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about_Windows_PowerShell_2.0

Updated: October 21, 2009

Applies To: Windows PowerShell 2.0

TOPIC
    about_Windows_PowerShell_2.0

SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Describes the new features that are included in Windows PowerShell 2.0.
 

LONG DESCRIPTION
    Windows PowerShell 2.0 includes several significant features that
    extend its use, improve its usability, and allow you to control and
    manage Windows-based environments more easily and comprehensively.


    Windows PowerShell 2.0 is backward compatible. Cmdlets, providers,
    snap-ins, scripts, functions, and profiles that were designed for Windows
    PowerShell 1.0 work in Windows PowerShell 2.0 without changes.


NEW FEATURES
    Windows PowerShell 2.0 includes the following new features.


  Remoting
    
      Windows PowerShell 2.0 lets you run commands on one or many remote
      computers with a single Windows PowerShell command. You can run
      individual commands, or you can create a persistent connection 
      (a session) to run a series of related commands. You can also start a
      session with a remote computer so that the commands you type run
      directly on the remote computer.


      The remoting features of Windows PowerShell are built on Windows
      Remote Management (WinRM). WinRM is the Microsoft implementation of
      the WS-Management protocol, a standard SOAP-based, firewall-compatible
      communications protocol.


      The remote computers must have Windows PowerShell 2.0, the Microsoft .NET
      Framework 2.0, and the WinRM service. Remote commands are supported
      on all operating systems that can run Windows PowerShell. The
      current user must have permission to run commands on the remote 
      computers. For more information, see about_Remote_Requirements.


      To support remoting, the Invoke-Command, Enter-PSSession, and 
      Exit-PSSession cmdlets have been added, along with other cmdlets
      that contain the PSSession noun. These cmdlets let you create and manage
      persistent connections.


      The ComputerName parameter has also been added to several cmdlets, 
      including the Get-Process, Get-Service, and Get-Eventlog cmdlets. This
      parameter allows you to get information about remote computers.
      These cmdlets use .NET Framework methods to get their data,
      so they do not rely on Windows PowerShell remoting. They do not require
      any new programs or configuration. For more information, see the Help for
      each cmdlet.


      For more information about remote commands, see about_Remote and 
      about_Remote_FAQ. For more information about sessions, see 
      about_PSSessions. 


  Windows PowerShell ISE
    
      Windows PowerShell 2.0 includes Windows PowerShell Integrated
      Scripting Environment (ISE), a host application that lets you run
      commands, and design, write, test, and debug scripts in a graphical, 
      color-coded, Unicode-based environment.
 

      Windows PowerShell ISE runs on Windows XP with Service Pack 3, Windows 
      Server 2003 with Service Pack 2, Windows Vista with Service Pack 1, 
      Windows Server 2008, and Windows 7. It requires the Microsoft .NET
      Framework 3.0 or later.


      Windows PowerShell ISE includes:

      -  A Command pane that lets you run interactive commands just as you 
         would in the Windows PowerShell console. Just type a command, and then
         press ENTER. The output appears in the Output pane.

      -  A Script pane that lets you compose, edit, debug, and run functions
         and scripts. 

      -  Multiple tabs, each with its own Command and Script pane, that let you
         work on one or several tasks independently.


      Windows PowerShell ISE is designed for both novice and advanced users. 


  Background Jobs
    
      Background jobs are commands that run asynchronously. When you run a 
      background job, the command prompt returns immediately, even if the 
      command is still running. You can use the background job feature to run a
      complex command in the background so that you can use your session for 
      other work while the command runs.


      You can run a background job on a local or remote computer and then save 
      the results on the local or remote computer. To run a job remotely, use 
      the Invoke-Command cmdlet.
    

      Windows PowerShell includes a set of cmdlets that contain the Job noun
      (the Job cmdlets). Use these cmdlets for creating, starting, managing, 
      and deleting background jobs and for getting the results of a background
      job. To get a list of the job cmdlets, type the following command:

          get-command *-job

      
      For more information about background jobs, see about_Jobs.


  Script Debugger
    
      Windows PowerShell 2.0 includes a cmdlet-based debugger for scripts and 
      functions. The debugger is supported by a fully documented public API 
      that you can use to build your own debugger or to customize or extend
      the debugger.


      The debugger cmdlets let you set breakpoints on lines, columns, 
      variables, and commands. These cmdlets let you manage the breakpoints
      and display the call stack. You can create conditional breakpoints and
      specify custom actions at a breakpoint, such as running diagnostic and
      logging scripts.


      When you reach a breakpoint, Windows PowerShell suspends execution
      and starts the debugger. The debugger includes a set of custom commands
      that let you step through the code. You can also run standard Windows
      PowerShell commands to display the values of variables, and you can use 
      cmdlets to investigate the results.

      
      For more information about debugging, see about_Debuggers.


  Data Section
    
      Scripts designed for Windows PowerShell 2.0 can have one or more
      DATA sections that isolate the data from the script logic. The data in 
      the new DATA section is restricted to a specified subset of the Windows
      PowerShell scripting language.


      In Windows PowerShell 2.0, the DATA section is used to support
      script internationalization. You can use the DATA section to isolate
      and identify user message strings that will be translated into
      multiple user interface languages. 


      For more information, see about_Data_Sections.


  Script Internationalization
    
      Windows PowerShell 2.0 script internationalization features allow you
      to better serve users throughout the world. Script internationalization
      enables scripts and functions to display messages and Help text to users
      in multiple languages.
 

      The script internationalization features query the operating system user
      interface culture ($PsUICulture) during execution and then import the
      appropriate translated text strings so you can display them to the user.
      The Data section lets you store text strings separate from code so that
      they are easily identified. A new cmdlet, ConvertFrom-StringData, 
      converts text strings into dictionary-like hash tables to facilitate 
      translation.
 

      For more information, see about_Script_Internationalization.



  WMI Cmdlets
    
      The Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) functionality of 
      Windows PowerShell 2.0 is improved with the addition of the following
      cmdlets:

          - Remove-WmiObject
          - Set-WmiInstance
          - Invoke-WmiMethod


      New parameters have been added to the Get-WmiObject cmdlet. All the WMI
      cmdlets now support the following parameters:

          - EnableAllPrivileges
          - Impersonation
          - Authentication
          - Authority


      These new parameters give you more refined control over the security 
      configuration of your WMI operations without requiring you to work 
      directly with the types in the .NET Framework Class Library.

 
      For a list of WMI cmdlets, type the following command:

          get-help *wmi*

      To get help for each cmdlet, type get-help followed by the cmdlet name.

	
  The Get-WinEvent Cmdlet
    
      The Get-WinEvent cmdlet gets events from Event Viewer logs and from 
      Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) event log files on local and remote 
      computers. It can get events from classic event logs and from the 
      Windows Event Logs that were introduced in Windows Vista.
 

      You can use Get-WinEvent to get the objects that represent event logs, event
      log providers, and the events in the logs. Get-WinEvent lets you combine
      events from different sources in a single command. It supports
      advanced queries in XML Path Language (XPath), XML, and hash table 
      format.


      Get-WinEvent requires Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 and the 
      Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5. 


  The Out-Gridview Cmdlet
    
      The Out-GridView cmdlet displays the results of other commands in an
      interactive table in which you can search, sort, group, and filter the
      results. For example, you can send the results of a Get-Process, 
      Get-WmiObject, Get-WinEvent, or Get-Eventlog command to Out-GridView and 
      then use the table features to examine the data.

        help out-gridview -full


  The Add-Type Cmdlet
    
      The Add-Type cmdlet lets you add .NET Framework types to 
      Windows PowerShell from the source code of another .NET Framework 
      language.
 

      Add-Type compiles the source code that creates the types and generates
      assemblies that contain the new .NET Framework types. Then, you can use 
      the .NET Framework types in Windows PowerShell commands along with the
      standard object types provided by the .NET Framework.


      You can also use Add-Type to load assemblies into your session so that 
      you can use the types in the assemblies in Windows PowerShell.


      Add-Type allows you develop new .NET Framework types, to 
      use .NET Framework types in C# libraries, and to access Win32 APIs.

    
      For more information, see Add-Type.


  Event Notification
    
      Windows PowerShell 2.0 introduces event notification. Users can register
      and subscribe to events, such as Windows PowerShell events, WMI events,
      or .NET Framework events. And, users can listen, forward, and act on 
      management and system events both synchronously and asynchronously.


      Developers can write applications that use the event architecture
      to receive notification about state changes. Users can write
      scripts that subscribe to various events and that react to the content.
   

      Windows PowerShell provides cmdlets that create new events, get
      events and event subscriptions, register and unregister events,
      wait for events, and delete events. For more information about these
      cmdlets, type the following command:

          get-command *-event

   
  Modules
    
      Windows PowerShell modules let you divide and organize your
      Windows PowerShell scripts into independent, self-contained,
      reusable units. Code from a module executes in its own context,
      so it does not add to, conflict with, or overwrite the variables,
      functions, aliases, and other resources in the session.

    
      You can write, distribute, combine, share, and reuse modules to build 
      simple scripts and complex applications. 


      Windows PowerShell 2.0 includes cmdlets to add, get, and remove modules
      and to export module members. For more information about the cmdlets 
      that are related to modules, type the following command:

          get-command *-module* 

 
  Transactions
    
      Windows PowerShell 2.0 includes support for transactions. Transactions
      let you undo an entire series of operations. Transactions are available
      only for operations that support transactions. They are designed for 
      applications that require atomicity, consistency, isolation, and 
      recoverability, like databases and message queuing.


      Cmdlets and providers that support transactions have a new
      UseTransaction parameter. To start an operation within a transaction, 
      use the Start-Transaction cmdlet. Then, when you use the cmdlets that 
      perform the operation, use the UseTransaction parameter of each cmdlet
      when you want the command to be part of a transaction. 


      If any command in the transaction fails at any point, use the
      Rollback-Transaction cmdlet to undo all the commands in the transaction.
      If all the commands succeed, use the Commit-Transaction cmdlet to make 
      the command actions permanent.


      Windows PowerShell 2.0 includes cmdlets to start, use, commit, and roll
      back transactions. For information about these cmdlets, type the 
      following command:

          get-command *transaction*



 Breaking Changes to Windows PowerShell 1.0

     -- The value of the PowerShellVersion registry entry in
        HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\PowerShell\1\PowerShellEngine 
        is changed to 2.0.

     -- New cmdlets and variables have been added. These additions might
       conflict with variables and functions in profiles and scripts.

     -- The -IEQ operator performs a case insensitive comparison on characters.

     -- The Get-Command cmdlet gets functions by default, in addition to 
        cmdlets.

     -- Native commands that generate a user interface cannot be piped to the
        Out-Host cmdlet.

     -- The new Begin, Process, End, and Dynamic Param language keywords might
        conflict with similar words used in scripts and functions. Interpreting
        these words as language keywords might result in parsing errors. 

     -- Cmdlet name resolution has changed. In Windows PowerShell 1.0, a 
        runtime error was generated when two Windows PowerShell snap-ins 
        exported cmdlets with the same name. In Windows PowerShell 2.0, the
        last cmdlet that is added to the session runs when you type the command
        name. To run a command that does not run by default, qualify the cmdlet
        name with the name of the snap-in or module in which it originated.

     -- A function name followed by '-?' gets the help topic for the function,
        if one is included in the function. 

    --  Parameter resolution for Microsoft .Net Frameword methods have changed.
        In Windows PowerShell 1.0, if you called an overloaded .NET method 
        that has more than one best fit syntax, no error was reported. In 
        Windows PowerShell 2.0, an ambiguity error is reported. 

        In addition, in Windows PowerShell 2.0, the algorithm for choosing the
        best fit method has been revised significantly to minimize the number
        of ambiguities.

     -- If you are enumerating a collection in the pipeline and you try to 
        modify the collection in the pipeline, Windows PowerShell throws an
        exception.
    
        For example, the following commands would work in Windows 
        PowerShell 1.0, but would fail after first pipeline iteration in
        Windows PowerShel 2.0.

            $h = @{Name="Hello"; Value="Test"}
            $h.keys | foreach-object {$h.remove($_)}

        To avoid this error, create a sub-expression for the enumerator
        by using the $() characters. For example:

	    $($h.keys) | foreach-object {$h.remove($_)}



    For more information about Windows PowerShell 2.0, visit the following Web
    sites:
 
    -- Windows PowerShell Web Site 
       http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=106031

    -- Windows PowerShell Team Blog:
       http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=143696


SEE ALSO
    about_Data_Sections
    about_Debuggers
    about_Functions_Advanced
    about_Jobs
    about_Join
    about_PSSessions
    about_Remote
    about_Script_Internationalization
    about_Split
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