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DBCC INDEXDEFRAG (Transact-SQL)

Defragments indexes of the specified table or view.

Important note Important

This feature will be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. Do not use this feature in new development work, and modify applications that currently use this feature as soon as possible. Use ALTER INDEX instead.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

DBCC INDEXDEFRAG
(
    { database_name | database_id | 0 } 
    , { table_name | table_id | view_name | view_id } 
    [ , { index_name | index_id } [ , { partition_number | 0 } ] ]
)
    [ WITH NO_INFOMSGS ] 

database_name| database_id | 0

Is the database containing the index to defragment. If 0 is specified, the current database is used. Database names must comply with the rules for identifiers.

table_name | table_id | view_name | view_id

Is the table or view containing the index to defragment. Table and view names must comply with the rules for identifiers.

index_name | index_id

Is the name or ID of the index to defragment. If not specified, the statement defragments all indexes of the specified table or view. Index names must comply with the rules for identifiers.

partition_number | 0

Is the partition number of the index to defragment. If not specified or if 0 is specified, the statement defragments all partitions in the specified index.

WITH NO_INFOMSGS

Suppresses all informational messages that have severity levels from 0 through 10.

DBCC INDEXDEFRAG defragments the leaf level of an index so that the physical order of the pages matches the left-to-right logical order of the leaf nodes, therefore improving index-scanning performance.

Note Note

When DBCC INDEXDEFRAG is run, index defragmentation occurs serially. This means that the operation on a single index is performed using a single thread. No parallelism occurs. Also, operations on multiple indexes from the same DBCC INDEXDEFRAG statement are performed on one index at a time.

DBCC INDEXDEFRAG also compacts the pages of an index, taking into consideration the fill factor specified when the index was created. Any empty pages created because of this compaction are removed. For more information, see Specify Fill Factor for an Index.

If an index spans more than one file, DBCC INDEXDEFRAG defragments one file at a time. Pages do not migrate between files.

DBCC INDEXDEFRAG reports the estimated percentage completed every five minutes. DBCC INDEXDEFRAG can be stopped at any point in the process, and any completed work is retained.

Unlike DBCC DBREINDEX, or the index building operation generally, DBCC INDEXDEFRAG is an online operation. It does not hold locks long term. Therefore, DBCC INDEXDEFRAG does not block running queries or updates. Because the time to defragment is related to the level of fragmentation, a relatively unfragmented index can be defragmented faster than a new index can be built. A very fragmented index might take considerably longer to defragment than to rebuild.

The defragmentation is always fully logged, regardless of the database recovery model setting. For more information, see ALTER DATABASE (Transact-SQL). The defragmentation of a very fragmented index can generate more log than a fully logged index creation. However, the defragmentation is performed as a series of short transactions, so a large log is unnecessary if log backups are taken frequently or if the recovery model setting is SIMPLE.

Restrictions

DBCC INDEXDEFRAG shuffles index leaf pages in place. Therefore, if an index is interleaved with other indexes on disk, running DBCC INDEXDEFRAG against that index does not make all leaf pages in the index contiguous. To improve the clustering of pages, rebuild the index.

DBCC INDEXDEFRAG cannot be used to defragment the following indexes:

  • A disabled index.

  • An index with page locking set to OFF.

  • A spatial index.

DBCC INDEXDEFRAG is not supported for use on system tables.

DBCC INDEXDEFRAG returns the following result set (values may vary) if an index is specified in the statement (unless WITH NO_INFOMSGS is specified):

Pages Scanned Pages Moved Pages Removed
------------- ----------- -------------
359           346         8

(1 row(s) affected)

DBCC execution completed. If DBCC printed error messages, contact your system administrator.

Caller must own the table, or be a member of the sysadmin fixed server role, the db_owner fixed database role, or the db_ddladmin fixed database role.

A. Using DBCC INDEXDEFRAG to defragment an index

The following example defragments all partitions of the PK_Product_ProductID index in the Production.Product table in the AdventureWorks database.

DBCC INDEXDEFRAG (AdventureWorks2012, "Production.Product", PK_Product_ProductID)
GO

B. Using DBCC SHOWCONTIG and DBCC INDEXDEFRAG to defragment the indexes in a database

The following example shows a simple way to defragment all indexes in a database that are fragmented above a declared threshold.

/*Perform a 'USE <database name>' to select the database in which to run the script.*/
-- Declare variables
SET NOCOUNT ON;
DECLARE @tablename varchar(255);
DECLARE @execstr   varchar(400);
DECLARE @objectid  int;
DECLARE @indexid   int;
DECLARE @frag      decimal;
DECLARE @maxfrag   decimal;

-- Decide on the maximum fragmentation to allow for.
SELECT @maxfrag = 30.0;

-- Declare a cursor.
DECLARE tables CURSOR FOR
   SELECT TABLE_SCHEMA + '.' + TABLE_NAME
   FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES
   WHERE TABLE_TYPE = 'BASE TABLE';

-- Create the table.
CREATE TABLE #fraglist (
   ObjectName char(255),
   ObjectId int,
   IndexName char(255),
   IndexId int,
   Lvl int,
   CountPages int,
   CountRows int,
   MinRecSize int,
   MaxRecSize int,
   AvgRecSize int,
   ForRecCount int,
   Extents int,
   ExtentSwitches int,
   AvgFreeBytes int,
   AvgPageDensity int,
   ScanDensity decimal,
   BestCount int,
   ActualCount int,
   LogicalFrag decimal,
   ExtentFrag decimal);

-- Open the cursor.
OPEN tables;

-- Loop through all the tables in the database.
FETCH NEXT
   FROM tables
   INTO @tablename;

WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
-- Do the showcontig of all indexes of the table
   INSERT INTO #fraglist 
   EXEC ('DBCC SHOWCONTIG (''' + @tablename + ''') 
      WITH FAST, TABLERESULTS, ALL_INDEXES, NO_INFOMSGS');
   FETCH NEXT
      FROM tables
      INTO @tablename;
END;

-- Close and deallocate the cursor.
CLOSE tables;
DEALLOCATE tables;

-- Declare the cursor for the list of indexes to be defragged.
DECLARE indexes CURSOR FOR
   SELECT ObjectName, ObjectId, IndexId, LogicalFrag
   FROM #fraglist
   WHERE LogicalFrag >= @maxfrag
      AND INDEXPROPERTY (ObjectId, IndexName, 'IndexDepth') > 0;

-- Open the cursor.
OPEN indexes;

-- Loop through the indexes.
FETCH NEXT
   FROM indexes
   INTO @tablename, @objectid, @indexid, @frag;

WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
   PRINT 'Executing DBCC INDEXDEFRAG (0, ' + RTRIM(@tablename) + ',
      ' + RTRIM(@indexid) + ') - fragmentation currently '
       + RTRIM(CONVERT(varchar(15),@frag)) + '%';
   SELECT @execstr = 'DBCC INDEXDEFRAG (0, ' + RTRIM(@objectid) + ',
       ' + RTRIM(@indexid) + ')';
   EXEC (@execstr);

   FETCH NEXT
      FROM indexes
      INTO @tablename, @objectid, @indexid, @frag;
END;

-- Close and deallocate the cursor.
CLOSE indexes;
DEALLOCATE indexes;

-- Delete the temporary table.
DROP TABLE #fraglist;
GO
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