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Math.E Field

Represents the natural logarithmic base, specified by the constant, e.

Namespace:  System
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

public const double E

The value of this field is 2.7182818284590452354.

The following example compares E with the value calculated from a power series.

// Example for the Math.E field. 
using System;

class EField 
{
    public static void Main() 
    {
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "This example of Math.E == {0:E16}\n" +
            "generates the following output.\n", 
            Math.E );
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "Define the power series PS(n) = Sum(k->0,n)[1/k!]" );
        Console.WriteLine( " (limit n->infinity)PS(n) == e" );
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "Display PS(n) and Math.E - PS(n), " + 
            "and stop when delta < 1.0E-15\n" );

        CalcPowerSeries();
    }

    // Approximate E with a power series. 
    static void CalcPowerSeries()
    {
        double factorial = 1.0;
        double PS = 0.0;

        // Stop iterating when the series converges, 
        // and prevent a runaway process. 
        for( int n = 0; n < 999 && Math.Abs( Math.E - PS ) > 1.0E-15; n++ )
        {
            // Calculate a running factorial. 
            if( n > 0 )
                factorial *= (double)n;

            // Calculate and display the power series.
            PS += 1.0 / factorial;
            Console.WriteLine( 
                "PS({0:D2}) == {1:E16},  Math.E - PS({0:D2}) == {2:E16}",
                n, PS, Math.E - PS );
        }
    }
}

/*
This example of Math.E == 2.7182818284590451E+000
generates the following output.

Define the power series PS(n) = Sum(k->0,n)[1/k!]
 (limit n->infinity)PS(n) == e
Display PS(n) and Math.E - PS(n), and stop when delta < 1.0E-15

PS(00) == 1.0000000000000000E+000,  Math.E - PS(00) == 1.7182818284590451E+000
PS(01) == 2.0000000000000000E+000,  Math.E - PS(01) == 7.1828182845904509E-001
PS(02) == 2.5000000000000000E+000,  Math.E - PS(02) == 2.1828182845904509E-001
PS(03) == 2.6666666666666665E+000,  Math.E - PS(03) == 5.1615161792378572E-002
PS(04) == 2.7083333333333330E+000,  Math.E - PS(04) == 9.9484951257120535E-003
PS(05) == 2.7166666666666663E+000,  Math.E - PS(05) == 1.6151617923787498E-003
PS(06) == 2.7180555555555554E+000,  Math.E - PS(06) == 2.2627290348964380E-004
PS(07) == 2.7182539682539684E+000,  Math.E - PS(07) == 2.7860205076724043E-005
PS(08) == 2.7182787698412700E+000,  Math.E - PS(08) == 3.0586177750535626E-006
PS(09) == 2.7182815255731922E+000,  Math.E - PS(09) == 3.0288585284310443E-007
PS(10) == 2.7182818011463845E+000,  Math.E - PS(10) == 2.7312660577649694E-008
PS(11) == 2.7182818261984929E+000,  Math.E - PS(11) == 2.2605521898810821E-009
PS(12) == 2.7182818282861687E+000,  Math.E - PS(12) == 1.7287637987806193E-010
PS(13) == 2.7182818284467594E+000,  Math.E - PS(13) == 1.2285727990501982E-011
PS(14) == 2.7182818284582302E+000,  Math.E - PS(14) == 8.1490370007486490E-013
PS(15) == 2.7182818284589949E+000,  Math.E - PS(15) == 5.0182080713057076E-014
PS(16) == 2.7182818284590429E+000,  Math.E - PS(16) == 2.2204460492503131E-015
PS(17) == 2.7182818284590455E+000,  Math.E - PS(17) == -4.4408920985006262E-016
*/

.NET Framework

Supported in: 4.5.2, 4.5.1, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3.0, 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

Portable Class Library

Supported in: Portable Class Library

.NET for Windows Store apps

Supported in: Windows 8

.NET for Windows Phone apps

Supported in: Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Silverlight 8.1

Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows Vista SP2, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core Role not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core Role supported with SP1 or later; Itanium not supported)

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

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