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Retrieve Rows Using Bookmarks (OLE DB)

The consumer sets the dwFlag field value of the binding structure to DBCOLUMNSINFO_ISBOOKMARK to indicate that the column is used as bookmark. The consumer also sets the rowset property DBPROP_BOOKMARKS to VARIANT_TRUE. This allows column 0 to be present in the rowset. IRowsetLocate::GetRowsAt is then used to fetch rows starting with the row specified an offset from a bookmark.

Security note Security Note

When possible, use Windows Authentication. If Windows Authentication is not available, prompt users to enter their credentials at run time. Avoid storing credentials in a file. If you must persist credentials, you should encrypt them with the Win32 crypto API.

To retrieve rows using bookmarks

  1. Establish a connection to the data source.

  2. Set the rowset DBPROP_IRowsetLocate property to VARIANT_TRUE.

  3. Execute the command.

  4. Set the dwFlag field of the binding structure to DBCOLUMNSINFO_ISBOOKMARK flag for the column that will be used as a bookmark.

  5. Use IRowsetLocate::GetRowsAt to fetch rows, starting with the row specified by an offset from the bookmark.

This sample shows how to fetch rows using a bookmark. This sample is not supported on IA64.

In this sample, the fifth row is retrieved from the result set produced from the execution of a SELECT statement.

This sample requires the AdventureWorks sample database, which you can download from the Microsoft SQL Server Samples and Community Projects home page.

Compile with ole32.lib oleaut32.lib and execute the following C++ code listing. This application connects to your computer's default SQL Server instance. On some Windows operating systems, you will need to change (localhost) or (local) to the name of your SQL Server instance. To connect to a named instance, change the connection string from L"(local)" to L"(local)\\name" , where name is the named instance. By default, SQL Server Express installs to a named instance. Make sure your INCLUDE environment variable includes the directory that contains sqlncli.h.

// compile with: ole32.lib oleaut32.lib
int InitializeAndEstablishConnection();
int ProcessResultSet();

#define UNICODE
#define _UNICODE
#define DBINITCONSTANTS
#define INITGUID
#define OLEDBVER 0x0250   // to include correct interfaces

#include <stdio.h>
#include <tchar.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <windows.h>
#include <iostream>
#include <oledb.h>
#include <sqlncli.h>

using namespace std;

IDBInitialize*       pIDBInitialize      = NULL;
IDBProperties*       pIDBProperties      = NULL;
IDBCreateSession*    pIDBCreateSession   = NULL;
IDBCreateCommand*    pIDBCreateCommand   = NULL;
ICommandProperties*  pICommandProperties = NULL;
ICommandText*        pICommandText       = NULL;
IRowset*             pIRowset            = NULL;
IColumnsInfo*        pIColumnsInfo       = NULL;
DBCOLUMNINFO*        pDBColumnInfo       = NULL;
IAccessor*           pIAccessor          = NULL;
IRowsetLocate*       pIRowsetLocate      = NULL;

DBPROP        InitProperties[4];
DBPROPSET     rgInitPropSet[1]; 
DBPROPSET     rgPropSets[1];
DBPROP        rgProperties[1];
ULONG         i, j;              
HRESULT       hresult;
DBROWCOUNT    cNumRows = 0;
DBORDINAL     lNumCols;
WCHAR*        pStringsBuffer;
DBBINDING*    pBindings;
DBLENGTH      ConsumerBufferColOffset = 0;
HACCESSOR     hAccessor;
DBCOUNTITEM   lNumRowsRetrieved;
HROW          hRows[5];         
HROW*         pRows = &hRows[0];
char*         pBuffer;

int main() {
   // The command to execute.
   // WCHAR* wCmdString = OLESTR(" SELECT title_id, title FROM titles ");
   WCHAR* wCmdString = OLESTR(" SELECT Name FROM Production.Product");

   // Initialize and establish a connection to the data source.
   if (InitializeAndEstablishConnection() == -1) {
      // Handle error.
      cout << "Failed to initialize and connect to the server.\n";
      return -1;
   }

   // Create a session object.
   if (FAILED(pIDBInitialize->QueryInterface(IID_IDBCreateSession, (void**) &pIDBCreateSession))) {
      cout << "Failed to obtain IDBCreateSession interface.\n";
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   if (FAILED(pIDBCreateSession->CreateSession(NULL, IID_IDBCreateCommand, (IUnknown**) &pIDBCreateCommand))) {
      cout << "pIDBCreateSession->CreateSession failed.\n";
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   // Access the ICommandText interface.
   if (FAILED(pIDBCreateCommand->CreateCommand( NULL, IID_ICommandText, (IUnknown**) &pICommandText))) {
      cout << "Failed to access ICommand interface.\n";
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   // Set DBPROP_IRowsetLocate
   if (FAILED(pICommandText->QueryInterface( IID_ICommandProperties, (void **) &pICommandProperties ))) {
      cout << "Failed to obtain ICommandProperties interface.\n";
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   // Set DBPROP_IRowsetLocate to VARIANT_TRUE to get the IRowsetLocate interface.
   VariantInit(&rgProperties[0].vValue);

   rgPropSets[0].guidPropertySet = DBPROPSET_ROWSET;
   rgPropSets[0].cProperties = 1;
   rgPropSets[0].rgProperties = rgProperties;

   // Set properties in the property group (DBPROPSET_ROWSET) 
   rgPropSets[0].rgProperties[0].dwPropertyID  = DBPROP_IRowsetLocate;
   rgPropSets[0].rgProperties[0].dwOptions     = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;
   rgPropSets[0].rgProperties[0].colid         = DB_NULLID;
   rgPropSets[0].rgProperties[0].vValue.vt     = VT_BOOL;
   rgPropSets[0].rgProperties[0].vValue.boolVal= VARIANT_TRUE;

   // Set the rowset properties.
   hresult = pICommandText->QueryInterface( IID_ICommandProperties,(void **)&pICommandProperties);
   if (FAILED(hresult)) {
      printf("Failed to get ICommandProperties to set rowset properties.\n");
      // Release any references and return.
      return -1;
   }

   hresult = pICommandProperties->SetProperties(1, rgPropSets);
   if (FAILED(hresult)) {
      printf("Execute failed to set rowset properties.\n");
      // Release any references and return.
      return -1;
   } 

   pICommandProperties->Release();

   // Specify the command text.
   if (FAILED(pICommandText->SetCommandText(DBGUID_DBSQL, wCmdString))) {
      cout << "Failed to set command text.\n";
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   // Execute the command.
   if (FAILED(hresult = 
      pICommandText->Execute( NULL, IID_IRowset, NULL, &cNumRows, (IUnknown **) &pIRowset))) {
      cout << "Failed to execute command.\n";
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   ProcessResultSet(); 

   pIRowset->Release();

   // Free up memory.
   pICommandText->Release();
   pIDBCreateCommand->Release();
   pIDBCreateSession->Release();

   pIDBInitialize->Uninitialize();
   pIDBInitialize->Release();

   // Release COM library.
   CoUninitialize();

   return -1;
}

int InitializeAndEstablishConnection() {    
   // Initialize the COM library.
   CoInitialize(NULL);

   // Obtain access to the SQL Server Native Client OLe DB provider.
   CoCreateInstance( CLSID_SQLNCLI11, NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER, IID_IDBInitialize, (void **) &pIDBInitialize);

   // Initialize the property values that are the same for each property.
   for ( i = 0 ; i < 4 ; i++ ) {
      VariantInit(&InitProperties[i].vValue);
      InitProperties[i].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;
      InitProperties[i].colid = DB_NULLID;
   }

   // Server name.
   InitProperties[0].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_INIT_DATASOURCE;
   InitProperties[0].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;
   InitProperties[0].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"(local)");

   // Database.
   InitProperties[1].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_INIT_CATALOG;
   InitProperties[1].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;
   InitProperties[1].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"AdventureWorks");

   InitProperties[2].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_AUTH_INTEGRATED; 
   InitProperties[2].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;
   InitProperties[2].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"SSPI");

   // Construct the PropertySet array.
   rgInitPropSet[0].guidPropertySet = DBPROPSET_DBINIT;
   rgInitPropSet[0].cProperties = 4;
   rgInitPropSet[0].rgProperties = InitProperties;

   // Set initialization properties.
   pIDBInitialize->QueryInterface(IID_IDBProperties, (void **)&pIDBProperties);

   hresult = pIDBProperties->SetProperties(1, rgInitPropSet); 
   if (FAILED(hresult)) {
      cout << "Failed to set initialization properties.\n";
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   pIDBProperties->Release();

   // Call the initialization method to establish the connection.
   if (FAILED(pIDBInitialize->Initialize())) {
      cout << "Problem initializing and connecting to the data source.\n";
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   return 0;
}

#ifdef _WIN64
#define BUFFER_ALIGNMENT 8
#else
#define BUFFER_ALIGNMENT 4
#endif

#define ROUND_UP(value) (value + (BUFFER_ALIGNMENT - 1) & ~(BUFFER_ALIGNMENT - 1))

int ProcessResultSet() {
   HRESULT hr;

   // Retrieve 5th row from the rowset (for example).
   DBBKMARK iBookmark = 5;

   pIRowset->QueryInterface(IID_IColumnsInfo, (void **)&pIColumnsInfo);

   pIColumnsInfo->GetColumnInfo( &lNumCols, &pDBColumnInfo, &pStringsBuffer );

   // Create a DBBINDING array.
   pBindings = new DBBINDING[lNumCols];
   if (!(pBindings /* = new DBBINDING[lNumCols] */ )) {
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   // Using the ColumnInfo strucuture, fill out the pBindings array.
   for ( j = 0 ; j < lNumCols ; j++ ) {
      pBindings[j].iOrdinal  = j;
      pBindings[j].obValue   = ConsumerBufferColOffset;
      pBindings[j].pTypeInfo = NULL;
      pBindings[j].pObject   = NULL;
      pBindings[j].pBindExt  = NULL;
      pBindings[j].dwPart    = DBPART_VALUE;
      pBindings[j].dwMemOwner = DBMEMOWNER_CLIENTOWNED;
      pBindings[j].eParamIO  = DBPARAMIO_NOTPARAM;
      pBindings[j].cbMaxLen  = pDBColumnInfo[j].ulColumnSize + 1;   // + 1 for null terminator
      pBindings[j].dwFlags   = 0;
      pBindings[j].wType      = pDBColumnInfo[j].wType;
      pBindings[j].bPrecision = pDBColumnInfo[j].bPrecision;
      pBindings[j].bScale     = pDBColumnInfo[j].bScale;

      // Recalculate the next buffer offset.
      ConsumerBufferColOffset = ConsumerBufferColOffset + pDBColumnInfo[j].ulColumnSize;
  ConsumerBufferColOffset = ROUND_UP(ConsumerBufferColOffset);

   };
   // Indicate that the first field is used as a bookmark by setting
   // dwFlags to DBCOLUMNFLAGS_ISBOOKMARK.
   pBindings[0].dwFlags = DBCOLUMNFLAGS_ISBOOKMARK;

   // Get IAccessor interface.
   hr = pIRowset->QueryInterface( IID_IAccessor, (void **)&pIAccessor);
   if (FAILED(hr)) {
      printf("Failed to get IAccessor interface.\n");
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   // Create accessor.
   hr = pIAccessor->CreateAccessor( DBACCESSOR_ROWDATA,
                                    lNumCols,
                                    pBindings,
                                    0,
                                    &hAccessor,
                                    NULL);

   if (FAILED(hr)) {
      printf("Failed to create an accessor.\n");
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   hr = pIRowset->QueryInterface( IID_IRowsetLocate, (void **) &pIRowsetLocate);
   if (FAILED(hr)) {
      printf("Failed to get IRowsetLocate interface.\n");
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   hr = pIRowsetLocate->GetRowsAt( 0,
                                   NULL,
                                   sizeof(DBBKMARK),
                                   (BYTE *) &iBookmark,
                                   0,
                                   1,
                                   &lNumRowsRetrieved,
                                   &pRows);

   if (FAILED(hr)) {
      printf("Calling the GetRowsAt method failed.\n");
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   // Create buffer and retrieve data.
   pBuffer = new char[ConsumerBufferColOffset];
   if (!(pBuffer /* = new char[ConsumerBufferColOffset] */ )) {
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   memset(pBuffer, 0, ConsumerBufferColOffset);

   hr = pIRowset->GetData(hRows[0], hAccessor, pBuffer);
   if (FAILED(hr)) {
      printf("Failed GetDataCall.\n");
      // Handle error.
      return -1;
   }

   char szTitle[7] = {0};
   strncpy_s(szTitle, &pBuffer[pBindings[1].obValue], 6);

   printf("%S\n", &pBuffer[pBindings[1].obValue]);

   pIRowset->ReleaseRows(lNumRowsRetrieved, hRows, NULL, NULL, NULL);

   // Release allocated memory.
   delete [] pBuffer;
   pIAccessor->ReleaseAccessor(hAccessor, NULL);
   pIAccessor->Release();
   delete [] pBindings;

   return 0;
}
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