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Enable-BitLocker

Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1

Updated: March 3, 2014

Applies To: Windows 8.1, Windows PowerShell 4.0, Windows Server 2012 R2

Enable-BitLocker

Enables encryption for a BitLocker volume.

Syntax

Parameter Set: AdAccountOrGroupProtector
Enable-BitLocker [-MountPoint] <String[]> [-AdAccountOrGroup] <String> -AdAccountOrGroupProtector [-EncryptionMethod <BitLockerVolumeEncryptionMethodOnEnable> ] [-HardwareEncryption] [-Service] [-SkipHardwareTest] [-UsedSpaceOnly] [-Confirm] [-WhatIf] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: PasswordProtector
Enable-BitLocker [-MountPoint] <String[]> [[-Password] <SecureString> ] -PasswordProtector [-EncryptionMethod <BitLockerVolumeEncryptionMethodOnEnable> ] [-HardwareEncryption] [-SkipHardwareTest] [-UsedSpaceOnly] [-Confirm] [-WhatIf] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: RecoveryKeyProtector
Enable-BitLocker [-MountPoint] <String[]> [-RecoveryKeyPath] <String> -RecoveryKeyProtector [-EncryptionMethod <BitLockerVolumeEncryptionMethodOnEnable> ] [-HardwareEncryption] [-SkipHardwareTest] [-UsedSpaceOnly] [-Confirm] [-WhatIf] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: RecoveryPasswordProtector
Enable-BitLocker [-MountPoint] <String[]> [[-RecoveryPassword] <String> ] -RecoveryPasswordProtector [-EncryptionMethod <BitLockerVolumeEncryptionMethodOnEnable> ] [-HardwareEncryption] [-SkipHardwareTest] [-UsedSpaceOnly] [-Confirm] [-WhatIf] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: StartupKeyProtector
Enable-BitLocker [-MountPoint] <String[]> [-StartupKeyPath] <String> -StartupKeyProtector [-EncryptionMethod <BitLockerVolumeEncryptionMethodOnEnable> ] [-HardwareEncryption] [-SkipHardwareTest] [-UsedSpaceOnly] [-Confirm] [-WhatIf] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: TpmAndPinAndStartupKeyProtector
Enable-BitLocker [-MountPoint] <String[]> [-StartupKeyPath] <String> [[-Pin] <SecureString> ] -TpmAndPinAndStartupKeyProtector [-EncryptionMethod <BitLockerVolumeEncryptionMethodOnEnable> ] [-HardwareEncryption] [-SkipHardwareTest] [-UsedSpaceOnly] [-Confirm] [-WhatIf] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: TpmAndPinProtector
Enable-BitLocker [-MountPoint] <String[]> [[-Pin] <SecureString> ] -TpmAndPinProtector [-EncryptionMethod <BitLockerVolumeEncryptionMethodOnEnable> ] [-HardwareEncryption] [-SkipHardwareTest] [-UsedSpaceOnly] [-Confirm] [-WhatIf] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: TpmAndStartupKeyProtector
Enable-BitLocker [-MountPoint] <String[]> [-StartupKeyPath] <String> -TpmAndStartupKeyProtector [-EncryptionMethod <BitLockerVolumeEncryptionMethodOnEnable> ] [-HardwareEncryption] [-SkipHardwareTest] [-UsedSpaceOnly] [-Confirm] [-WhatIf] [ <CommonParameters>]

Parameter Set: TpmProtector
Enable-BitLocker [-MountPoint] <String[]> -TpmProtector [-EncryptionMethod <BitLockerVolumeEncryptionMethodOnEnable> ] [-HardwareEncryption] [-SkipHardwareTest] [-UsedSpaceOnly] [-Confirm] [-WhatIf] [ <CommonParameters>]




Detailed Description

The Enable-BitLocker cmdlet enables BitLocker Drive Encryption for a volume.

When you enable encryption, you must specify a volume and an encryption method for that volume. You can specify a volume by drive letter or by specifying a BitLocker volume object. For the encryption method, you can choose either Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithms AES-128 or AES-256, or you can use hardware encryption, if it is supported by the disk hardware.

You must also establish a key protector. BitLocker uses a key protector to encrypt the volume encryption key. When a user accesses a BitLocker encrypted drive, such as when starting a computer, BitLocker requests the relevant key protector. For example, the user can enter a PIN or provide a USB drive that contains a key. BitLocker decrypts the encryption key and uses it to read data from the drive. You can use one of the following methods or combinations of methods for a key protector:

-- Trusted Platform Module (TPM) . BitLocker uses the computer's TPM to protect the encryption key. If you select this key protector, users can access the encrypted drive as long as it is connected to the system board that hosts the TPM and system boot integrity is intact. In general, TPM-based protectors can only be associated to an operating system volume.
-- TPM and Personal Identification Number (PIN) . BitLocker uses a combination of the TPM and a user-supplied PIN. A PIN is four to twenty digits or, if you allow enhanced PINs, is four to twenty letters, symbols, spaces, or numbers.
-- TPM, PIN, and startup key. BitLocker uses a combination of the TPM, a user-supplied PIN, and input from of a USB memory device that contains an external key.
-- TPM and startup key. BitLocker uses a combination of the TPM and input from of a USB memory device.
-- Startup key. BitLocker uses input from of a USB memory device that contains the external key.
-- Password. BitLocker uses a password.
-- Recovery key. BitLocker uses a recovery key stored as a specified file.
-- Recovery password. BitLocker uses a recovery password.
-- Active Directory Domain Services(AD DS). account. BitLocker uses domain authentication.

You can specify only one of these methods or combinations when you enable encryption, but you can use the Add-BitLockerKeyProtector cmdlet to add other protectors.

For a password or PIN key protector, specify a secure string. You can use the ConvertTo-SecureString cmdlet to create a secure string. You can use secure strings in a script and still maintain confidentiality of passwords.

This cmdlet returns a BitLocker volume object. If you choose recovery password as your key protector but do not specify a 48-digit recovery password, this cmdlet creates a random 48-bit recovery password. The cmdlet stores the password as the RecoveryPassword field of the KeyProtector attribute of the BitLocker volume object.

If you use startup key or recovery key as part of your key protector, provide a path to store the key. This cmdlet stores the name of the file that contains the key in the KeyFileName field of the KeyProtector field in the BitLocker volume object.

If you use the Enable-BitLocker cmdlet on an encrypted volume or on a volume that with encryption in process, it takes no action. If you use the cmdlet on a drive that has encryption paused, it resumes encryption on the volume.

By default, this cmdlet encrypts the entire drive. If you use the UsedSpaceOnly parameter, it only encrypts the used space in the disk. This option can significant reduce encryption time.

It is common practice to add a recovery password to an operating system volume by using the Add-BitLockerKeyProtector cmdlet, and then save the recovery password by using the Backup-BitLockerKeyProtector cmdlet, and then enable BitLocker for the drive. This procedure ensures that you have a recovery option.

For an overview of BitLocker, see BitLocker Drive Encryption Overview (http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc732774.aspx) on TechNet.

Parameters

-AdAccountOrGroup<String>

Specifies an account using the format Domain\User. This cmdlet adds the account you specify as a key protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

sid

Required?

true

Position?

2

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-AdAccountOrGroupProtector

Indicates that BitLocker uses an AD DS account as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

sidp

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-EncryptionMethod<BitLockerVolumeEncryptionMethodOnEnable>

Specifies an encryption method for the encrypted drive. The acceptable values for this parameter are: 

-- Aes128
-- Aes256


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-HardwareEncryption

Indicates that the volume uses hardware encryption.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-MountPoint<String[]>

Specifies an array of drive letters or BitLocker volume objects. This cmdlet enables protection for the volumes specified. To obtain a BitLocker volume object, use the Get-BitLockerVolume cmdlet.


Aliases

none

Required?

true

Position?

1

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

True (ByValue, ByPropertyName)

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Password<SecureString>

Specifies a secure string object that contains a password. The password specified acts as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

pw

Required?

false

Position?

2

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-PasswordProtector

Indicates that BitLocker uses a password as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

pwp

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Pin<SecureString>

Specifies a secure string object that contains a PIN. BitLocker uses the PIN specified, with other data, as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

p

Required?

false

Position?

2

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-RecoveryKeyPath<String>

Specifies a path to a recovery key. The key stored in the specified path acts as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

rk

Required?

true

Position?

2

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-RecoveryKeyProtector

Indicates that BitLocker uses a recovery key as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

rkp

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-RecoveryPassword<String>

Specifies a recovery password. If you do not specify this parameter, but you do include the RecoveryPasswordProtector parameter, the cmdlet creates a random password. You can enter a 48 digit password. The password specified or created acts as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

rp

Required?

false

Position?

2

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-RecoveryPasswordProtector

Indicates that BitLocker uses a recovery password as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

rpp

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Service

Indicates that the system account for this computer unlocks the encrypted volume.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

False

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-SkipHardwareTest

Indicates that BitLocker does not perform a hardware test before it begins encryption. BitLocker uses a hardware test as a dry run to make sure that all the key protectors are correctly set up and that the computer can start without issues.


Aliases

s

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-StartupKeyPath<String>

Specifies a path to a startup key. The key stored in the specified path acts as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

sk

Required?

true

Position?

2

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-StartupKeyProtector

Indicates that BitLocker uses a startup key as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

skp

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-TpmAndPinAndStartupKeyProtector

Indicates that BitLocker uses a combination of the TPM, a PIN, and a startup key as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

tpskp

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-TpmAndPinProtector

Indicates that BitLocker uses a combination of the TPM and a PIN as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

tpp

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-TpmAndStartupKeyProtector

Indicates that BitLocker uses a combination of the TPM and a startup key as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

tskp

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-TpmProtector

Indicates that BitLocker uses the TPM as a protector for the volume encryption key.


Aliases

tpmp

Required?

true

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-UsedSpaceOnly

Indicates that BitLocker does not encrypt disk space which contains unused data.


Aliases

qe

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Confirm

Prompts you for confirmation before running the cmdlet.


Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-WhatIf

Shows what would happen if the cmdlet runs. The cmdlet is not run.


Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

false

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

<CommonParameters>

This cmdlet supports the common parameters: -Verbose, -Debug, -ErrorAction, -ErrorVariable, -OutBuffer, and -OutVariable. For more information, see    about_CommonParameters.

Inputs

The input type is the type of the objects that you can pipe to the cmdlet.

  • BitLockerVolume[],String[]

Outputs

The output type is the type of the objects that the cmdlet emits.

  • BitLockerVolume[]

Examples

Example 1: Enable BitLocker

This example enables BitLocker for a specified drive using the TPM and a PIN for key protector.

The first command uses the ConvertTo-SecureString cmdlet to create a secure string that contains a PIN and saves that string in the $SecureString variable. For more information about the ConvertTo-SecureString cmdlet, type Get-Help ConvertTo-SecureString.

The second command enables BitLocker encryption for the BitLocker volume that has the drive letter C:. The cmdlet specifies an encryption algorithm and the PIN saved in the $SecureString variable. The command also specifies that this volume uses a combination of the TPM and the PIN as key protector. The command also specifies to encrypt the used space data on the disk, instead of the entire volume. When the system writes data to the volume in the future, that data is encrypted.


PS C:\> $SecureString = ConvertTo-SecureString "1234" -AsPlainText -Force
PS C:\> Enable-BitLocker -MountPoint "C:" -EncryptionMethod Aes256 –UsedSpaceOnly -Pin $SecureString -TPMandPinProtector

Example 2: Enable BitLocker with a specified recovery key

This command gets all the BitLocker volumes for the current computer and passes pipes them to the Enable-BitLocker cmdlet by using the pipe operator. This cmdlet specifies an encryption algorithm for the volume or volumes. This command also specifies a path to a recovery key and indicates that these volumes use a recovery key as a key protector.


PS C:\> Get-BitLockerVolume | Enable-BitLocker -EncryptionMethod Aes128 -RecoveryKeyPath "E:\Recovery\" -RecoveryKeyProtector

Example 3: Enable BitLocker with a specified user account

This command encrypts the BitLocker volume specified by the MountPoint parameter, and uses the AES 128 encryption method. The command also specifies an account and specifies that BitLocker uses user credentials as a key protector. When a user accesses this volume, BitLocker prompts for credentials for the user account Western\SarahJones.


PS C:\> Enable-BitLocker -MountPoint "C:" -EncryptionMethod Aes128 -AdAccountOrGroup "Western\SarahJones" -AdAccountOrGroupProtector

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