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Create a Publication

This topic describes how to create a publication in SQL Server 2014 by using SQL Server Management Studio, Transact-SQL, or Replication Management Objects (RMO).

In This Topic

Limitations and Restrictions

  • Publication and article names cannot include any of the following characters: % , * , [ , ] , | , : , " , ? , ' , \ , / , < , >. If objects in the database include any of these characters and you want to replicate them, you must specify an article name that is different from the object name in the Article Properties - <Article> dialog box, which is available from the Articles page in the wizard.

Security

When possible, prompt users to enter security credentials at runtime. If you must store credentials, use the cryptographic services provided by the Microsoft Windows .NET Framework.

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Create publications and define articles with the New Publication Wizard. After a publication is created, view and modify publication properties in the Publication Properties - <Publication> dialog box. For information about creating a publication from an Oracle database, see Create a Publication from an Oracle Database.

To create a publication and define articles

  1. Connect to the Publisher in Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio, and then expand the server node.

  2. Expand the Replication folder, and then right-click the Local Publications folder.

  3. Click New Publication.

  4. Follow the pages in the New Publication Wizard to:

    • Specify a Distributor if distribution has not been configured on the server. For more information about configuring distribution, see Configure Publishing and Distribution.

      If you specify on the Distributor page that the Publisher server will act as its own Distributor (a local Distributor), and the server is not configured as a Distributor, the New Publication Wizard will configure the server. You will specify a default snapshot folder for the Distributor on the Snapshot Folder page. The snapshot folder is simply a directory that you have designated as a share; agents that read from and write to this folder must have sufficient permissions to access it. For more information about securing the folder appropriately, see Secure the Snapshot Folder.

      If you specify that another server should act as the Distributor, you must enter a password on the Administrative Password page for connections made from the Publisher to the Distributor. This password must match the password specified when the Publisher was enabled at the remote Distributor.

      For more information, see Configure Distribution.

    • Choose a publication database.

    • Select a publication type. For more information, see Types of Replication.

    • Specify data and database objects to publish; optionally filter columns from table articles, and set article properties.

    • Optionally filter rows from table articles. For more information, see Filter Published Data.

    • Set the Snapshot Agent schedule.

    • Specify the credentials under which the following replication agents run and make connections:

      - Snapshot Agent for all publications.

      - Log Reader Agent for all transactional publications.

      - Queue Reader Agent for transactional publications that allow updating subscriptions.

      For more information, see Replication Agent Security Model and Replication Security Best Practices.

    • Optionally script the publication. For more information, see Scripting Replication.

    • Specify a name for the publication.

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Publications can be created programmatically using replication stored procedures. The stored procedures that are used will depend on the type of publication being created.

To create a snapshot or transactional publication

  1. At the Publisher on the publication database, execute sp_replicationdboption (Transact-SQL) to enable publication of the current database using snapshot or transactional replication.

  2. For a transactional publication, determine whether a Log Reader Agent job exists for the publication database. (This step is not required for snapshot publications.)

    • If a Log Reader Agent job exists for the publication database, proceed to step 3.

    • If you are unsure whether a Log Reader Agent job exists for a published database, execute sp_helplogreader_agent (Transact-SQL) at the Publisher on the publication database.

    • If the result set is empty, create a Log Reader Agent job. At the Publisher, execute sp_addlogreader_agent (Transact-SQL). Specify the Microsoft Windows credentials under which the agent runs for @job_name and @password. If the agent will use SQL Server Authentication when connecting to the Publisher, you must also specify a value of 0 for @publisher_security_mode and the Microsoft SQL Server login information for @publisher_login and @publisher_password. Proceed to step 3.

  3. At the Publisher, execute sp_addpublication (Transact-SQL). Specify a publication name for @publication, and, for the @repl_freq parameter, specify a value of snapshot for a snapshot publication or a value of continuous for a transactional publication. Specify any other publication options. This defines the publication.

    Note Note

    Publication names cannot include the following characters:

    % * [ ] | : " ? \ / < >

  4. At the Publisher, execute sp_addpublication_snapshot (Transact-SQL). Specify the publication name used in step 3 for @publication and the Windows credentials under which the Snapshot Agent runs for @snapshot_job_name and @password. If the agent will use SQL Server Authentication when connecting to the Publisher, you must also specify a value of 0 for @publisher_security_mode and the SQL Server login information for @publisher_login and @publisher_password. This creates a Snapshot Agent job for the publication.

    Security note Security Note

     When configuring a Publisher with a remote Distributor, the values supplied for all parameters, including job_login and job_password, are sent to the Distributor as plain text. You should encrypt the connection between the Publisher and its remote Distributor before executing this stored procedure. For more information, see Enable Encrypted Connections to the Database Engine (SQL Server Configuration Manager).

  5. Add articles to the publication. For more information, see Define an Article.

  6. Start the Snapshot Agent job to generate the initial snapshot for this publication. For more information, see Create and Apply the Initial Snapshot.

To create a merge publication

  1. At the Publisher, execute sp_replicationdboption (Transact-SQL) to enable publication of the current database using merge replication.

  2. At the Publisher on the publication database, execute sp_addmergepublication (Transact-SQL). Specify a name for the publication for @publication and any other publication options. This defines the publication.

    Note Note

    Publication names cannot include the following characters:

    % * [ ] | : " ? \ / < >

  3. At the Publisher, execute sp_addpublication_snapshot (Transact-SQL). Specify the publication name used in step 2 for @publication and the Windows credentials under which the Snapshot Agent runs for @snapshot_job_name and @password. If the agent will use SQL Server Authentication when connecting to the Publisher, you must also specify a value of 0 for @publisher_security_mode and the SQL Server login information for @publisher_login and @publisher_password. This creates a Snapshot Agent job for the publication.

    Security note Security Note

     When configuring a Publisher with a remote Distributor, the values supplied for all parameters, including job_login and job_password, are sent to the Distributor as plain text. You should encrypt the connection between the Publisher and its remote Distributor before executing this stored procedure. For more information, see Enable Encrypted Connections to the Database Engine (SQL Server Configuration Manager).

  4. Add articles to the publication. For more information, see Define an Article.

  5. Start the Snapshot Agent job to generate the initial snapshot for this publication. For more information, see Create and Apply the Initial Snapshot.

Example (Transact-SQL)

This example creates a transactional publication. Scripting variables are used to pass Windows credentials that are needed to create jobs for the Snapshot Agent and Log Reader Agent.

-- To avoid storing the login and password in the script file, the values 
-- are passed into SQLCMD as scripting variables. For information about 
-- how to use scripting variables on the command line and in SQL Server
-- Management Studio, see the "Executing Replication Scripts" section in
-- the topic "Programming Replication Using System Stored Procedures".

DECLARE @publicationDB AS sysname;
DECLARE @publication AS sysname;
DECLARE @login AS sysname;
DECLARE @password AS sysname;
SET @publicationDB = N'AdventureWorks'; 
SET @publication = N'AdvWorksProductTran'; 
-- Windows account used to run the Log Reader and Snapshot Agents.
SET @login = $(Login); 
-- This should be passed at runtime.
SET @password = $(Password); 

-- Enable transactional or snapshot replication on the publication database.
EXEC sp_replicationdboption 
	@dbname=@publicationDB, 
	@optname=N'publish',
	@value = N'true';

-- Execute sp_addlogreader_agent to create the agent job. 
EXEC sp_addlogreader_agent 
	@job_login = @login, 
	@job_password = @password,
	-- Explicitly specify the use of Windows Integrated Authentication (default) 
	-- when connecting to the Publisher.
	@publisher_security_mode = 1;

-- Create a new transactional publication with the required properties. 
EXEC sp_addpublication 
	@publication = @publication, 
	@status = N'active',
	@allow_push = N'true',
	@allow_pull = N'true',
	@independent_agent = N'true';

-- Create a new snapshot job for the publication, using a default schedule.
EXEC sp_addpublication_snapshot 
	@publication = @publication, 
	@job_login = @login, 
	@job_password = @password,
	-- Explicitly specify the use of Windows Integrated Authentication (default) 
	-- when connecting to the Publisher.
	@publisher_security_mode = 1;
GO

This example creates a merge publication. Scripting variables are used to pass Windows credentials that are needed to create the job for the Snapshot Agent.

-- To avoid storing the login and password in the script file, the value 
-- is passed into SQLCMD as a scripting variable. For information about 
-- how to use scripting variables on the command line and in SQL Server
-- Management Studio, see the "Executing Replication Scripts" section in
-- the topic "Programming Replication Using System Stored Procedures".

--Declarations for adding a merge publication
DECLARE @publicationDB AS sysname;
DECLARE @publication AS sysname;
DECLARE @login AS sysname;
DECLARE @password AS sysname;
SET @publicationDB = N'AdventureWorks2012'; 
SET @publication = N'AdvWorksSalesOrdersMerge'; 
SET @login = $(Login);
SET @password = $(Password);

-- Enable merge replication on the publication database, using defaults.
USE master
EXEC sp_replicationdboption 
  @dbname=@publicationDB, 
  @optname=N'merge publish',
  @value = N'true' 

-- Create a new merge publication, explicitly setting the defaults. 
USE [AdventureWorks2012]
EXEC sp_addmergepublication 
-- These parameters are optional.
  @publication = @publication,
  -- optional parameters 
  @description = N'Merge publication of AdventureWorks2012.',
  @publication_compatibility_level  = N'120RTM';

-- Create a new snapshot job for the publication.
EXEC sp_addpublication_snapshot 
  @publication = @publication, 
  @job_login = @login, 
  @job_password = @password;
GO

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You can create publications programmatically by using Replication Management Objects (RMO). The RMO classes that you use to create a publication depend on the type of publication you create.

To create a snapshot or transactional publication

  1. Create a connection to the Publisher by using the ServerConnection class.

  2. Create an instance of the ReplicationDatabase class for the publication database, set the ConnectionContext property to the instance of ServerConnection from step 1, and call the LoadProperties method. If LoadProperties returns false, verify that the database exists.

  3. If the EnabledTransPublishing property is false, set it to true.

  4. For a transactional publication, check the value of the LogReaderAgentExists property. If this property is true, a Log Read Agent job already exists for this database. If this property is false, do the following:

  5. Create an instance of the TransPublication class, and set the following properties for this object:

  6. Call the Create method to create the publication.

    Security note Security Note

     When configuring a Publisher with a remote Distributor, the values supplied for all properties, including SnapshotGenerationAgentProcessSecurity, are sent to the Distributor as plain text. You should encrypt the connection between the Publisher and its remote Distributor before calling the Create method. For more information, see Enable Encrypted Connections to the Database Engine (SQL Server Configuration Manager).

  7. Call the CreateSnapshotAgent method to create the Snapshot Agent job for the publication.

To create a merge publication

  1. Create a connection to the Publisher by using the ServerConnection class.

  2. Create an instance of the ReplicationDatabase class for the publication database, set the ConnectionContext property to the instance of ServerConnection from step 1, and call the LoadProperties method. If LoadProperties returns false, verify that the database exists.

  3. If EnabledMergePublishing Property is false, set it to true, and call CommitPropertyChanges.

  4. Create an instance of the MergePublication class, and set the following properties for this object:

  5. Call the Create method to create the publication.

    Security note Security Note

     When configuring a Publisher with a remote Distributor, the values supplied for all properties, including SnapshotGenerationAgentProcessSecurity, are sent to the Distributor as plain text. You should encrypt the connection between the Publisher and its remote Distributor before calling the Create method. For more information, see Enable Encrypted Connections to the Database Engine (SQL Server Configuration Manager).

  6. Call the CreateSnapshotAgent method to create the Snapshot Agent job for the publication.

Examples (RMO)

This example enables the AdventureWorks database for transactional publishing, defines a Log Reader Agent job, and creates the AdvWorksProductTran publication. An article must be defined for this publication. The Windows account credentials that are needed to create the Log Reader Agent job and the Snapshot Agent job are passed at runtime. To learn how to use RMO to define snapshot and transactional articles, see Define an Article.

			// Set the Publisher, publication database, and publication names.
			string publicationName = "AdvWorksProductTran";
			string publicationDbName = "AdventureWorks2012";
			string publisherName = publisherInstance;

			ReplicationDatabase publicationDb;
			TransPublication publication;

			// Create a connection to the Publisher using Windows Authentication.
			ServerConnection conn;
			conn = new ServerConnection(publisherName);


			try
			{
				// Connect to the Publisher.
				conn.Connect();

				// Enable the AdventureWorks2012 database for transactional publishing.
				publicationDb = new ReplicationDatabase(publicationDbName, conn);

				// If the database exists and is not already enabled, 
				// enable it for transactional publishing.
				if (publicationDb.LoadProperties())
				{
					if (!publicationDb.EnabledTransPublishing)
					{
						publicationDb.EnabledTransPublishing = true;
					}

					// If the Log Reader Agent does not exist, create it.
					if (!publicationDb.LogReaderAgentExists)
					{
						// Specify the Windows account under which the agent job runs.
						// This account will be used for the local connection to the 
						// Distributor and all agent connections that use Windows Authentication.
						publicationDb.LogReaderAgentProcessSecurity.Login = winLogin;
						publicationDb.LogReaderAgentProcessSecurity.Password = winPassword;

						// Explicitly set authentication mode for the Publisher connection
						// to the default value of Windows Authentication.
						publicationDb.LogReaderAgentPublisherSecurity.WindowsAuthentication = true;

						// Create the Log Reader Agent job.
						publicationDb.CreateLogReaderAgent();
					}
				}
				else
				{
					throw new ApplicationException(String.Format(
						"The {0} database does not exist at {1}.",
						publicationDb, publisherName));
				}

				// Set the required properties for the transactional publication.
				publication = new TransPublication();
				publication.ConnectionContext = conn;
				publication.Name = publicationName;
				publication.DatabaseName = publicationDbName;

				// Specify a transactional publication (the default).
				publication.Type = PublicationType.Transactional;

				// Activate the publication so that we can add subscriptions.
				publication.Status = State.Active;

                // Enable push and pull subscriptions and independent Distribition Agents.
                publication.Attributes |= PublicationAttributes.AllowPull;
                publication.Attributes |= PublicationAttributes.AllowPush;
                publication.Attributes |= PublicationAttributes.IndependentAgent;

				// Specify the Windows account under which the Snapshot Agent job runs.
				// This account will be used for the local connection to the 
				// Distributor and all agent connections that use Windows Authentication.
				publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentProcessSecurity.Login = winLogin;
				publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentProcessSecurity.Password = winPassword;

				// Explicitly set the security mode for the Publisher connection
				// Windows Authentication (the default).
				publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentPublisherSecurity.WindowsAuthentication = true;

				if (!publication.IsExistingObject)
				{
					// Create the transactional publication.
					publication.Create();

					// Create a Snapshot Agent job for the publication.
					publication.CreateSnapshotAgent();
				}
				else
				{
					throw new ApplicationException(String.Format(
						"The {0} publication already exists.", publicationName));
				}
			}

			catch (Exception ex)
			{
				// Implement custom application error handling here.
				throw new ApplicationException(String.Format(
					"The publication {0} could not be created.", publicationName), ex);
			}
			finally
			{
				conn.Disconnect();
			}
' Set the Publisher, publication database, and publication names.
Dim publicationName As String = "AdvWorksProductTran"
Dim publicationDbName As String = "AdventureWorks2012"
Dim publisherName As String = publisherInstance

Dim publicationDb As ReplicationDatabase
Dim publication As TransPublication

' Create a connection to the Publisher using Windows Authentication.
Dim conn As ServerConnection
conn = New ServerConnection(publisherName)

Try
    ' Connect to the Publisher.
    conn.Connect()

    ' Enable the AdventureWorks2012 database for transactional publishing.
    publicationDb = New ReplicationDatabase(publicationDbName, conn)

    ' If the database exists and is not already enabled, 
    ' enable it for transactional publishing.
    If publicationDb.LoadProperties() Then
        If Not publicationDb.EnabledTransPublishing Then
            publicationDb.EnabledTransPublishing = True
        End If

        ' If the Log Reader Agent does not exist, create it.
        If Not publicationDb.LogReaderAgentExists Then
            ' Specify the Windows account under which the agent job runs.
            ' This account will be used for the local connection to the 
            ' Distributor and all agent connections that use Windows Authentication.
            publicationDb.LogReaderAgentProcessSecurity.Login = winLogin
            publicationDb.LogReaderAgentProcessSecurity.Password = winPassword

            ' Explicitly set authentication mode for the Publisher connection
            ' to the default value of Windows Authentication.
            publicationDb.LogReaderAgentPublisherSecurity.WindowsAuthentication = True

            ' Create the Log Reader Agent job.
            publicationDb.CreateLogReaderAgent()
        End If
    Else
        Throw New ApplicationException(String.Format( _
         "The {0} database does not exist at {1}.", _
         publicationDb, publisherName))
    End If

    ' Set the required properties for the transactional publication.
    publication = New TransPublication()
    publication.ConnectionContext = conn
    publication.Name = publicationName
    publication.DatabaseName = publicationDbName

    ' Specify a transactional publication (the default).
    publication.Type = PublicationType.Transactional

    'Enable push and pull subscriptions and independent Distribition Agents.
    publication.Attributes = _
    publication.Attributes Or PublicationAttributes.AllowPull
    publication.Attributes = _
    publication.Attributes Or PublicationAttributes.AllowPush
    publication.Attributes = _
    publication.Attributes Or PublicationAttributes.IndependentAgent

    ' Activate the publication so that we can add subscriptions.
    publication.Status = State.Active

    ' Specify the Windows account under which the Snapshot Agent job runs.
    ' This account will be used for the local connection to the 
    ' Distributor and all agent connections that use Windows Authentication.
    publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentProcessSecurity.Login = winLogin
    publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentProcessSecurity.Password = winPassword

    ' Explicitly set the security mode for the Publisher connection
    ' Windows Authentication (the default).
    publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentPublisherSecurity.WindowsAuthentication = True

    If Not publication.IsExistingObject Then
        ' Create the transactional publication.
        publication.Create()

        ' Create a Snapshot Agent job for the publication.
        publication.CreateSnapshotAgent()
    Else
        Throw New ApplicationException(String.Format( _
            "The {0} publication already exists.", publicationName))
    End If
Catch ex As Exception
    ' Implement custom application error handling here.
    Throw New ApplicationException(String.Format( _
        "The publication {0} could not be created.", publicationName), ex)
Finally
    conn.Disconnect()
End Try

This example enables the AdventureWorks database for merge publishing and creates the AdvWorksSalesOrdersMerge publication. Articles must still be defined for this publication. The Windows account credentials that are needed to create the Snapshot Agent job are passed at runtime. To learn how to use RMO to define merge articles, see Define an Article.

			// Set the Publisher, publication database, and publication names.
			string publisherName = publisherInstance;
			string publicationName = "AdvWorksSalesOrdersMerge";
			string publicationDbName = "AdventureWorks2012";

			ReplicationDatabase publicationDb;
			MergePublication publication;

			// Create a connection to the Publisher.
			ServerConnection conn = new ServerConnection(publisherName);

			try
			{
				// Connect to the Publisher.
				conn.Connect();

				// Enable the database for merge publication.				
				publicationDb = new ReplicationDatabase(publicationDbName, conn);
				if (publicationDb.LoadProperties())
				{
					if (!publicationDb.EnabledMergePublishing)
					{
						publicationDb.EnabledMergePublishing = true;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					// Do something here if the database does not exist. 
					throw new ApplicationException(String.Format(
						"The {0} database does not exist on {1}.",
						publicationDb, publisherName));
				}

				// Set the required properties for the merge publication.
				publication = new MergePublication();
				publication.ConnectionContext = conn;
				publication.Name = publicationName;
				publication.DatabaseName = publicationDbName;

                // Enable precomputed partitions.
                publication.PartitionGroupsOption = PartitionGroupsOption.True;

				// Specify the Windows account under which the Snapshot Agent job runs.
				// This account will be used for the local connection to the 
				// Distributor and all agent connections that use Windows Authentication.
				publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentProcessSecurity.Login = winLogin;
				publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentProcessSecurity.Password = winPassword;

				// Explicitly set the security mode for the Publisher connection
				// Windows Authentication (the default).
				publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentPublisherSecurity.WindowsAuthentication = true;

				// Enable Subscribers to request snapshot generation and filtering.
				publication.Attributes |= PublicationAttributes.AllowSubscriberInitiatedSnapshot;
                publication.Attributes |= PublicationAttributes.DynamicFilters;

                // Enable pull and push subscriptions.
                publication.Attributes |= PublicationAttributes.AllowPull;
                publication.Attributes |= PublicationAttributes.AllowPush;

				if (!publication.IsExistingObject)
				{
					// Create the merge publication.
					publication.Create();
					
					// Create a Snapshot Agent job for the publication.
					publication.CreateSnapshotAgent();
				}
				else
				{
					throw new ApplicationException(String.Format(
						"The {0} publication already exists.", publicationName));
				}
			}

			catch (Exception ex)
			{
				// Implement custom application error handling here.
				throw new ApplicationException(String.Format(
					"The publication {0} could not be created.", publicationName), ex);
			}
			finally
			{
				conn.Disconnect();
			}
' Set the Publisher, publication database, and publication names.
Dim publisherName As String = publisherInstance
Dim publicationName As String = "AdvWorksSalesOrdersMerge"
Dim publicationDbName As String = "AdventureWorks2012"

Dim publicationDb As ReplicationDatabase
Dim publication As MergePublication

' Create a connection to the Publisher.
Dim conn As ServerConnection = New ServerConnection(publisherName)

Try
    ' Connect to the Publisher.
    conn.Connect()

    ' Enable the database for merge publication.				
    publicationDb = New ReplicationDatabase(publicationDbName, conn)
    If publicationDb.LoadProperties() Then
        If Not publicationDb.EnabledMergePublishing Then
            publicationDb.EnabledMergePublishing = True
        End If
    Else
        ' Do something here if the database does not exist. 
        Throw New ApplicationException(String.Format( _
         "The {0} database does not exist on {1}.", _
         publicationDb, publisherName))
    End If

    ' Set the required properties for the merge publication.
    publication = New MergePublication()
    publication.ConnectionContext = conn
    publication.Name = publicationName
    publication.DatabaseName = publicationDbName

    ' Enable precomputed partitions.
    publication.PartitionGroupsOption = PartitionGroupsOption.True

    ' Specify the Windows account under which the Snapshot Agent job runs.
    ' This account will be used for the local connection to the 
    ' Distributor and all agent connections that use Windows Authentication.
    publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentProcessSecurity.Login = winLogin
    publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentProcessSecurity.Password = winPassword

    ' Explicitly set the security mode for the Publisher connection
    ' Windows Authentication (the default).
    publication.SnapshotGenerationAgentPublisherSecurity.WindowsAuthentication = True

    ' Enable Subscribers to request snapshot generation and filtering.
    publication.Attributes = publication.Attributes Or _
        PublicationAttributes.AllowSubscriberInitiatedSnapshot
    publication.Attributes = publication.Attributes Or _
        PublicationAttributes.DynamicFilters

    ' Enable pull and push subscriptions
    publication.Attributes = publication.Attributes Or _
        PublicationAttributes.AllowPull
    publication.Attributes = publication.Attributes Or _
        PublicationAttributes.AllowPush

    If Not publication.IsExistingObject Then
        ' Create the merge publication.
        publication.Create()

        ' Create a Snapshot Agent job for the publication.
        publication.CreateSnapshotAgent()
    Else
        Throw New ApplicationException(String.Format( _
            "The {0} publication already exists.", publicationName))
    End If
Catch ex As Exception
    ' Implement custom application error handling here.
    Throw New ApplicationException(String.Format( _
        "The publication {0} could not be created.", publicationName), ex)
Finally
    conn.Disconnect()
End Try

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