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GROUPING (Transact-SQL)

Indicates whether a specified column expression in a GROUP BY list is aggregated or not. GROUPING returns 1 for aggregated or 0 for not aggregated in the result set. GROUPING can be used only in the SELECT <select> list, HAVING, and ORDER BY clauses when GROUP BY is specified.

Applies to: SQL Server (SQL Server 2008 through current version), Azure SQL Database.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

GROUPING ( <column_expression> )

<column_expression>

Is a column or an expression that contains a column in a GROUP BY clause.

GROUPING is used to distinguish the null values that are returned by ROLLUP, CUBE or GROUPING SETS from standard null values. The NULL returned as the result of a ROLLUP, CUBE or GROUPING SETS operation is a special use of NULL. This acts as a column placeholder in the result set and means all.

The following example groups SalesQuota and aggregates SaleYTD amounts in the AdventureWorks2012 database. The GROUPING function is applied to the SalesQuota column.

SELECT SalesQuota, SUM(SalesYTD) 'TotalSalesYTD', GROUPING(SalesQuota) AS 'Grouping'
FROM Sales.SalesPerson
GROUP BY SalesQuota WITH ROLLUP;
GO

The result set shows two null values under SalesQuota. The first NULL represents the group of null values from this column in the table. The second NULL is in the summary row added by the ROLLUP operation. The summary row shows the TotalSalesYTD amounts for all SalesQuota groups and is indicated by 1 in the Grouping column.

Here is the result set.

SalesQuota     TotalSalesYTD       Grouping

------------   -----------------   --------

NULL           1533087.5999          0

250000.00      33461260.59           0

300000.00      9299677.9445          0

NULL           44294026.1344         1

(4 row(s) affected)

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