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RESTORE (Transact-SQL)

Restores backups taken using the BACKUP command. This command enables you to perform the following restore scenarios:

  • Restore an entire database from a full database backup (a complete restore).

  • Restore part of a database (a partial restore).

  • Restore specific files or filegroups to a database (a file restore).

  • Restore specific pages to a database (a page restore).

  • Restore a transaction log onto a database (a transaction log restore).

  • Revert a database to the point in time captured by a database snapshot.

For more information about SQL Server restore scenarios, see Restore and Recovery Overview (SQL Server).

Note Note

For more information about descriptions of the arguments, see RESTORE Arguments (Transact-SQL).

Note Note

Starting with SQL Server 2012 SP1 Cumulative Update 2, SQL Server backup to the Windows Azure Blob storage service is supported. For more information, see Backup and Restore Enhancements, and SQL Server Backup and Restore with Windows Azure Blob Storage Service.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

--To Restore an Entire Database from a Full database backup (a Complete Restore):
RESTORE DATABASE { database_name | @database_name_var } 
 [ FROM <backup_device> [ ,...n ] ]
 [ WITH 
   {
    [ RECOVERY | NORECOVERY | STANDBY = 
        {standby_file_name | @standby_file_name_var } 
       ]
   | ,  <general_WITH_options> [ ,...n ]
   | , <replication_WITH_option>
   | , <change_data_capture_WITH_option>
   | , <FILESTREAM_WITH_option>
   | , <service_broker_WITH options> 
   | , <point_in_time_WITH_options—RESTORE_DATABASE> 
   } [ ,...n ]
 ]
[;]

--To perform the first step of the initial restore sequence 
-- of a piecemeal restore:
RESTORE DATABASE { database_name | @database_name_var } 
   <files_or_filegroups> [ ,...n ]
 [ FROM <backup_device> [ ,...n ] ] 
   WITH 
      PARTIAL, NORECOVERY 
      [  , <general_WITH_options> [ ,...n ] 
       | , <point_in_time_WITH_options—RESTORE_DATABASE> 
      ] [ ,...n ] 
[;]

--To Restore Specific Files or Filegroups: 
RESTORE DATABASE { database_name | @database_name_var } 
   <file_or_filegroup> [ ,...n ]
 [ FROM <backup_device> [ ,...n ] ] 
   WITH 
   {
      [ RECOVERY | NORECOVERY ]
      [ , <general_WITH_options> [ ,...n ] ]
   } [ ,...n ] 
[;]

--To Restore Specific Pages: 
RESTORE DATABASE { database_name | @database_name_var } 
   PAGE = 'file:page [ ,...n ]' 
 [ , <file_or_filegroups> ] [ ,...n ]
 [ FROM <backup_device> [ ,...n ] ] 
   WITH 
       NORECOVERY   
      [ , <general_WITH_options> [ ,...n ] ]
[;]

--To Restore a Transaction Log:
RESTORE LOG { database_name | @database_name_var } 
 [ <file_or_filegroup_or_pages> [ ,...n ] ]
 [ FROM <backup_device> [ ,...n ] ] 
 [ WITH 
   {
     [ RECOVERY | NORECOVERY | STANDBY = 
        {standby_file_name | @standby_file_name_var } 
       ]
    | ,  <general_WITH_options> [ ,...n ]
    | , <replication_WITH_option>
    | , <point_in_time_WITH_options—RESTORE_LOG> 
   } [ ,...n ]
 ] 
[;]

--To Revert a Database to a Database Snapshot:   
RESTORE DATABASE { database_name | @database_name_var } 
FROM DATABASE_SNAPSHOT = database_snapshot_name  

<backup_device>::=
{ 
   { logical_backup_device_name |
      @logical_backup_device_name_var }
 | { DISK | TAPE } = { 'physical_backup_device_name' |
      @physical_backup_device_name_var } 
} 

<files_or_filegroups>::= 
{ 
   FILE = { logical_file_name_in_backup | @logical_file_name_in_backup_var } 
 | FILEGROUP = { logical_filegroup_name | @logical_filegroup_name_var } 
 | READ_WRITE_FILEGROUPS
} 

<general_WITH_options> [ ,...n ]::=  
--Restore Operation Options
   MOVE 'logical_file_name_in_backup' TO 'operating_system_file_name' 
          [ ,...n ] 
 | REPLACE 
 | RESTART 
 | RESTRICTED_USER 

--Backup Set Options
 | FILE = { backup_set_file_number | @backup_set_file_number } 
 | PASSWORD = { password | @password_variable } 

--Media Set Options
 | MEDIANAME = { media_name | @media_name_variable } 
 | MEDIAPASSWORD = { mediapassword | @mediapassword_variable } 
 | BLOCKSIZE = { blocksize | @blocksize_variable } 

--Data Transfer Options
 | BUFFERCOUNT = { buffercount | @buffercount_variable } 
 | MAXTRANSFERSIZE = { maxtransfersize | @maxtransfersize_variable }

--Error Management Options
 | { CHECKSUM | NO_CHECKSUM } 
 | { STOP_ON_ERROR | CONTINUE_AFTER_ERROR } 

--Monitoring Options
 | STATS [ = percentage ] 

--Tape Options
 | { REWIND | NOREWIND } 
 | { UNLOAD | NOUNLOAD } 
  
<replication_WITH_option>::=
 | KEEP_REPLICATION 

<change_data_capture_WITH_option>::=
 | KEEP_CDC

<FILESTREAM_WITH_option>::=
 | FILESTREAM ( DIRECTORY_NAME = directory_name )


<service_broker_WITH_options>::= 
 | ENABLE_BROKER 
 | ERROR_BROKER_CONVERSATIONS 
 | NEW_BROKER 


<point_in_time_WITH_options—RESTORE_DATABASE>::= 
 | {
   STOPAT = { 'datetime'| @datetime_var } 
 | STOPATMARK = 'lsn:lsn_number'
                 [ AFTER 'datetime'] 
 | STOPBEFOREMARK = 'lsn:lsn_number'
                 [ AFTER 'datetime'] 
   } 

<point_in_time_WITH_options—RESTORE_LOG>::= 
 | {
   STOPAT = { 'datetime'| @datetime_var } 
 | STOPATMARK = { 'mark_name' | 'lsn:lsn_number' }
                 [ AFTER 'datetime'] 
 | STOPBEFOREMARK = { 'mark_name' | 'lsn:lsn_number' }
                 [ AFTER 'datetime'] 
   } 

For descriptions of the arguments, see RESTORE Arguments (Transact-SQL).

SQL Server supports a variety of restore scenarios:

Discontinued RESTORE Keywords

The following keywords were discontinued in SQL Server 2008:

Discontinued keyword

Replaced by…

Example of replacement keyword

LOAD

RESTORE

RESTORE DATABASE

TRANSACTION

LOG

RESTORE LOG

DBO_ONLY

RESTRICTED_USER

RESTORE DATABASE ... WITH RESTRICTED_USER

RESTORE LOG

RESTORE LOG can include a file list to allow for creation of files during roll forward. This is used when the log backup contains log records written when a file was added to the database.

Note Note

For a database using the full or bulk-logged recovery model, in most cases you must back up the tail of the log before restoring the database. Restoring a database without first backing up the tail of the log results in an error, unless the RESTORE DATABASE statement contains either the WITH REPLACE or the WITH STOPAT clause, which must specify a time or transaction that occurred after the end of the data backup. For more information about tail-log backups, see Tail-Log Backups (SQL Server).

Comparison of RECOVERY and NORECOVERY

Roll back is controlled by the RESTORE statement through the [ RECOVERY | NORECOVERY ] options:

  • NORECOVERY specifies that roll back not occur. This allows roll forward to continue with the next statement in the sequence.

    In this case, the restore sequence can restore other backups and roll them forward.

  • RECOVERY (the default) indicates that roll back should be performed after roll forward is completed for the current backup.

    Recovering the database requires that the entire set of data being restored (the roll forward set) is consistent with the database. If the roll forward set has not been rolled forward far enough to be consistent with the database and RECOVERY is specified, the Database Engine issues an error.

In SQL Server 2012, you can restore a user database from a database backup that was created by using SQL Server 2005 or a later version. However, backups of master, model and msdb that were created by using SQL Server 2005 or SQL Server 2008 cannot be restored by SQL Server 2012. Also, backups created in SQL Server 2012 cannot be restored by any earlier version of SQL Server.

Note Note

No SQL Server backup be restored to an earlier version of SQL Server than the version on which the backup was created.

SQL Server 2012 uses a different default path than earlier versions. Therefore, to restore a database that was created in the default location for SQL Server 2005 or SQL Server 2008 backups, you must use the MOVE option. For information about the new default path, see File Locations for Default and Named Instances of SQL Server.

After you restore a SQL Server 2005 or SQL Server 2008 database to SQL Server 2012, the database is automatically upgraded. Typically, the database becomes available immediately. However, if a SQL Server 2005 database has full-text indexes, the upgrade process either imports, resets, or rebuilds them, depending on the setting of the upgrade_option server property. If the upgrade option is set to import (upgrade_option = 2) or rebuild (upgrade_option = 0), the full-text indexes will be unavailable during the upgrade. Depending the amount of data being indexed, importing can take several hours, and rebuilding can take up to ten times longer. Note also that when the upgrade option is set to import, the associated full-text indexes are rebuilt if a full-text catalog is not available. To change the setting of the upgrade_option server property, use sp_fulltext_service.

When a database is first attached or restored to a new instance of SQL Server, a copy of the database master key (encrypted by the service master key) is not yet stored in the server. You must use the OPEN MASTER KEY statement to decrypt the database master key (DMK). Once the DMK has been decrypted, you have the option of enabling automatic decryption in the future by using the ALTER MASTER KEY REGENERATE statement to provision the server with a copy of the DMK, encrypted with the service master key (SMK). When a database has been upgraded from an earlier version, the DMK should be regenerated to use the newer AES algorithm. For more information about regenerating the DMK, see ALTER MASTER KEY (Transact-SQL). The time required to regenerate the DMK key to upgrade to AES depends upon the number of objects protected by the DMK. Regenerating the DMK key to upgrade to AES is only necessary once, and has no impact on future regenerations as part of a key rotation strategy.

During an offline restore, if the specified database is in use, RESTORE forces the users off after a short delay. For online restore of a non-primary filegroup, the database can stay in use except when the filegroup being restored is being taken offline. Any data in the specified database is replaced by the restored data.

For more information about database recovery, see Restore and Recovery Overview (SQL Server).

Cross-platform restore operations, even between different processor types, can be performed as long as the collation of the database is supported by the operating system.

RESTORE can be restarted after an error. In addition, you can instruct RESTORE to continue despite errors, and it restores as much data as possible (see the CONTINUE_AFTER_ERROR option).

RESTORE is not allowed in an explicit or implicit transaction.

Restoring a damaged master database is performed using a special procedure. For more information, see Back Up and Restore of System Databases (SQL Server).

Restoring a database clears the plan cache for the instance of SQL Server. Clearing the plan cache causes a recompilation of all subsequent execution plans and can cause a sudden, temporary decrease in query performance. As of SQL Server 2005 Service Pack 2, for each cleared cachestore in the plan cache, the SQL Server error log contains the following informational message: "SQL Server has encountered %d occurrence(s) of cachestore flush for the '%s' cachestore (part of plan cache) due to some database maintenance or reconfigure operations". This message is logged every five minutes as long as the cache is flushed within that time interval.

To restore an availability database, first restore the database to the instance of SQL Server, and then add the database to the availability group.

Database Settings and Restoring

During a restore, most of the database options that are settable using ALTER DATABASE are reset to the values in force at the time of the end of backup.

Using the WITH RESTRICTED_USER option, however, overrides this behavior for the user access option setting. This setting is always set following a RESTORE statement, which includes the WITH RESTRICTED_USER option.

Restoring an Encrypted Database

To restore a database that is encrypted, you must have access to the certificate or asymmetric key that was used to encrypt the database. Without the certificate or asymmetric key, the database cannot be restored. As a result, the certificate that is used to encrypt the database encryption key must be retained as long as the backup is needed. For more information, see SQL Server Certificates and Asymmetric Keys.

Restoring a Database Enabled for vardecimal Storage

Backup and restore work correctly with the vardecimal storage format. For more information about vardecimal storage format, see sp_db_vardecimal_storage_format (Transact-SQL).

Restore Full-Text Data

Full-text data is restored together with other database data during a complete restore. Using the regular RESTORE DATABASE database_name FROM backup_device syntax, the full-text files are restored as part of the database file restore.

The RESTORE statement also can be used to perform restores to alternate locations, differential restores, file and filegroup restores, and differential file and filegroup restores of full-text data. In addition, RESTORE can restore full-text files only, as well as with database data.

Note Note

Full-text catalogs imported from SQL Server 2005 are still treated as database files. For these, the SQL Server 2005 procedure for backing up full-text catalogs remains applicable, except that pausing and resuming during the backup operation are no longer necessary. For more information, see Backing Up and Restoring Full-Text Catalogs in SQL Server 2005 Books Online.

SQL Server includes backup and restore history tables that track the backup and restore activity for each server instance. When a restore is performed, the backup history tables are also modified. For information on these tables, see Backup History and Header Information (SQL Server).

REPLACE should be used rarely and only after careful consideration. Restore normally prevents accidentally overwriting a database with a different database. If the database specified in a RESTORE statement already exists on the current server and the specified database family GUID differs from the database family GUID recorded in the backup set, the database is not restored. This is an important safeguard.

The REPLACE option overrides several important safety checks that restore normally performs. The overridden checks are as follows:

  • Restoring over an existing database with a backup taken of another database.

    With the REPLACE option, restore allows you to overwrite an existing database with whatever database is in the backup set, even if the specified database name differs from the database name recorded in the backup set. This can result in accidentally overwriting a database by a different database.

  • Restoring over a database using the full or bulk-logged recovery model where a tail-log backup has not been taken and the STOPAT option is not used.

    With the REPLACE option, you can lose committed work, because the log written most recently has not been backed up.

  • Overwriting existing files.

    For example, a mistake could allow overwriting files of the wrong type, such as .xls files, or that are being used by another database that is not online. Arbitrary data loss is possible if existing files are overwritten, although the restored database is complete.

Undoing the effects of a restore is not possible; however, you can negate the effects of the data copy and roll forward by starting over on a per-file basis. To start over, restore the desired file and perform the roll forward again. For example, if you accidentally restored too many log backups and overshot your intended stopping point, you would have to restart the sequence.

A restore sequence can be aborted and restarted by restoring the entire contents of the affected files.

A revert database operation (specified using the DATABASE_SNAPSHOT option) takes a full source database back in time by reverting it to the time of a database snapshot, that is, overwriting the source database with data from the point in time maintained in the specified database snapshot. Only the snapshot to which you are reverting can currently exist. The revert operation then rebuilds the log (therefore, you cannot later roll forward a reverted database to the point of user error).

Data loss is confined to updates to the database since the snapshot's creation. The metadata of a reverted database is the same as the metadata at the time of snapshot creation. However, reverting to a snapshot drops all the full-text catalogs.

Reverting from a database snapshot is not intended for media recovery. Unlike a regular backup set, the database snapshot is an incomplete copy of the database files. If either the database or the database snapshot is corrupted, reverting from a snapshot is likely to be impossible. Furthermore, even when possible, reverting in the event of corruption is unlikely to correct the problem.

Restrictions on Reverting

Reverting is unsupported under the following conditions:

  • The source database contains any read-only or compressed filegroups.

  • Any files are offline that were online when the snapshot was created.

  • More than one snapshot of the database currently exists.

For more information, see Revert a Database to a Database Snapshot.

A backup operation may optionally specify passwords for a media set, a backup set, or both. When a password has been defined on a media set or backup set, you must specify the correct password or passwords in the RESTORE statement. These passwords prevent unauthorized restore operations and unauthorized appends of backup sets to media using SQL Server tools. However, password-protected media can be overwritten by the BACKUP statement's FORMAT option.

Security note Security Note

The protection provided by this password is weak. It is intended to prevent an incorrect restore using SQL Server tools by authorized or unauthorized users. It does not prevent the reading of the backup data by other means or the replacement of the password. This feature will be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. Avoid using this feature in new development work, and plan to modify applications that currently use this feature. The best practice for protecting backups is to store backup tapes in a secure location or back up to disk files that are protected by adequate access control lists (ACLs). The ACLs should be set on the directory root under which backups are created.

Permissions

If the database being restored does not exist, the user must have CREATE DATABASE permissions to be able to execute RESTORE. If the database exists, RESTORE permissions default to members of the sysadmin and dbcreator fixed server roles and the owner (dbo) of the database (for the FROM DATABASE_SNAPSHOT option, the database always exists).

RESTORE permissions are given to roles in which membership information is always readily available to the server. Because fixed database role membership can be checked only when the database is accessible and undamaged, which is not always the case when RESTORE is executed, members of the db_owner fixed database role do not have RESTORE permissions.

All the examples assume that a full database backup has been performed.

The RESTORE examples include the following:

Note Note

For additional examples, see the restore how-to topics that are listed in Restore and Recovery Overview (SQL Server).

A. Restoring a full database

The following example restores a full database backup from the AdventureWorksBackups logical backup device. For an example of creating this device, see Backup Devices.

RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012 
   FROM AdventureWorks2012Backups;
NoteNote

For a database using the full or bulk-logged recovery model, SQL Server requires in most cases that you back up the tail of the log before restoring the database. For more information, see Tail-Log Backups (SQL Server).

[Top of examples]

B. Restoring full and differential database backups

The following example restores a full database backup followed by a differential backup from the Z:\SQLServerBackups\AdventureWorks2012.bak backup device, which contains both backups. The full database backup to be restored is the sixth backup set on the device (FILE = 6), and the differential database backup is the ninth backup set on the device (FILE = 9). As soon as the differential backup is recovered, the database is recovered.

RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012
   FROM DISK = 'Z:\SQLServerBackups\AdventureWorks2012.bak'
   WITH FILE = 6
      NORECOVERY;
RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012
   FROM DISK = 'Z:\SQLServerBackups\AdventureWorks2012.bak'
   WITH FILE = 9
      RECOVERY;

[Top of examples]

C. Restoring a database using RESTART syntax

The following example uses the RESTART option to restart a RESTORE operation interrupted by a server power failure.

-- This database RESTORE halted prematurely due to power failure.
RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012
   FROM AdventureWorksBackups;
-- Here is the RESTORE RESTART operation.
RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012 
   FROM AdventureWorksBackups WITH RESTART;

[Top of examples]

D. Restoring a database and move files

The following example restores a full database and transaction log and moves the restored database into the C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL11.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Data directory.

RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012
   FROM AdventureWorksBackups
   WITH NORECOVERY, 
      MOVE 'AdventureWorks2012_Data' TO 
'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL11.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Data\NewAdvWorks.mdf', 
      MOVE 'AdventureWorks2012_Log' 
TO 'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL11.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Data\NewAdvWorks.ldf';
RESTORE LOG AdventureWorks2012
   FROM AdventureWorksBackups
   WITH RECOVERY;

[Top of examples]

E. Copying a database using BACKUP and RESTORE

The following example uses both the BACKUP and RESTORE statements to make a copy of the AdventureWorks2012 database. The MOVE statement causes the data and log file to be restored to the specified locations. The RESTORE FILELISTONLY statement is used to determine the number and names of the files in the database being restored. The new copy of the database is named TestDB. For more information, see RESTORE FILELISTONLY (Transact-SQL).

BACKUP DATABASE AdventureWorks2012 
   TO AdventureWorksBackups ;

RESTORE FILELISTONLY 
   FROM AdventureWorksBackups ;

RESTORE DATABASE TestDB 
   FROM AdventureWorksBackups 
   WITH MOVE 'AdventureWorks2012_Data' TO 'C:\MySQLServer\testdb.mdf',
   MOVE 'AdventureWorks2012_Log' TO 'C:\MySQLServer\testdb.ldf';
GO

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F. Restoring to a point-in-time using STOPAT

The following example restores a database to its state as of 12:00 AM on April 15, 2020 and shows a restore operation that involves multiple log backups. On the backup device, AdventureWorksBackups, the full database backup to be restored is the third backup set on the device (FILE = 3), the first log backup is the fourth backup set (FILE = 4), and the second log backup is the fifth backup set (FILE = 5).

RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012
   FROM AdventureWorksBackups
   WITH FILE=3, NORECOVERY;

RESTORE LOG AdventureWorks2012
   FROM AdventureWorksBackups
   WITH FILE=4, NORECOVERY, STOPAT = 'Apr 15, 2020 12:00 AM';

RESTORE LOG AdventureWorks2012
   FROM AdventureWorksBackups
   WITH FILE=5, NORECOVERY, STOPAT = 'Apr 15, 2020 12:00 AM';
RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012 WITH RECOVERY; 

[Top of examples]

G. Restoring the transaction log to a mark

The following example restores the transaction log to the mark in the marked transaction named ListPriceUpdate.

USE AdventureWorks2012
GO
BEGIN TRANSACTION ListPriceUpdate
   WITH MARK 'UPDATE Product list prices';
GO

UPDATE Production.Product
   SET ListPrice = ListPrice * 1.10
   WHERE ProductNumber LIKE 'BK-%';
GO

COMMIT TRANSACTION ListPriceUpdate;
GO

-- Time passes. Regular database 
-- and log backups are taken.
-- An error occurs in the database.
USE master;
GO

RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012
FROM AdventureWorksBackups
WITH FILE = 3, NORECOVERY;
GO

RESTORE LOG AdventureWorks2012
   FROM AdventureWorksBackups 
   WITH FILE = 4,
   RECOVERY, 
   STOPATMARK = 'UPDATE Product list prices';

[Top of examples]

H. Restoring using TAPE syntax

The following example restores a full database backup from a TAPE backup device.

RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012 
   FROM TAPE = '\\.\tape0';

[Top of examples]

I. Restoring using FILE and FILEGROUP syntax

The following example restores a database named MyDatabase that has two files, one secondary filegroup, and one transaction log. The database uses the full recovery model.

The database backup is the ninth backup set in the media set on a logical backup device named MyDatabaseBackups. Next, three log backups, which are in the next three backup sets (10, 11, and 12) on the MyDatabaseBackups device, are restored by using WITH NORECOVERY. After restoring the last log backup, the database is recovered.

Note Note

Recovery is performed as a separate step to reduce the possibility of you recovering too early, before all of the log backups have been restored.

In the RESTORE DATABASE, notice that there are two types of FILE options. The FILE options preceding the backup device name specify the logical file names of the database files that are to be restored from the backup set; for example, FILE = 'MyDatabase_data_1'. This backup set is not the first database backup in the media set; therefore, its position in the media set is indicated by using the FILE option in the WITH clause, FILE=9.

RESTORE DATABASE MyDatabase
   FILE = 'MyDatabase_data_1',
   FILE = 'MyDatabase_data_2',
   FILEGROUP = 'new_customers'
   FROM MyDatabaseBackups
   WITH 
      FILE = 9,
      NORECOVERY;
GO
-- Restore the log backups.
RESTORE LOG MyDatabase
   FROM MyDatabaseBackups
   WITH FILE = 10, 
      NORECOVERY;
GO
RESTORE LOG MyDatabase
   FROM MyDatabaseBackups
   WITH FILE = 11, 
      NORECOVERY;
GO
RESTORE LOG MyDatabase
   FROM MyDatabaseBackups
   WITH FILE = 12, 
      NORECOVERY;
GO
--Recover the database:
RESTORE DATABASE MyDatabase WITH RECOVERY;
GO

[Top of examples]

K. Reverting from a database snapshot

The following example reverts a database to a database snapshot. The example assumes that only one snapshot currently exists on the database. For an example of how to create this database snapshot, see Create a Database Snapshot (Transact-SQL).

Note Note

Reverting to a snapshot drops all the full-text catalogs.

USE master;  
RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012 FROM DATABASE_SNAPSHOT = 'AdventureWorks_dbss1800';
GO

For more information, see Revert a Database to a Database Snapshot.

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