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AppDomain Class

Represents an application domain, which is an isolated environment where applications execute. This class cannot be inherited.

Namespace: System
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

[ClassInterfaceAttribute(ClassInterfaceType.None)] 
[ComVisibleAttribute(true)] 
public sealed class AppDomain : MarshalByRefObject, _AppDomain, IEvidenceFactory
/** @attribute ClassInterfaceAttribute(ClassInterfaceType.None) */ 
/** @attribute ComVisibleAttribute(true) */ 
public final class AppDomain extends MarshalByRefObject implements _AppDomain, IEvidenceFactory
ClassInterfaceAttribute(ClassInterfaceType.None) 
ComVisibleAttribute(true) 
public final class AppDomain extends MarshalByRefObject implements _AppDomain, IEvidenceFactory
Not applicable.

Application domains, which are represented by AppDomain objects, help provide isolation, unloading, and security boundaries for executing managed code.

  • Use application domains to isolate tasks that might bring down a process. If the state of the AppDomain that's executing a task becomes unstable, the AppDomain can be unloaded without affecting the process. This is important when a process must run for long periods without restarting. You can also use application domains to isolate tasks that should not share data.

  • If an assembly is loaded into the default application domain, it cannot be unloaded from memory while the process is running. However, if you open a second application domain to load and execute the assembly, the assembly is unloaded when that application domain is unloaded. Use this technique to minimize the working set of long-running processes that occasionally use large DLLs.

Multiple application domains can run in a single process; however, there is not a one-to-one correlation between application domains and threads. Several threads can belong to a single application domain, and while a given thread is not confined to a single application domain, at any given time, a thread executes in a single application domain.

Application domains are created using the CreateDomain method. AppDomain instances are used to load and execute assemblies (Assembly). When an AppDomain is no longer in use, it can be unloaded.

The AppDomain class implements a set of events that enable applications to respond when an assembly is loaded, when an application domain will be unloaded, or when an unhandled exception is thrown.

For more information on using application domains, see Application Domains.

This class implements the MarshalByRefObject, _AppDomain, and IEvidenceFactory interfaces.

You should never create a remotable wrapper for an AppDomain object. Doing so could publish a remote reference to that AppDomain, exposing methods such as CreateInstance to remote access and effectively destroying code access security for that AppDomain. Malicious clients connecting to the remoted AppDomain could obtain access to any resource the AppDomain itself has access to. Do not create remotable wrappers for any type that extends MarshalByRefObject and that implements methods that could be used by malicious clients to bypass the security system.

Caution noteCaution:

The default value for the AppDomainSetup.DisallowCodeDownload property is false. This setting is unsafe for services. To prevent services from downloading partially trusted code, set this property to true.

Windows Mobile 2003 for Pocket PC, Windows Mobile 2003 for Smartphone, Windows CE Platform Note: Loading assemblies into a domain neutral code area for use by multiple application domains is not supported.

TopicLocation
How to: Configure an Application Domain.NET Framework: Programming Fundamentals
How to: Load Assemblies into an Application Domain.NET Framework: Programming Fundamentals
How to: Create an Application Domain.NET Framework: Programming Fundamentals
How to: Unload an Application Domain.NET Framework: Programming Fundamentals
How to: Configure an Application Domain.NET Framework: Programming Fundamentals
How to: Load Assemblies into an Application Domain.NET Framework: Programming Fundamentals
How to: Create an Application Domain.NET Framework: Programming Fundamentals
How to: Unload an Application Domain.NET Framework: Programming Fundamentals
How to: Configure an Application Domain

This example shows how to create a new AppDomain, instantiate a type in that new AppDomain, and communicate with that type’s object. In addition, this example shows how to unload the AppDomain causing the object to be garbage collected.

using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Threading;

class Module1
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Get and display the friendly name of the default AppDomain.
        string callingDomainName = Thread.GetDomain().FriendlyName;
        Console.WriteLine(callingDomainName);

        // Get and display the full name of the EXE assembly.
        string exeAssembly = Assembly.GetEntryAssembly().FullName;
        Console.WriteLine(exeAssembly);

        // Construct and initialize settings for a second AppDomain.
        AppDomainSetup ads = new AppDomainSetup();
        ads.ApplicationBase = 
            System.Environment.CurrentDirectory;
        ads.DisallowBindingRedirects = false;
        ads.DisallowCodeDownload = true;
        ads.ConfigurationFile = 
            AppDomain.CurrentDomain.SetupInformation.ConfigurationFile;

        // Create the second AppDomain.
        AppDomain ad2 = AppDomain.CreateDomain("AD #2", null, ads);

        // Create an instance of MarshalbyRefType in the second AppDomain. 
        // A proxy to the object is returned.
        MarshalByRefType mbrt = 
            (MarshalByRefType) ad2.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(
                exeAssembly, 
                typeof(MarshalByRefType).FullName
            );

        // Call a method on the object via the proxy, passing the 
        // default AppDomain's friendly name in as a parameter.
        mbrt.SomeMethod(callingDomainName);

        // Unload the second AppDomain. This deletes its object and 
        // invalidates the proxy object.
        AppDomain.Unload(ad2);
        try
        {
            // Call the method again. Note that this time it fails 
            // because the second AppDomain was unloaded.
            mbrt.SomeMethod(callingDomainName);
            Console.WriteLine("Sucessful call.");
        }
        catch(AppDomainUnloadedException)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Failed call; this is expected.");
        }
    }
}

// Because this class is derived from MarshalByRefObject, a proxy 
// to a MarshalByRefType object can be returned across an AppDomain 
// boundary.
public class MarshalByRefType : MarshalByRefObject
{
    //  Call this method via a proxy.
    public void SomeMethod(string callingDomainName)
    {
        // Get this AppDomain's settings and display some of them.
        AppDomainSetup ads = AppDomain.CurrentDomain.SetupInformation;
        Console.WriteLine("AppName={0}, AppBase={1}, ConfigFile={2}", 
            ads.ApplicationName, 
            ads.ApplicationBase, 
            ads.ConfigurationFile
        );

        // Display the name of the calling AppDomain and the name 
        // of the second domain.
        // NOTE: The application's thread has transitioned between 
        // AppDomains.
        Console.WriteLine("Calling from '{0}' to '{1}'.", 
            callingDomainName, 
            Thread.GetDomain().FriendlyName
        );
    }
}

/* This code produces output similar to the following: 

AppDomainX.exe
AppDomainX, Version=1.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=null
AppName=, AppBase=C:\AppDomain\bin, ConfigFile=C:\AppDomain\bin\AppDomainX.exe.config
Calling from 'AppDomainX.exe' to 'AD #2'.
Failed call; this is expected.
 */

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

Windows 98, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows CE, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Mobile for Pocket PC, Windows Mobile for Smartphone, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0 is supported on Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows XP SP2, and Windows Server 2003 SP1.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.0, 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Compact Framework

Supported in: 2.0, 1.0

XNA Framework

Supported in: 1.0
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