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Format-Table

Updated: October 17, 2013

Applies To: Windows PowerShell 4.0

Format-Table

Formats the output as a table.

Aliases

The following abbreviations are aliases for this cmdlet:

  • ft

Syntax

Parameter Set: Default
Format-Table [[-Property] <Object[]> ] [-AutoSize] [-DisplayError] [-Expand <String> ] [-Force] [-GroupBy <Object> ] [-HideTableHeaders] [-InputObject <PSObject> ] [-ShowError] [-View <String> ] [-Wrap] [ <CommonParameters>]




Detailed Description

The Format-Table cmdlet formats the output of a command as a table with the selected properties of the object in each column. The object type determines the default layout and properties that are displayed in each column, but you can use the Property parameter to select the properties that you want to see.

You can also use a hash table to add calculated properties to an object before displaying it and to specify the column headings in the table. To add a calculated property, use the Property or GroupBy parameters.

Parameters

-AutoSize

Adjusts the column size and number of columns based on the width of the data. By default, the column size and number are determined by the view.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

False

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-DisplayError

Displays errors at the command line.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

False

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Expand<String>

Formats the collection object, as well as the objects in the collection. This parameter is designed to format objects that support the ICollection (System.Collections) interface. The default value is EnumOnly.

Valid values are:

-- EnumOnly: Displays the properties of the objects in the collection.

-- CoreOnly: Displays the properties of the collection object.

-- Both: Displays the properties of the collection object and the properties of objects in the collection.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

EnumOnly

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Force

Directs the cmdlet to display all of the error information. Use with the DisplayError or ShowError parameters. By default, when an error object is written to the error or display streams, only some of the error information is displayed.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

False

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-GroupBy<Object>

Arranges sorted output in separate tables based on a property value. For example, you can use GroupBy to list services in separate tables based on their status.

Enter an expression or a property of the output. The output must be sorted before you send it to Format-Table.

The value of the GroupBy parameter can be a new calculated property. To create a calculated, property, use a hash table. Valid keys are:

-- Name (or Label) <string>

-- Expression <string> or <script block>

-- FormatString <string>


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-HideTableHeaders

Omits the column headings from the table.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

False

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-InputObject<PSObject>

Specifies the objects to be formatted. Enter a variable that contains the objects, or type a command or expression that gets the objects.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

true (ByValue)

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Property<Object[]>

Specifies the object properties that appear in the display and the order in which they appear. Type one or more property names (separated by commas), or use a hash table to display a calculated property. Wildcards are permitted.

If you omit this parameter, the properties that appear in the display depend on the object being displayed. The parameter name ("Property") is optional. You cannot use the Property and View parameters in the same command.

The value of the Property parameter can be a new calculated property. To create a calculated, property, use a hash table. Valid keys are:

-- Name (or Label) <string>

-- Expression <string> or <script block>

-- FormatString <string>

-- Width <int32>

-- Alignment (value can be "Left", "Center", or "Right")


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

1

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

true

-ShowError

Sends errors through the pipeline.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

False

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-View<String>

Specifies the name of an alternate table format or "view." You cannot use the Property and View parameters in the same command.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

none

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

-Wrap

Displays text that exceeds the column width on the next line. By default, text that exceeds the column width is truncated.


Aliases

none

Required?

false

Position?

named

Default Value

Truncate

Accept Pipeline Input?

false

Accept Wildcard Characters?

false

<CommonParameters>

This cmdlet supports the common parameters: -Verbose, -Debug, -ErrorAction, -ErrorVariable, -OutBuffer, and -OutVariable. For more information, see  about_CommonParameters (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkID=113216).

Inputs

The input type is the type of the objects that you can pipe to the cmdlet.

  • System.Management.Automation.PSObject

    You can pipe any object to Format-Table.


Outputs

The output type is the type of the objects that the cmdlet emits.

  • Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.Internal.Format

    Format-Table returns format objects that represent the table.


Notes

  • The GroupBy parameter assumes that the objects are sorted. Before using Format-Table to group the objects, use the Sort-Object cmdlet to sort them.

  • The View parameter lets you specify an alternate format for the table. You can use the views defined in the *.format.PS1XML files in the Windows PowerShell directory or you can create your own views in new PS1XML files and then use the TUpdate-FormatData cmdlet to include them in Windows PowerShell.

  • The alternate views for the View parameter must use the table format. If it does not, the command fails. If the alternate view is a list, use the Format-List cmdlet. If the alternate view is neither a list nor a table, use the T:Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.Format-Custom cmdlet.

Examples

-------------------------- EXAMPLE 1 --------------------------

This command formats information about Windows PowerShell snap-ins in a table. By default, they are formatted in a list. The Get-PSSnapin cmdlet gets objects representing the snap-ins. The pipeline operator (|) passes the object to the Format-Table command. Format-Table formats the objects in a table. The Autosize parameter adjusts the column widths to minimize truncation.


PS C:\> get-pssnapin | format-table -auto

-------------------------- EXAMPLE 2 --------------------------

This command displays the processes on the computer in groups with the same base priority.

The Get-Process cmdlet gets objects representing each process on the computer. The pipeline operator (|) passes the object to the Sort-Object cmdlet, which sorts the objects in order of their base priority.

Another pipeline operator passes the results to the Format-Table cmdlet. The GroupBy parameter arranges the data about the processes into groups based on the value of their BasePriority property. The Wrap parameter ensures that data is not truncated.


PS C:\> get-process | sort-object -property basepriority | format-table -groupby basepriority -wrap

-------------------------- EXAMPLE 3 --------------------------

This command displays information about the processes on the computer in group based on the start date of the process. It uses the Get-Process cmdlet to get objects representing the processes on the computer. The pipeline operator (|) sends the output of Get-Process to the Sort-Object cmdlet, which sorts it based on the StartTime property. Another pipeline operator sends the sorted results to Format-Table.

The View parameter is used to select the StartTime view that is defined in the DotNetTypes.format.ps1xml formatting file for System.Diagnostics.Process objects, such as those returned by Get-Process. This view converts the StartTime of the process to a short date and then groups the processes by start date.

The DotNetTypes.format.ps1xml formatting file also contains a Priority view for processes, and you can create your own format.ps1xml files with customized views.


PS C:\> get-process | sort-object starttime | format-table -view starttime

-------------------------- EXAMPLE 4 --------------------------

This command displays all of the services on the computer in a table with two columns, Name and DependentServices. The command uses the Get-Service cmdlet to get all of the services on the computer. The pipeline operator (|) sends the results to the Format-Table cmdlet, which formats the output in a table. The Property parameter specifies the properties that appear in the table as columns. The name of the Property parameter is optional, so you can omit it ("format-table name, dependentservices").

Property and DependentServices are just two of the properties of service objects. To view all of the properties, type "get-service | get-member".


PS C:\> get-service | format-table -property Name, DependentServices

-------------------------- EXAMPLE 5 --------------------------

This command shows how to use a calculated property in a table. The command displays a table with the process name and total running time of all Notepad processes on the local computer. The total running time is calculated by subtracting the start time of each process from the current time.

The command uses the Get-Process cmdlet to get all processes named "Notepad" on the local computer. The pipeline operator (|) sends the results to Format-Table, which displays a table with two columns: ProcessName, a standard property of processes, and TotalRunningTime, a calculated property.

The TotalRunningTime property is specified by a hash table with two keys, Label and Expression. The name of the property is assigned to the Label key. The calculation is assigned to the Expression key. The expression gets the StartTime property of each process object and subtracts it from the result of a Get-Date command, which gets the current date (and time).


PS C:\> get-process notepad | format-table ProcessName, @{Label="TotalRunningTime"; Expression={(get-date) - $_.StartTime}}

-------------------------- EXAMPLE 6 --------------------------

These commands are similar to the previous command, except that these commands use the Get-WmiObject cmdlet and the Win32_Process class to display information about Notepad processes on a remote computer.

The first command uses the Get-WmiObject cmdlet to get instances of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Win32_Process class that describes all of the processes on the Server01 computer that are named Notepad.exe. The command stores the process information in the $processes variable.

The second command uses a pipeline operator (|) to send the process information in the $processes variable to the Format-Table cmdlet, which displays the ProcessName of each process along with a new calculated property.

The command assigns the name of the new calculated property, Total Running Time, to the Label key. The script block that is assigned to the Expression key calculates how long the process has been running by subtracting the creation date of the process from the current date. The Get-Date cmdlet gets the current date. The ConvertToDateTime method converts the CreationDate property of the Win32_Process object from a WMI CIM_DATETIME object to a Microsoft .NET Framework DateTime object that can be compared with the output of Get-Date. Then, the converted creation date is subtracted from the current date. The result is the value of Total Running Time.


PS C:\> $processes = get-wmiobject -ComputerName Server01 win32_process -filter "name='notepad.exe'"
PS C:\>$processes | format-table ProcessName, @{ Label = "Total  Running Time"; Expression={(get-date) - $_.ConvertToDateTime($_.CreationDate)}}

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