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GRANT (Transact-SQL)

Grants permissions on a securable to a principal. The general concept is to GRANT <some permission> ON <some object> TO <some user, login, or group>. For a general discussion of permissions, see Permissions (Database Engine).

Applies to: SQL Server (SQL Server 2008 through current version), Azure SQL Database.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

Syntax
Simplified syntax for GRANT
GRANT { ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
      | permission [ ( column [ ,...n ] ) ] [ ,...n ]
      [ ON [ class :: ] securable ] TO principal [ ,...n ] 
      [ WITH GRANT OPTION ] [ AS principal ]
Arguments
ALL

This option is deprecated and maintained only for backward compatibility. It does not grant all possible permissions. Granting ALL is equivalent to granting the following permissions.

  • If the securable is a database, ALL means BACKUP DATABASE, BACKUP LOG, CREATE DATABASE, CREATE DEFAULT, CREATE FUNCTION, CREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE RULE, CREATE TABLE, and CREATE VIEW.

  • If the securable is a scalar function, ALL means EXECUTE and REFERENCES.

  • If the securable is a table-valued function, ALL means DELETE, INSERT, REFERENCES, SELECT, and UPDATE.

  • If the securable is a stored procedure, ALL means EXECUTE.

  • If the securable is a table, ALL means DELETE, INSERT, REFERENCES, SELECT, and UPDATE.

  • If the securable is a view, ALL means DELETE, INSERT, REFERENCES, SELECT, and UPDATE.

PRIVILEGES

Included for ISO compliance. Does not change the behavior of ALL.

permission

Is the name of a permission. The valid mappings of permissions to securables are described in the sub-topics listed below.

column

Specifies the name of a column in a table on which permissions are being granted. The parentheses () are required.

class

Specifies the class of the securable on which the permission is being granted. The scope qualifier :: is required.

securable

Specifies the securable on which the permission is being granted.

TO principal

Is the name of a principal. The principals to which permissions on a securable can be granted vary, depending on the securable. See the sub-topics listed below for valid combinations.

GRANT OPTION

Indicates that the grantee will also be given the ability to grant the specified permission to other principals.

AS principal

Specifies a principal from which the principal executing this query derives its right to grant the permission.

Remarks

The full syntax of the GRANT statement is complex. The syntax diagram above was simplified to draw attention to its structure. Complete syntax for granting permissions on specific securables is described in the topics listed below.

The REVOKE statement can be used to remove granted permissions, and the DENY statement can be used to prevent a principal from gaining a specific permission through a GRANT.

Granting a permission removes DENY or REVOKE of that permission on the specified securable. If the same permission is denied at a higher scope that contains the securable, the DENY takes precedence. But revoking the granted permission at a higher scope does not take precedence.

Database-level permissions are granted within the scope of the specified database. If a user needs permissions to objects in another database, create the user account in the other database, or grant the user account access to the other database, as well as the current database.

Caution noteCaution

A table-level DENY does not take precedence over a column-level GRANT. This inconsistency in the permissions hierarchy has been preserved for the sake of backward compatibility. It will be removed in a future release.

The sp_helprotect system stored procedure reports permissions on a database-level securable.

WITH GRANT OPTION

The GRANTWITH GRANT OPTION specifies that the security principal receiving the permission is given the ability to grant the specified permission to other security accounts. When the principal that receives the permission is a role or a Windows group, the AS clause must be used when the object permission needs to be further granted to users who are not members of the group or role. Because only a user, rather than a group or role, can execute a GRANT statement, a specific member of the group or role must use the AS clause to explicitly invoke the role or group membership when granting the permission. The following example shows how the WITH GRANT OPTION is used when granted to a role or Windows group.

-- Execute the following as a database owner
GRANT EXECUTE ON TestProc TO TesterRole WITH GRANT OPTION;
EXEC sp_addrolemember TesterRole, User1;
-- Execute the following as User1
-- The following fails because User1 does not have the permission as the User1
GRANT EXECUTE ON TestMe TO User2;
-- The following succeeds because User1 invokes the TesterRole membership
GRANT EXECUTE ON TestMe TO User2 AS TesterRole;
Chart of SQL Server Permissions

For a poster sized chart of all Database Engine permissions in pdf format, see http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=229142.

Permissions

The grantor (or the principal specified with the AS option) must have either the permission itself with GRANT OPTION, or a higher permission that implies the permission being granted. If using the AS option, additional requirements apply. See the securable-specific topic for details.

Object owners can grant permissions on the objects they own. Principals with CONTROL permission on a securable can grant permission on that securable.

Grantees of CONTROL SERVER permission, such as members of the sysadmin fixed server role, can grant any permission on any securable in the server. Grantees of CONTROL permission on a database, such as members of the db_owner fixed database role, can grant any permission on any securable in the database. Grantees of CONTROL permission on a schema can grant any permission on any object within the schema.

Examples

The following table lists the securables and the topics that describe the securable-specific syntax.

Application Role

GRANT Database Principal Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Assembly

GRANT Assembly Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Asymmetric Key

GRANT Asymmetric Key Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Availability Group

GRANT Availability Group Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Certificate

GRANT Certificate Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Contract

GRANT Service Broker Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Database

GRANT Database Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Endpoint

GRANT Endpoint Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Full-Text Catalog

GRANT Full-Text Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Full-Text Stoplist

GRANT Full-Text Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Function

GRANT Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Login

GRANT Server Principal Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Message Type

GRANT Service Broker Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Object

GRANT Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Queue

GRANT Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Remote Service Binding

GRANT Service Broker Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Role

GRANT Database Principal Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Route

GRANT Service Broker Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Schema

GRANT Schema Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Search Property List

GRANT Search Property List Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Server

GRANT Server Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Service

GRANT Service Broker Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Stored Procedure

GRANT Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Symmetric Key

GRANT Symmetric Key Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Synonym

GRANT Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)

System Objects

GRANT System Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Table

GRANT Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Type

GRANT Type Permissions (Transact-SQL)

User

GRANT Database Principal Permissions (Transact-SQL)

View

GRANT Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)

XML Schema Collection

GRANT XML Schema Collection Permissions (Transact-SQL)