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Glossary

Published: October 8, 2004

A

available

When used in reference to a virtual machine, indicates that the virtual machine has been added to Virtual Server and can be managed through the Virtual Server Administration Website or its COM (Component Object Model) interface.

See also: virtual machine; Virtual Server

B

binding

A collection of configuration parameters, including at least an Internet Protocol (IP) address, associated with or “bound to” a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client. Bindings are managed by DHCP servers.

C

commit

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, to modify a virtual hard disk associated with a virtual machine on which the Undo Disks feature has been enabled. This process modifies the parent virtual hard disk by merging the contents of an undo disk (.vud) file to the virtual hard disk.

See also: undo disk

compact

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, to reduce the size of a dynamically expanding virtual hard disk by removing unused space from the .vhd file.

See also: dynamically expanding virtual hard disk

constrained delegation

The ability to specify that a service or computer account can perform Kerberos delegation to a limited set of services.

See also: delegation

D

delegation

An assignment of administrative responsibility to a user, computer, group, or organization.

For Active Directory, an assignment of responsibility that allows users without administrative credentials to complete specific administrative tasks or to manage specific directory objects. Responsibility is assigned through membership in a security group, the Delegation of Control Wizard, or Group Policy settings.

For DNS, an assignment of responsibility for a DNS zone. Delegation occurs when a name server (NS) resource record in a parent zone lists the DNS server that is authoritative for a child zone.

differencing virtual hard disk

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, a virtual hard disk that stores the changes or “differences” to an associated parent virtual hard disk for the purpose of keeping the parent intact. The differencing disk is a separate .vhd file that is associated with the .vhd file of the parent disk. Changes continue to accumulate in the differencing disk until it is merged to the parent disk.

See also: merge

dynamically expanding virtual hard disk

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, a virtual hard disk that grows in size each time it is modified. This type of virtual hard disk starts as a 3 KB .vhd file and can grow as large as the maximum size specified when the file was created. The only way to reduce the file size is to zero out the deleted data and then compact the virtual hard disk.

See also: compact; zero out

E

emulation

The process whereby a computer system or program performs in the same way as another computer system in order to run the other computer system's programs. Emulation involves the binary translation of one instruction set into another, whether from x86 instructions to PowerPC instructions, or from x86 instructions to virtualized x86 instructions.

See also: virtual machine

external virtual network

For Virtual Server, a virtual network configured to use a physical network adapter. External virtual networks are used to connect virtual machines to external networks.

See also: internal virtual network; virtual network

F

fixed-size virtual hard disk

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, a virtual hard disk with a fixed size that is determined and for which all space is allocated when the disk is created. The size of the disk does not change when data is added or deleted.

See also: virtual hard disk

fully qualified path

A path that every file has that consists of a device name, followed by zero or more folder names, followed by the file name. A fully qualified path cannot include environment variables.

G

gateway

A dedicated device (or a set of services running on a dedicated computer) that routes network traffic and enables communication between different networking protocols. A gateway is a multiprotocol Internet Protocol (IP) router that translates between different transport protocols or data formats.

guest operating system

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, the operating system running on a virtual machine.

See also: virtual machine

H

heartbeat

A signal emitted at regular intervals by software to indicate that it is still running.

Host key

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, the key (right ALT key by default) that must be pressed with Virtual Server to move keyboard and mouse focus from a guest operating system back to the host operating system.

See also: host operating system

host operating system

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, the operating system of the physical computer running the Virtual Server or Virtual PC software.

See also: physical computer

I

integrated device electronics (IDE)

A type of disk-drive interface in which the controller electronics reside on the drive itself, eliminating the need for a separate adapter card. IDE offers advantages such as look-ahead caching to increase overall performance.

internal virtual network

For Virtual Server, a virtual network that is configured to use no network adapter. Internal virtual networks are used to connect virtual machines running on the same instance of Virtual Server. All network traffic is confined to the computer running Virtual Server.

See also: external virtual network; virtual network

J

There are no glossary terms that begin with this letter.

K

There are no glossary terms that begin with this letter.

L

linked virtual hard disk

A virtual hard disk that points to and uses an entire physical disk for the purpose of converting a data disk to a virtual hard disk. You cannot turn on a virtual machine if a linked disk is attached to the virtual machine.

local named pipe

A portion of memory that can be used by one local process to pass information to another local process, so that the output of one is the input of the other.

logical unit number (LUN)

A unique identifier used on a SCSI bus to differentiate up to eight separate devices.

LUN

See definition for: logical unit number (LUN)

M

merge

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, to copy the contents of a differencing disk to the parent disk, or to combine the contents of the differencing disk and the parent disk onto a new virtual hard disk. Merging to the parent disk modifies the parent disk and then deletes the differencing disk. Merging to a new disk leaves both the differencing disk and the parent disk intact.

See also: differencing virtual hard disk

migrate

In file management, to move files or programs from an older file format or protocol to a more current format or protocol. For example, WINS database entries can be migrated from static WINS database entries to dynamically registered DHCP entries.

In Active Directory, to move Active Directory accounts, resources, and their associated security objects from one domain to another.

In Windows NT, to change the domain controller operating system from Windows NT to an operating system with Active Directory, such as Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003. A migration from Windows NT can include in-place domain upgrades, domain restructuring, or both.

In Remote Storage, to copy an object from local storage to remote storage.

N

NAT

See definition for: network address translation (NAT)

network address translation (NAT)

An Internet Protocol (IP) translation process that allows a network with private addresses to access information on the Internet.

non-production environment

An environment of one or more computers in which the computers are not available for business operations, but are instead used for developing and testing applications.

O

There are no glossary terms that begin with this letter.

P

PAE

See definition for: Physical Address Extension (PAE)

Physical Address Extension (PAE)

A feature of x86-based servers that allows computers running Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition, and Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition, to support more than 4 gigabytes (GB) of physical memory. Physical Address Extension (PAE) allows up to 64 GB of physical memory to be used as regular 4-kilobyte (KB) pages and expands the number of bits that can be used by the kernel to address physical memory from 32 to 36.

See also: x86

physical computer

Computer hardware.

Preboot Execution Environment

DHCP-based remote boot technology used to boot or install an operating system on a client computer from a remote server. A RIS Server is an example of a PXE Server.

See also: Remote Installation Services (RIS)

PXE

See definition for: Preboot Execution Environment

Q

quorum disk

The cluster disk on which configuration data is maintained in the quorum log, cluster database checkpoint, and resource checkpoints. The quorum disk is managed by the Quorum resource, which is usually a special kind of Physical Disk resource.

R

Remote Installation Services (RIS)

Software services that allow an administrator to set up new client computers remotely, without having to visit each client. The target clients must support remote booting.

See also: Preboot Execution Environment

S

SAN

See definition for: storage area network (SAN)

saved state

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, a manner of storing a virtual machine so that it can be quickly resumed, similar to a hibernated laptop. When you place a running virtual machine in a saved state, Virtual Server stops the virtual machine, writes the data that exists in memory to a temporary file with a .vsv extension (a saved-state file), and stops the consumption of system resources. Restoring a virtual machine from a saved state returns it to the same condition it was in when its state was saved.

See also: Virtual PC; Virtual Server

SCSI

See definition for: small computer system interface (SCSI)

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

A proposed open standard for establishing a secure communications channel to prevent the interception of critical information, such as credit card numbers. Primarily, it enables secure electronic financial transactions on the World Wide Web, although it is designed to work on other Internet services as well.

server consolidation

Optimizing infrastructure by reducing the number of servers under management. If several servers run applications that consume only a fraction of the available resources, Virtual Server technology can be used to enable them to run side by side on a single server, even if they require different versions of the operating system.

See also: Virtual Server

service-level agreement (SLA)

An agreement between two or more parties describing the deliverables, support, and communication that each party will provide to the other.

SLA

See definition for: service-level agreement (SLA)

small computer system interface (SCSI)

A standard high-speed parallel interface defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). A SCSI interface is used for connecting microcomputers to peripheral devices, such as hard disks and printers, and to other computers and local area networks (LANs).

SMP

See definition for: symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)

SSL

See definition for: Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

storage area network (SAN)

A set of interconnected devices (such as disks and tapes) and servers that are connected to a common communication and data transfer infrastructure such as Fibre Channel.

symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)

A computer architecture in which multiple processors share the same memory, which contains one copy of the operating system, one copy of any applications that are in use, and one copy of the data. Because the operating system divides the workload into tasks and assigns those tasks to whatever processors are available, SMP reduces transaction time.

T

There are no glossary terms that begin with this letter.

U

undo disk

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, a virtual hard disk that stores the changes made to a virtual machine’s guest operating system and data after the Undo Disks feature has been enabled for the virtual machine. Changes accumulate in the undo disk (.vud) file until you commit or discard the changes. Each time you shut down or turn off a virtual machine, you decide whether to keep, commit, or discard the changes.

See also: commit

V

virtual DHCP server

For Virtual Server, an emulation of a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. A virtual network can be configured to provide a virtual DHCP server, which offers dynamic configuration of IP addresses and related information to DHCP-enabled virtual machines.

virtual floppy disk

A file-based version of a physical floppy disk. A virtual floppy disk has a .vfd file name extension.

virtual hard disk

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, a file, referred to as a .vhd file, which provides storage for a virtual machine. The .vhd file can reside on any storage topology that the host operating system can access, including external devices, storage area networks, and network-attached storage.

See also: guest operating system; host operating system; virtual machine

virtual machine

Essentially a computer within a computer, implemented in software. A virtual machine emulates a complete hardware system, from processor to network card, in a self-contained, isolated software environment, enabling the simultaneous operation of otherwise incompatible operating systems. Each operating system runs in its own isolated software partition.

See also: Virtual PC; Virtual Server

Virtual Machine Additions

For Virtual Server and Virtual PC, software drivers that maximize performance and provide a better user interface (UI) experience within a virtual machine. Virtual Machine Additions are only available for supported guest operating systems.

See also: guest operating system

virtual machine configuration (.vmc) file

For Virtual Server, an XML-based file that stores the configuration of the virtual machine.

See also: virtual machine

Virtual Machine Helper service

A service of Virtual Server that allows you to run a virtual machine in the context of a specified user account. The virtual machine is started in that user account's context, and uses it for accessing network resources. Virtual machine scripts also run in this user account's context.

See also: virtual machine

Virtual Machine Remote Control (VMRC)

A feature of Virtual Server that allows a running virtual machine to be managed remotely.

See also: guest operating system

Virtual Machine Remote Control (VMRC) Protocol

A remote presentation and control protocol designed to allow viewing and controlling virtual machines across networked environments.

virtual network

For Virtual Server, an emulation of a physical network. A virtual network can be configured to provide access to local or external network resources for one or more virtual machines. A virtual network includes a virtual DHCP server that can provide Internet Protocol (IP) address leases to virtual machines only.

See also: external virtual network; internal virtual network

Virtual PC

The Microsoft virtual machine solution for client operating systems. Virtual PC enables multiple client operating systems to run simultaneously on a single physical computer, each in its own isolated software partition.

See also: virtual machine; Virtual Server

Virtual Server

The Microsoft virtual machine solution for servers. Virtual Server enables multiple server operating systems to run simultaneously on a single physical computer, each in its own isolated software partition.

Throughout the documentation, Virtual Server refers to both Virtual Server 2005, Standard Edition and Virtual Server 2005, Enterprise Edition.

See also: virtual machine; Virtual PC

VMRC

See definition for: Virtual Machine Remote Control (VMRC)

W

Web application

For Virtual Server, another name for VSWebApp.exe, which is the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) application used by Virtual Server as a user interface (UI) to the virtual machine. The Web Application is located by default in \Program Files\Microsoft Virtual Server\Website\VirtualServer\VSWebApp.

See also: virtual machine; Virtual Server

Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)

A management infrastructure in Windows that supports monitoring and controlling system resources through a common set of interfaces and provides a logically organized, consistent model of Windows operation, configuration, and status.

X

x86

Refers to microprocessors that have or emulate the 32-bit Intel processor architecture.

Y

There are no glossary terms that begin with this letter.

Z

zero out

To overwrite available disk space with zeros. In a dynamically expanding virtual hard disk file, a sector is marked as available for use when data is deleted. However, the deleted data is not removed until it is overwritten. Zeroing out data is recommended before compacting a dynamically expanding virtual hard disk.

See also: compact; dynamically expanding virtual hard disk

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