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BETWEEN (Transact-SQL)

Specifies a range to test.

Applies to: SQL Server (SQL Server 2008 through current version), Azure SQL Database.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

test_expression [ NOT ] BETWEEN begin_expression AND end_expression

test_expression

Is the expression to test for in the range defined by begin_expressionand end_expression. test_expression must be the same data type as both begin_expression and end_expression.

NOT

Specifies that the result of the predicate be negated.

begin_expression

Is any valid expression. begin_expression must be the same data type as both test_expression and end_expression.

end_expression

Is any valid expression. end_expression must be the same data type as both test_expressionand begin_expression.

AND

Acts as a placeholder that indicates test_expression should be within the range indicated by begin_expression and end_expression.

BETWEEN returns TRUE if the value of test_expression is greater than or equal to the value of begin_expression and less than or equal to the value of end_expression.

NOT BETWEEN returns TRUE if the value of test_expression is less than the value of begin_expression or greater than the value of end_expression.

To specify an exclusive range, use the greater than (>) and less than operators (<). If any input to the BETWEEN or NOT BETWEEN predicate is NULL, the result is UNKNOWN.

A. Using BETWEEN

The following example returns the employees of Adventure Works Cycles that have an hourly pay rate between 27 and 30.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
SELECT e.FirstName, e.LastName, ep.Rate
FROM HumanResources.vEmployee e 
JOIN HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory ep 
    ON e.BusinessEntityID = ep.BusinessEntityID
WHERE ep.Rate BETWEEN 27 AND 30
ORDER BY ep.Rate;
GO

Here is the result set.

FirstName    LastName            Rate

-----------  ------------------  ------------------

Paula        Barreto de Mattos   27.1394

Karen        Berg                27.4038

Ramesh       Meyyappan           27.4038

Dan          Bacon               27.4038

Janaina      Bueno               27.4038

David        Bradley             28.7500

Hazem        Abolrous            28.8462

Ovidiu       Cracium             28.8462

Rob          Walters             29.8462

Sheela       Word                30.0000

(10 row(s) affected)

B. Using > and < instead of BETWEEN

The following example uses greater than (>) and less than (<) operators and, because these operators are not inclusive, returns nine rows instead of ten that were returned in the previous example.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO

SELECT e.FirstName, e.LastName, ep.Rate
FROM HumanResources.vEmployee e 
JOIN HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory ep 
    ON e.BusinessEntityID = ep.BusinessEntityID
WHERE ep.Rate > 27 AND ep.Rate < 30
ORDER BY ep.Rate;
GO

Here is the result set.

FirstName   LastName             Rate

---------   -------------------  ---------

Paula       Barreto de Mattos    27.1394

Janaina     Bueno                27.4038

Dan         Bacon                27.4038

Ramesh      Meyyappan            27.4038

Karen       Berg                 27.4038

David       Bradley              28.7500

Hazem       Abolrous             28.8462

Ovidiu      Cracium              28.8462

Rob         Walters              29.8462

(9 row(s) affected)

C. Using NOT BETWEEN

The following example finds all rows outside a specified range of 27 through 30.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
SELECT e.FirstName, e.LastName, ep.Rate
FROM HumanResources.vEmployee e 
JOIN HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory ep 
    ON e.BusinessEntityID = ep.BusinessEntityID
WHERE ep.Rate NOT BETWEEN 27 AND 30
ORDER BY ep.Rate;
GO

D. Using BETWEEN with datetime values

The following example retrieves rows in which datetime values are between '20011212' and '20020105', inclusive.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
SELECT BusinessEntityID, RateChangeDate
FROM HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory
WHERE RateChangeDate BETWEEN '20011212' AND '20020105';

Here is the result set.

BusinessEntityID RateChangeDate

----------- -----------------------

3           2001-12-12 00:00:00.000

4           2002-01-05 00:00:00.000

The query retrieves the expected rows because the date values in the query and the datetime values stored in the RateChangeDate column have been specified without the time part of the date. When the time part is unspecified, it defaults to 12:00 A.M. Note that a row that contains a time part that is after 12:00 A.M. on 2002-01-05 would not be returned by this query because it falls outside the range.

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