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Microsoft Windows NT and Windows 2000 Hotfix Installation and Deployment Guide

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On This Page

About This Guide
What is a Hotfix?
The Update Installation
The Combination Installation
Removing a Windows Hotfix

About This Guide

This guide provides instructions for administrators installing hotfixes for Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000 Professional, Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, and Windows 2000 with Server Appliance Kit. This guide includes the technical details, procedures, and recommendations for successfully installing Windows hotfixes on multiple computers in a small business or corporate environment.

This document focuses on key scenarios for installing hotfixes alone or in combination with one or more of the following components:

  • Windows NT 4.0

  • Windows 2000

This guide assumes a working knowledge of Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, and hotfix installations. Although some basic operating system information is included in the document, this is not a replacement for the Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 documentation or formal training. Rather, it is intended to complement these sources of information.

Organization of This Guide

This guide includes the following main sections:

  • What is a Hotfix?

    You can read this section to become familiar with hotfixes. This section also provides information about additional resource material that can help you plan your hotfix deployment.

  • The Update Installation

    • This section describes how to create an update installation of the Windows hotfixes for Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000.

  • The Combination Installation

    This section describes how to install the Windows hotfixes in combination with the Windows operating system in unattended setup mode. Procedures provide step-by-step instructions for the following combination installation scenarios:

    • Scenario 1: The combination installation of Windows hotfixes and Windows using cmdlines.txt

    • Scenario 2: The combination installation of Windows hotfixes and Windows using svcpack.inf

  • Removing a Windows Hotfix

    This section describes how to remove a Windows hotfix and the limitations of this process.

Conventions Used in This Guide

Before you get started, it's important to understand the terminology and conventions used in this guide.

Terminology

The following table includes terms used in this guide that are specific to hotfix installations and/or Windows 2000.

Term

Definition

systemroot

The "root" directory of the Windows installation on the computer's hard disk. For example, on most computers, systemroot is C:\Winnt.

systemdrive

The drive where the operating system is installed. For example, on most computers, the systemdrive is C:\.

integrated

Joining the service pack with the operating system (for example, Windows 2000) that results in a whole unified operating system (for example, Windows 2000 with Service Pack 2)

Typographical Conventions

The following table identifies the typographical conventions that you can use to help you quickly locate and identify information in this guide.

Type Style

Used For

bold

Command names, utility names, switches, and any text you must type exactly as it appears.

italic

Parameter variables, titles, and definitions. In the case of parameters, you can supply the text for any item shown in italic.

monospace

Code samples and syntax examples.

ALL CAPITALS

Acronyms and key names.

What is a Hotfix?

A hotfix is an update to Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000.

The hotfix is provided as an executable. During installation, it can back up files to enable you to remove the hotfix later and prompts for reboots if required. The installation also copies files to directories as required and updates registry settings.

The Windows Hotfix Installation Program

A hotfix is a collection of one or more files that can be applied to the operating system to correct a problem.

Windows 2000 hotfix executable files are named according to the following convention:

Q ######_XXX_YYY_ZZZ_LL.exe

where:

  • Q ###### = Microsoft Knowledge Base article number (for example, Q123456)

  • XXX = platform or operating system (OS)

  • YYY = service pack level

  • ZZZ = hardware platform

  • LL = language

Windows NT (Post SP6a) hotfix executable files are named according to the following convention:

Q ######i.exe

where:

  • Q ###### = Microsoft Knowledge Base article number (for example, Q123456)

  • i = platform

A hotfix package can only be installed on a system of the same language as the hotfix package. Many hotfix packages require a minimum service pack level to already be on the system before installation can proceed. The hotfix installer blocks installation if a service pack installed on the system already contains the fix contained in the hotfix.

The hotfix.exe program registers the hotfixes under the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \Software\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\Hotfix\Q ######

For information on running the Hotfix.exe program, see " Scenario 1: Installing the Windows Hotfixes" later in this document.

The installation of hotfixes also stores removal information in a hidden folder named systemroot\$NtUninstallQ######$. For information about removing a hotfix, see " Removing a Windows Hotfix," later in this document.

Command-Line Switches for the Hotfix.exe Program

The following table identifies the command-line switches that the Hotfix.exe program supports.

Command-Line Switch

Description

-y*

Perform removal (can be used with -m or –q).

-f

Force other applications to close at shutdown.

-n

Do not back up files for removal.

-z

Do not restart the computer when the installation completes.

-q

Use quiet mode — no user interaction required.

-m

Use unattended Setup mode.

-l

List installed hotfixes.

* If multiple hotfixes replace the same file and you want to successfully return your system to its original state, you must remove the most recently installed hotfix first. For example, assume HotfixA and HotfixB replace the same file and that you installed HotfixA before you installed HotfixB. If you want to return your system to the state prior to the installation of HotfixA, you must remove HotfixB before you remove HotfixA.

The Update Installation

During the update installation, the Windows hotfixes are applied to a computer that is already running Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000. When you run the hotfix package, it automatically installs the updated system files and makes the necessary registry changes. After the computer is restarted (only required for some system files which are in use during the installation), the installation is complete and the operating system runs with an updated file set.

There are numerous supported methods for creating the update installation, including manually running the hotfix package program with a combination of installation switches, using SMS, and using the Windows Installer Service. Hotfixes also support the following distribution media: network distribution share and Web download. Because this guide is intended for corporate audiences, the update installation scenarios described in this document focus on the network distribution share, which is the most common distribution media for this audience.

The following scenarios describe how to install the Windows hotfixes from a network distribution share:

  • Scenario 1: Computers running Windows 2000

  • Scenario 2: Computers running Windows NT 4.0

Important: Hotfix chaining during Update installations is now supported in Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000. Hotfix chaining is the process of installing numerous hotfixes without the need to restart the computer between installing the hotfixes. You can install any number of hotfixes without having to reboot in between. You will need to run Qchain.exe after the last hotfix is installed and you will need to reboot.

Scenario 1: Computers Running Windows 2000

Running the Hotfix Program

The following procedure describes how to install a Windows 2000 hotfix by running the Q######_XXX_YYY_ZZZ_LL.exe program.

Note: For the following procedure, "E:\" represents the drive of the network or computer where your distribution folder is located.

To install a Windows 2000 hotfix

  1. Connect to the network or computer on which you want to create the distribution folder.

  2. On the network distribution share, create a distribution folder for the hotfix files.

    For example, to create a distribution folder named Hotfix, type:

    mkdir E:\Hotfix

  3. Copy the Windows 2000 hotfix executable file to the distribution folder that you created in Step 2.

    For example, to copy the Windows 2000 hotfix executable file to the distribution folder named Hotfix, type:

    xcopy C:\Q ######_XXX_YYY_ZZZ_LL .exe E:\Hotfix

  4. To install the hotfix from the network distribution share, run the Q######_XXX_YYY_ZZ.exe program.

    For example, to install the hotfix from the distribution folder named Hotfix, type:

    E:\Hotfix\Q ######_XXX_YYY_ZZZ_LL .exe

    The Q######_XXX_YYY_ZZZ_LL.exe file supports the same command-line switches as the Hotfix.exe program. For more information about these command-line switches, see "Command-Line Switches for the Hotfix.exe Program," earlier in this document.

Numerous hotfixes can be grouped together in a batch file and can be installed without rebooting the machine after each hotfix with the help of switches provided by the hotfix installer and Qchain.exe. For more information on Qchain, see the Microsoft Web site.

A sample batch file that installs hotfixes and makes sure that the proper files get replaced after reboot is provided below.

@echo off

setlocal
set PATHTOFIXES=E:\hotfix
%PATHTOFIXES%\Q123456_w2k_sp2_x86.exe -z -m
%PATHTOFIXES%\Q123321_w2k_sp2_x86.exe -z -m
%PATHTOFIXES%\Q123789_w2k_sp2_x86.exe -z -m
%PATHTOFIXES%\qchain.exe

Important: In order for applied fixes to take effect, reboot the machine after running the batch file.

Scenario 2: Computers Running Windows NT 4.0

Running the Hotfix Program

The following procedure describes how to install a Windows NT 4.0 hotfix by running the Q######i.exe program.

Note: For the following procedure, "E:\" represents the drive of the network or computer where your distribution folder is located.

To install a Windows NT 4.0 hotfix

  1. Connect to the network or computer on which you want to create the distribution folder.

  2. On the network distribution share, create a distribution folder for the hotfix files.

    For example, to create a distribution folder named Hotfix, type:

    mkdir E:\Hotfix

  3. Copy the Windows NT 4.0 hotfix executable file to the distribution folder that you created in Step 2.

    For example, to copy the Windows NT 4.0 hotfix executable file to the distribution folder named Hotfix, type:

    xcopy C:\Q ######i .exe E:\Hotfix

  4. To install the hotfix from the network distribution share, run the Q######i.exe program.

    For example, to install the hotfix from the distribution folder named Hotfix, type:

    E:\Hotfix\Q ######i .exe

    The Q######i.exe file supports the same command-line switches as the Hotfix.exe program. For more information about these command-line switches, see "Command-Line Switches for the Hotfix.exe Program," earlier in this document.

Numerous hotfixes can be grouped together in a batch file and can be installed without rebooting the machine after each hotfix with the help of switches provided by the Hotfix installer and Qchain.exe. For more information on Qchain, see the Microsoft Web site.

A sample batch file that installs hotfixes and also makes sure that the proper files get replaced after reboot is provided below.

@echo off

setlocal
set PATHTOFIXES=E:\Hotfix

%PATHTOFIXES%\Q123456i.exe -z -m
%PATHTOFIXES%\Q123321i.exe -z -m
%PATHTOFIXES%\Q123789i.exe -z -m
%PATHTOFIXES%\qchain.exe

Important: In order for the applied fixes to take effect, reboot the machine after running the batch file.

The Combination Installation

The combination installation uses update processes to install the hotfix with other components (such as the operating system).

Because of the complexity of setting up the installation share for the combination installation, this process is recommended only when the hotfixes are needed during text mode setup or if the administrator wishes to have the hotfixes installed before the first user logs in.

Important: Combination installation is not supported on Windows NT 4.0.

Installing Windows 2000 with Windows 2000 Hotfixes Using Cmdlines.txt

This scenario describes how to create a combination installation of the Windows 2000 operating system integrated with hotfixes on a network distribution share. You do not need to perform separate installations of the Windows 2000 operating system or the Windows 2000 hotfixes.

Important:

  • This process installs the Windows 2000 hotfixes during Windows 2000 Setup and can only be accomplished in unattended Setup mode.

  • Because Windows 2000 Setup requires the 8.3 naming convention for all files and folders in the distribution folder, you must change the hotfix file names (from Q######_XXX_YYY_ZZZ_LL to Q######).

Preparing for the Installation

Before you run Windows 2000 Setup to install the Windows 2000 operating system and the Windows 2000 hotfixes, you must complete the following tasks:

Create a distribution folder

Prior to installation, you must create a distribution folder for the Windows 2000 operating system and Windows 2000 hotfix installation files.

If you plan to install any additional files (for example, device driver, application, or component files) on the destination computers, create a \$1 subfolder within the \$OEM$ subfolder. The \$1 subfolder maps to %systemdrive%, the destination drive for the Windows 2000 installation.

Note: For the following procedure, "E:\" represents the drive of the network or computer where your distribution folder is.

To create a distribution folder

  1. Connect to the network or computer on which you want to create the distribution folder.

  2. On the network distribution share, create an \i386 distribution folder.

    For example, to create an \i386 distribution folder, type:

    mkdir E:\i386

  3. Within the \i386 folder created in Step 2, create an \$OEM$ subfolder.

    For example, to create an \$OEM$ subfolder within the \i386 folder, type:

    mkdir E:\i386\$OEM$

    The \$OEM$ subfolder contains any additional folders needed to satisfy the Microsoft OEM requirements and your own preinstallation needs. For more information about these additional folders, see the Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit Deployment Planning Guide.

  4. If you plan to install any additional files (for example, device driver, application, or component files) on the users' computers, within the \$OEM$ subfolder created in Step 3, create a \$1 subfolder.

    For example, to create an \$1 subfolder within the \$OEM$ subfolder, type:

    mkdir E:\i386\$OEM$\$1

    The \$1 subfolder maps to %systemdrive%, the destination drive for the Windows 2000 installation.

Note: The $OEM$ and distribution folders are deleted from users' computers after Windows 2000 Setup is completed.

Create an Unattend.txt answer file

To install the hotfixes, you must add a command line to the Unattend.txt file so that Setup recognizes the folders and files in the \i386\$OEM$ folder.

To add a command line to the Unattend.txt file so that Setup recognizes the hotfixes

  • Create a Unattend.txt file using the Setup Manager tool that contains the following command line:

    [Unattended]

    OemPreinstall = Yes

For information about using Setup Manager to create an Unattend.txt answer file, see the MicrosoftWindows 2000 Professional Resource Kit or the MicrosoftWindows 2000 Server Resource Kit. For a complete reference to answer file parameters and settings, see the Microsoft Windows 2000 Guide to Unattended Setup (Unattend.doc), which is located in \Support\Tools on the Service Pack 2 CD.

Add command lines in the Cmdlines.txt file

To install the Windows 2000 hotfixes during Windows 2000 Setup, you must add the following command line for each hotfix to the Cmdlines.txt file:

[Commands]

"Q######.exe -n -q -z"

where:

Q###### = Microsoft Knowledge Base Article Number (for example, Q123456)

For example, to install the Q123456.exe hotfix, add the following command line to the [Commands] section in the Cmdlines.txt file:

[Commands]

"Q123456.exe -n -q -z"
To install several hotfixes together, group them under the [Commands] section. At the end, insert the Qchain.exe file to ensure proper versions of the files get replaced during installation. Qchain handles the case where files to be replaced are in use by the system. Qchain must also be copied to the $oem$ subfolder.

For example, to install the Q123456.exe, Q123478.exe and Q123490.exe hotfixes, add the following command line to the [Commands] section in the Cmdlines.txt file:

[Commands]

"Q123456.exe -n -q -z"
"Q123478.exe -n -q -z"
"Q123490.exe -n -q -z"
"QChain.exe"

For information about using Setup Manager to create a Cmdlines.txt file, see the MicrosoftWindows 2000 Professional Resource Kit or the MicrosoftWindows 2000 Server Resource Kit.

Copy installation files to the distribution folder

You must copy all of the files needed for the installation to your distribution folder. The distribution folder contains the installation and executable files for the Windows 2000 operating system and the Windows 2000 hotfixes, as well as any device driver and other files that you want to install.

To copy the installation files to the distribution folder.

  1. Copy the contents of \i386 on the Windows 2000 product CD to the \i386 distribution folder on your network distribution share.

  2. Copy the following files to the \i386\$OEM$ subfolder on your network distribution share:

    • The hotfix executable files

    • The Unattend.txt and Cmdlines.txt files

    For information about files contained in the \i386\$OEM$ subfolder, see the Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit Deployment Planning Guide.

  3. Copy any folders that contain additional device driver, application, or component files that you want to install on the system drive to the \i386\$OEM$\$1 subfolder on your network distribution share.

  4. Expand the hotfix to a unique temporary location and using the following procedure to copy the hotfix binaries:

    1. Delete any binaries to be replaced in the \i386 folder (the file name will likely have an _ at the end in the share).

    2. If any binaries exist in multiple packages, keep only the highest versioned file.

    3. Copy the hotfix binaries to the i386 directory and subdirectories if they exist in a subdirectory in the hotfix. For example, i386\uniproc\* files in the hotfix need to be copied to i386\uniproc directory of the installation share. There is no need to copy hotfix.exe, hotfix.inf, spmsg.dll, or symbols files.

  5. If multiple hotfixes are to be installed, copy Qchain.exe to E:\i386\$oem$

    Qchain.exe can be found on the Microsoft Web site.

Deploying the Combination Installation

You can deploy the installation of the Windows 2000 operating system and the Windows 2000 hotfixes to your users' computers from the network distribution share. During the standard installation process, Windows 2000 Setup (Winnt.exe or Winnt32.exe in unattended Setup mode) installs the operating system and applies the hotfixes.

To deploy the installation

  1. Verify that the installation and executable files for the Windows 2000 operating system and the Windows 2000 hotfixes exist in your distribution folder.

  2. As required, make any necessary customizations to Windows 2000 Setup.

  3. Run Windows 2000 Setup (Winnt.exe or Winnt32.exe in unattended Setup mode) to install the Windows 2000 operating system and the Windows 2000 hotfixes from the network distribution share.

Installing Windows 2000 with Windows 2000 Hotfixes Using Svcpack.inf

This scenario describes how to create a combination installation of Windows 2000 integrated with Service Pack 2 (or higher) and/or post–Service Pack 2 hotfixes on a network distribution share in unattended setup mode. You do not need to perform separate installations of the Windows 2000 operating system or the Windows 2000 hotfixes.

Important: An attempt to slipstream an SP2 hotfix into an integrated SP2 distribution share might cause Windows 2000 to fail (the SP2 files will become untrusted if the SP2.cat file gets overwritten). For more information on this issue, see article Q290074 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base

Important:

  • This process installs the Windows 2000 hotfixes during Windows 2000 Setup.

  • Because Windows 2000 Setup requires the 8.3 naming convention for all files and folders in the distribution folder, you must change the hotfix file names (from Q######_XXX_YYY_ZZZ_LL to Q######).

Preparing for the Installation

Before you run Windows 2000 Setup to deploy the installation of the Windows 2000 operating system and the Windows 2000 hotfixes, you must copy the Windows 2000 operating system and Windows 2000 hotfix installation files to a distribution share and complete the following tasks.

If you plan to install any additional files (for example, device driver, application, or component files) on the destination computers, create a \$1 subfolder within the \$OEM$ subfolder. The \$1 subfolder maps to systemdrive, the destination drive for the Windows 2000 installation.

Note: For the following procedure, "E:\" represents the drive of the network or computer where your distribution folder is.

To install Windows 2000 Integrated SP2 and Windows 2000 hotfixes

  1. Connect to the network or computer on which you want to create the distribution folder.

  2. On the network distribution share, create an \i386 distribution folder. For example, to create an \i386 distribution folder, type

    mkdir E:\i386

  3. Use the command-line utility xcopy to copy the files and subfolders from the Windows 2000 Integrated SP2 installation CD to E:\i386. For example, if D: is your CD-ROM drive, type:

    xcopy /e /i /v d:\i386 e:\i386

  4. Open E:\i386\dosnet.inf and add svcpack to the [OptionalSrcDirs] section. This section should already exist with uniproc listed under it.

    [OptionalSrcDirs]

    uniproc
    svcpack

  5. Create an E:\i386\svcpack folder. For example, to create a \svcpack subfolder within the \i386 folder, type:

    mkdir E:\i386\svcpack

  6. Copy the hotfix executable program (Q######_XXX_YYY_ZZZ_LL.exe) to the E:\i386\svcpack folder in the 8.3 naming format (Q######.exe). If deploying multiple hotfixes, rename all the hotfix package files.

  7. Expand the hotfix to a unique temporary location. Using the following procedure, copy the catalog and hotfix binaries:

    1. Copy sp3.cat to E:\i386\svcpack folder.

    2. If any binaries exist in multiple packages, keep only the highest versioned file.

    3. Delete any binaries to be replaced in the \i386 folder (the file name will likely have an _ at the end in the share).

    4. Copy the hotfix binaries to the i386 directory and subdirectories if they exist in a subdirectory in the hotfix. For example, i386\uniproc\* files in the hotfix need to be copied to i386\uniproc directory of the installation share. There is no need to copy hotfix.exe, hotfix.inf, spmsg.dll, or symbols files..

    Important: If multiple hotfixes will be deployed together, Step 7 must be performed for all of the hotfixes. Make sure that you only copy a catalog file if its version is newer than the one previously copied to E:\i386\svcpack.

    You can determine the version of the catalog file using the tool CatVer.exe

  8. Delete the E:\i386\svcpack.in_ file.

  9. Create a new svcpack.inf file at E:\i386\svcpack.inf of the form:

    [Version]

    Signature="$Windows NT$"

    MajorVersion=5

    MinorVersion=0

    BuildNumber=2195

    [SetupData]

    CatalogSubDir="i386\svcpack"

    [ProductCatalogsToInstall]

    sp3.cat

    [SetupHotfixesToRun]

    Q######.exe /switches (the recommended switches for hotfixes are /q /n /z)

    Important: If multiple hotfixes will be deployed together, add entries for respective hotfixes under [SetupHotfixesToRun] and add the Qchain.exe to make sure the correct files get replaced after the installation. Qchain.exe must also be copied to the svcpack directory. A sample of the [SetupHotfixesToRun] section for an installation where multiple hotfixes are installed is provided below.

    [SetupHotfixesToRun]

    Q123456.exe /switches (the recommended switches for hotfixes are /q /n /z)

    Q123478.exe /switches (the recommended switches for hotfixes are /q /n /z)

    Q123490.exe /switches (the recommended switches for hotfixes are /q /n /z)

    QChain.exe

  10. If multiple hotfixes are to be installed, copy Qchain.exe to E:\i386\svcpack

    Qchain.exe can be found at the Microsoft Web site.

Deploying the Combination Installation

You can deploy the installation of the Windows 2000 operating system and the Windows 2000 hotfixes to your users' computers from the network distribution share. During the standard installation process, Windows 2000 Setup (Winnt.exe or Winnt32.exe in unattended Setup mode) installs the operating system and applies the hotfixes.

To deploy the installation

  1. Verify that the installation and executable files for the Windows 2000 operating system and the Windows 2000 hotfixes exist in your distribution folder.

  2. As required, make any necessary customizations to Windows 2000 Setup.

Run Windows 2000 Setup (Winnt.exe or Winnt32.exe in unattended Setup mode) to deploy the installation of the Windows 2000 operating system and the Windows 2000 hotfixes to your users' computers from the network distribution share.

Removing a Windows Hotfix

You can remove a Windows 2000 hotfix by using Add/Remove Programs in Control Panel.

Note: You cannot remove hotfixes that were installed using the combination installation method.

To remove a Windows 2000 hotfix

  1. Click Start, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.

  2. Double-click Add/Remove Programs, click Q######, and then click Change/Remove.

  3. Follow the instructions that appear on your screen.

If multiple hotfixes replace the same file and you want to successfully return your system to its original state, you must remove the most recently installed hotfix first. For example, if HotfixA and HotfixB replace the same file and you installed HotfixA before you installed HotfixB, you must remove HotfixB before you remove HotfixA to return your system to the state prior to the installation of HotfixA.

This documentation is an early release of the final documentation, which may be changed substantially prior to final commercial release, and is confidential and proprietary information of Microsoft Corporation. It is disclosed pursuant to a non-disclosure agreement between the recipient and Microsoft.

This product contains graphics filter software; this software is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG Group.

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