Windows Server 2003 Glossary - I
For more Windows Server terms, see the Windows Server 2008 Glossary.
Glossary - I
See other term: Internet Authentication Service (IAS)
See other term: Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
See other term: integrated device electronics (IDE)
A person or entity that must be verified by means of authentication, based on criteria such as a password or a certificate.
Identity Management for UNIX
A feature of Windows that integrates computers running Windows into an existing UNIX enterprise.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, founded in 1963. IEEE is an organization composed of engineers, scientists, and students, best known for developing standards for the computer and electronics industry.
A standard for high-speed serial devices such as digital video and digital audio editing equipment.
See also: device
See other term: Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
See other term: Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
See other term: Internet Information Services (IIS)
IIS Server Instance resource
A server-instance designation used with Internet Information Services (IIS) that supports the WWW and FTP services. IIS server instances are supported as cluster resources by a Resource DLL. IIS Server Instance resources can have dependencies on IP Address resources, Network Name resources, and Physical Disk resources. Access information for server instances does not fail over.
See other term: Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
See other term: integrated local management interface (ILMI)
The name of a process as displayed in Task Manager.
See also: Task Manager
The ability of a thread to run in the security context of a security principal different from the security principal that started the process. This is usually so that a process can gain access to resources on behalf of a user.
An access token that captures the security information of a client process, allowing a service to "impersonate" the client process in security operations.
See also: access token
import media pool
A logical collection of data-storage media that has not been cataloged by Removable Storage. Media in an import media pool is cataloged as soon as possible so that they can be used by an application.
A special top-level DNS domain reserved for reverse mapping of IP addresses to DNS host names.
A connection between two computers that relies on a standard network, such as a local area network (LAN) or the Internet, and standard remote administration tools, such as Remote Desktop or Telnet. An in-band connection can only be used to manage computers remotely if both the local and remote computers are in a functional state and accessible on the network.
Incoming Forest Trust Builders group
A group whose members can create incoming, one-way forest trusts to the forest-root domain. For example, members of this group residing in forest A can create a one-way incoming forest trust from forest B. This one-way incoming forest trust allows users in forest A to access resources that are located in forest B. Members of this group are assigned the permission Create Inbound Forest Trust on the forest-root domain. This group has no default members.
A backup that copies only those files created or changed since the last normal or incremental backup. It marks files as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is cleared). If you use a combination of normal and incremental backups to restore your data, you will need to have the last normal backup and all incremental backup sets.
incremental zone transfer (IXFR)
In DNS, a zone transfer request involving only incremental resource record changes between each version of the zone. An IXFR contrasts with a full zone transfer (AXFR) request for all resource records.
A computer with Message Queuing installed that can host queues and store messages locally. Independent clients do not require synchronous access to a Message Queuing server to send and receive messages, but they can use Message Queuing servers with routing enabled for efficient message routing.
indexed sequential access method (ISAM)
A technique for indexing database records that allows sequential or random access of records. When records are accessed sequentially they are accessed in the order in which they were entered in the database, and when records are accessed randomly, the records are accessed through an index.)
Software that provides search functions for documents stored on disk, allowing users to search for specific document text or properties.
Light that is beyond red in the color spectrum. While the light is not visible to the human eye, infrared transmitters and receivers can send and receive infrared signals.
Infrared Data Association (IrDA)
The industry organization of computer, component, and telecommunications vendors who establish the standards for infrared communication between computers and peripheral devices, such as printers.
See also: infrared (IR)
A computer, or a computer peripheral such as a printer, that can communicate by using infrared light.
See also: infrared (IR)
infrared file transfer
Wireless file transfer between a computer and another computer or device using infrared light.
See also: infrared (IR)
infrared network connection
A direct or incoming network connection to a remote access server using an infrared port.
An optical port on a computer that enables communication with other computers or devices by using infrared light, without cables. Infrared ports can be found on some portable computers, printers, and cameras.
A domain controller that holds the infrastructure operations master role in Active Directory. The infrastructure master updates the group-to-user reference whenever group memberships change and replicates these changes across the domain. At any time, the infrastructure master role can be assigned to only one domain controller in each domain.
In security, a mechanism that allows a specific access control entry (ACE) to be copied from the container where it was applied to all children of the container. Inheritance can be used to manage access to a whole subtree of objects in a single update operation. In Active Directory, the ability to build new object classes from existing object classes. The new object is defined as a subclass of the original object class. The original object class becomes a superclass of the new object. A subclass inherits the attributes of the superclass, including structure rules and content rules. In Group Policy, a mechanism that allows policy settings in Group Policy objects (GPOs) that are linked to parent containers to be applied to objects in child containers.
Permissions on an object that are automatically inherited from its parent object. Inherited permissions cannot be modified.
In Disk Management, the process of detecting a disk or volume and assigning it a status (for example, healthy) and a type (for example, dynamic).
A file identifier in UNIX. Each inode is identified by a unique number and contains user and group ownership information, access settings, file type, size, links, and modification information.
A setting that specifies the language in which you enter text. When you add a new input language, you also select a keyboard layout and other input methods for that language.
See also: Input Method Editor (IME)
Input Method Editor (IME)
A program used to enter the thousands of different characters in written Asian languages with a standard 101-key keyboard. An IME consists of both an engine that converts keystrokes into phonetic and ideographic characters and a dictionary of commonly used ideographic words. As the user enters keystrokes, the IME engine attempts to identify which character or characters that the keystrokes should be converted into.
input/output (I/O) port
A channel through which data is transferred between a device and the microprocessor. The port appears to the microprocessor as one or more memory addresses that it can use to send or receive data.
When referring to software, to add program files and folders to your hard disk and related data to your registry so that the software runs properly. Installing contrasts with upgrading, where existing program files, folders, and registry entries are updated to a more recent version. When referring to hardware, to physically connect the device to your computer, to load device drivers onto your computer, and to configure device properties and settings.
integrated device electronics (IDE)
A type of disk-drive interface in which the controller electronics reside on the drive itself, eliminating the need for a separate adapter card. IDE offers advantages such as look-ahead caching to increase overall performance.
integrated local management interface (ILMI)
A limited set of Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) functions included in the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) specification for the ATM user network interface (UNI).
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
A digital phone line used to provide higher bandwidth. ISDN in North America is typically available in two forms: Basic Rate Interface (BRI) consists of 2 B-channels at 64 kilobits per second (Kbps) and a D-channel at 16 Kbps; Primary Rate Interface (PRI) consists of 23 B-channels at 64 Kbps and a D-channel at 64 Kbps. An ISDN line must be installed by the phone company at both the calling site and the called site.
Integrated Services over Slow Links (ISSLOW)
A queuing mechanism used to optimize slow (low-capacity) network interfaces by reducing latency. In particular, it is designed for interfaces that forward traffic to modem links, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) B-channels, and sub-T1 links.
Integrated Windows authentication
A configuration setting that enables negotiation of authentication protocols in Internet Information Services (IIS).
A set of change and configuration management features based on Active Directory that enables management of user and computer data and settings, including security data. IntelliMirror also provides limited ability to deploy software to Windows 2000 and later workstations or servers.
See also: Active Directory
interactive dialog box
A dialog box that requires a response from the user. Intermediary devices such as a security host require such a dialog box as an added layer of security between the client and the remote access server. In such dialog boxes, the user types an access code or a user name and password on the remote access terminal screen.
The process of logging on to a local computer by using a keyboard.
A device other than a modem or X.25 PAD, located between a network connection and the remote access server. This device is typically a modem-pool switch or security host and requires either a static or interactive dialog box between the client and itself.
internal network number
A 4-byte hexadecimal number used for addressing and routing purposes. The internal network number identifies a virtual network inside a computer. The internal network number must be unique to the IPX internetwork. Also called virtual network number.
internal private queue
For Message Queuing, a queue that stores various types of administrative messages, or an interim queue for storing and forwarding messages in transit to a destination queue. Internal private queues are not displayed in Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-ins, and they cannot be deleted.
A router for which all the networks that it is connected to belong in the same area.
See also: router
Digits dialed before the country code to access the international phone service. The actual digits depend on the country or region in which you are dialing an international number. For example, in the United States of America, the prefix for international dialing is 011. To dial from the United States of America to Honduras, which has the country code 504, you would dial: (011) (504) (000) 000-0000
International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication [Standardization Sector] (ITU-T)
The sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) responsible for telecommunication standards. ITU-T replaces the Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et Telephonique (CCITT). Its responsibilities include standardizing modem design and operations, and standardizing protocols for networks and facsimile transmission. ITU is an international organization within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services.
A worldwide network of computers. If you have access to the Internet, you can retrieve information from millions of sources, including schools, governments, businesses, and individuals.
An address for a resource on the Internet that is used by Web browsers to locate Internet resources. An Internet address typically starts with a protocol name, followed by the name of the organization that maintains the site; the suffix identifies the kind of organization it is. For example, the address http://www.yale.edu/ provides the following information: http: This Web server uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. www: This site is on the World Wide Web. edu: This is an educational institution. Internet address is also called Uniform Resource Locator (URL).
Internet Authentication Service (IAS)
The Microsoft implementation of a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server, which provides authentication and accounting for network access, and proxy, which provides forwarding of RADIUS messages.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
A required maintenance protocol in the TCP/IP suite that reports errors and provides simple diagnostic capabilities. ICMP is used by the Ping tool to perform TCP/IP troubleshooting.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
An open community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. Technical work is performed by working groups organized by topic areas (such as routing, transport, and security) and through mailing lists. Internet standards are developed in IETF Requests for Comments (RFCs), which are a series of notes that discuss many aspects of computing and computer communication, focusing on networking protocols, programs, and concepts.
See also: Request for Comments (RFC)
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
A protocol used by Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) hosts to report their multicast group memberships to any immediately neighboring multicast routers.
Internet group name
A name known by a DNS service that includes a list of the specific addresses of systems that have registered the name.
See also: Domain Name System (DNS)
Internet Information Services (IIS)
Software services that support Web site creation, configuration, and management, along with other Internet functions. Internet Information Services include Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
A protocol that establishes the security association and shared keys necessary for two parties to communicate by using Internet Protocol security (IPSec).
Internet Printing Protocol (IPP)
The protocol that uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to send print jobs to printers throughout the world. Windows 2000, Windows XP, and the Windows Server 2003 family support Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) version 1.0.
See also: protocol
Internet Protocol (IP)
A routable protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite that is responsible for IP addressing, routing, and the fragmentation and reassembly of IP packets.
Internet Protocol multicasting
The extension of local area network multicasting technology to a TCP/IP network. Hosts send and receive multicast datagrams, the destination fields of which specify IP host group addresses rather than individual IP addresses. A host indicates that it is a member of a group by means of the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).
Internet Protocol security (IPsec)
A set of industry-standard, cryptography-based protection services and protocols. IPsec protects all protocols in the TCP/IP protocol suite except Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). For virtual private network (VPN) connections, IPsec is used in conjunction with Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP).
Internet SCSI (iSCSI)
An industry standard developed to enable transmission of SCSI commands over the existing Internet Protocol (IP) network by using the TCP/IP protocol. iSCSI offers the possibility of delivering both messaging traffic and block-based storage over IP networks without installing a separate Fibre Channel network.
Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI)
An application programming interface (API) that resides on a server computer for initiating software services tuned for Windows operating systems. In Microsoft Provisioning System, ISAPI resides on the Web server.
See also: application programming interface (API)
Internet service provider (ISP)
A company that provides individuals or companies access to the Internet and the World Wide Web. An ISP provides a telephone number, a user name, a password, and other connection information so users can connect their computers to the ISP's computers. An ISP typically charges a monthly or hourly connection fee.
See also: Web server
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)
A network protocol native to NetWare that controls addressing and routing of packets within and between local area networks (LANs). IPX does not guarantee that a message will be complete (no lost packets).
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)
Transport protocols used in Novell NetWare networks, which together correspond to the combination of TCP and IP in the TCP/IP protocol suite. Windows implements IPX through NWLink.
A request for attention from the processor. When the processor receives an interrupt, it suspends its current operations, saves the status of its work, and transfers control to a special routine known as an interrupt handler, which contains the instructions for dealing with the particular situation that caused the interrupt.
See also: interrupt request (IRQ)
interrupt request (IRQ)
A signal sent by a device to get the attention of the processor when the device is ready to accept or send information. Each device sends its interrupt requests over a specific hardware line. Each device must be assigned a unique IRQ number.
See also: interrupt
interrupt request (IRQ) lines
Hardware lines over which devices can send signals to get the attention of the processor when the device is ready to accept or send information. Each device must have a unique IRQ line.
intersite messaging service (ISM)
A service that supports transports for asynchronous, site-to-site messaging. Each transport serves two major roles: send/receive and topology queries (such as, what are the various sites connected by this transport, and at what cost?). The intersite messaging services shipped in Windows are remote procedure call (RPC) and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) (mail).
In Active Directory, the replication of directory partition updates between sites. Intersite replication occurs between bridgehead servers that store the same domain or application directory partition. One bridgehead server per domain or application directory partition and per replication transport is designated automatically in each site. If two sites have no domains or application directory partitions in common, a bridgehead server in each site replicates both the configuration and schema directory partitions between the two sites.
Intersite Topology Generator
An Active Directory process that runs on one domain controller in a site that considers the cost of intersite connections, checks if previously available domain controllers are no longer available, and checks if new domain controllers have been added. The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) process then updates the intersite replication topology accordingly.
intersite topology generator (ISTG)
A server in an Active Directory architecture that is responsible for managing the inbound replication connection objects for all the server contact points in the server’s site.
In Active Directory, the replication of directory partition updates that occurs between two or more domain controllers that store the same domain or application directory partition and that reside within the same site.
See other term: Internet Protocol (IP)
For Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), a 32-bit address used to identify an interface on a node on an IPv4 internetwork. Each interface on the IP internetwork must be assigned a unique IPv4 address, which is made up of the network ID, plus a unique host ID. This address is typically represented with the decimal value of each octet separated by a period (for example, 192.168.7.27). You can configure the IP address statically or dynamically by using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). For Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), an identifier that is assigned at the IPv6 layer to an interface or set of interfaces and that can be used as the source or destination of IPv6 packets.
IP Address resource
A 32-bit number in dotted decimal format that represents an Internet Protocol (IP) address and is supported as a cluster resource by a Resource DLL provided with Windows.
See other term: Internet Printing Protocol (IPP)
See other term: Internet Protocol security (IPsec)
Configuration policy that defines which traffic Internet Protocol security (IPsec) examines, how that traffic is secured and encrypted, and how IPsec peers are authenticated.
See other term: Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)
See other term: infrared (IR)
See other term: Infrared Data Association (IrDA)
See other term: interrupt request (IRQ)
See other term: indexed sequential access method (ISAM)
See other term: Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI)
See other term: Internet SCSI (iSCSI)
A logical entity that enables a server to communicate with an iSCSI device over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. Each iSCSI initiator can have one or more network adapters through which communication is established.
A logical entity created in order to manage the connections between an iSCSI device and the servers that need to access it over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. A target defines the portals (IP addresses) that can be used to connect to the iSCSI device, as well as the security settings (if any) that the iSCSI device requires in order to authenticate the servers that are requesting access to its resources.
See other term: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
See other term: intersite messaging service (ISM)
See other term: Internet service provider (ISP)
See other term: intersite topology generator (ISTG)
An Intel microprocessor that uses explicitly parallel instruction set computing and 64-bit memory addressing. "Itanium-based" refers to systems or platforms that are based on the Itanium processor. "Itanium 2-based" refers to systems or platforms that are based on the Itanium 2 processor. "Itanium architecture-based" refers to systems or platforms that are based on the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors.
See other term: iterative query
A query made to a DNS server for the best answer the server can provide without seeking further help from other DNS servers. Also called a nonrecursive query.
See other term: incremental zone transfer (IXFR)