FriendlyName DataWarehouse –ResiliencySettingName Mirror -Size 42TB -ProvisioningType Thin

Example 3: Creating a three-way mirror

This example creates a 42 TB thinly-provisioned virtual disk on the Storage Spaces subsystem, using the Mirror resiliency setting with three data copies. This creates a three-way mirror that is capable of tolerating two disk failures).


PS C:\> New-VirtualDisk -StoragePoolFriendlyName CompanyData -FriendlyName BusinessCritical -ResiliencySettingName Mirror -NumberOfDataCopies 3 -Size 42TB -ProvisioningType Thin

Example 4: Creating a two-column mirror

This example creates a thinly-provisioned virtual disk on the Storage Spaces subsystem that uses two columns, regardless of how many physical disks are in the storage pool above the two-disk minimum for a two-way mirror.


PS C:\> New-VirtualDisk -StoragePoolFriendlyName CompanyData -FriendlyName BusinessCritical -ResiliencySettingName Mirror - -Size 42TB -ProvisioningType Thin -NumberOfColumns 2

Example 5: Create a mirror space with storage tiers

This example creates a 40 GB fixed provisioning virtual disk on the Storage Spaces subsystem. The virtual disk uses the Mirror resiliency setting and storage tiers to store 8 GB of data on the SSD tier and 32 GB of data on the HDD tier.


PS C:\> $SSD = Get-StorageTier -FriendlyName *SSD*
PS C:\> $HDD = Get-StorageTier -FriendlyName *HDD*
PS C:\> Get-StoragePool CompanyData | New-VirtualDisk -FriendlyName "UserData01" -ResiliencySettingName "Mirror" –StorageTiers $SSD, $HDD -StorageTierSizes 8GB, 32GB

Example 6: Create a dual-parity space

This example creates a virtual disk on the Storage Spaces subsystem that uses the dual-parity resiliency type to help protect against two simultaneous disk failures and maximize capacity efficiency.


PS C:\> New-VirtualDisk -StoragePoolFriendlyName "CompanyData" -FriendlyName "ArchivalData" -Size 50GB -ProvisioningType Fixed -ResiliencySettingName "Parity" -PhysicalDiskRedundancy 2

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