Active Directory Administration with Windows PowerShell
Letzte Aktualisierung: Februar 2009
Betrifft: Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows PowerShell™ is a command-line shell and scripting language that can help information technology (IT) professionals control system administration more easily and achieve greater productivity.
The Active Directory-Modul für Windows PowerShell in Windows Server® 2008 R2 is a Windows PowerShell module (named ActiveDirectory) that consolidates a group of cmdlets. You can use these cmdlets to manage your Active Directory® domains, Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) configuration sets, and Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instances in a single, self-contained package.
In Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Server 2008, administrators used a variety of command-line tools and Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-ins to connect to their Active Directory domains and AD LDS configuration sets to monitor and manage them. The Active Directory-Modul in Windows Server 2008 R2 now provides a centralized experience for administering your directory service.
You can install the Active Directory-Modul by using any of the following methods:
By default, on a Windows Server 2008 R2 server when you install the AD DS or AD LDS server roles
By default, when you make a Windows Server 2008 R2 server a domain controller by running Dcpromo.exe
As part of the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT) feature on a Windows Server 2008 R2 server
As part of the RSAT feature on a Windows 7 computer
Wichtig If you want to use the Active Directory-Modul in Windows 7 to remotely manage an Active Directory domain, an AD LDS instance or configuration set, or an Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instance, you must have at least one Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controller in your domain or at least one instance in an AD LDS configuration set that is running on a Windows Server 2008 R2 server.
The Active Directory-Modul is installed with the following features by default:
The Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5.1
- Windows PowerShell
If you want to use the Active Directory-Modul to manage an Active Directory domain, an AD LDS instance or configuration set, or an Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instance, the Windows Server 2008 R2 Active Directory Web Services (ADWS) service must be installed on at least one domain controller in this domain or on one server that hosts your AD LDS instance. For more information about ADWS, see AD DS: Active Directory Web Services (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=141393).
When the Active Directory-Modul is installed, to start it click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active Directory PowerShell. You can also load the Active Directory-Modul manually by running the Import-Module ActiveDirectory command at the Windows PowerShell prompt.
Which editions include the Active Directory module?
The Active Directory-Modul is available in the following editions of Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7:
Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard
Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise
Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter
The Active Directory-Modul is not available in the following editions of Windows Server 2008 R2:
Windows Server 2008 R2 für Itanium-basierte Systeme
Windows Web Server 2008 R2
This section explains how to start the Active Directory-Modul. You do not have to be a local administrator to use the Active Directory-Modul or to add the module explicitly from a base Windows PowerShell instance.
To start the Active Directory module
Click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active Directory-Modul für Windows PowerShell .
This command opens Windows PowerShell with the Active Directory-Modul preloaded.
Membership in Domain Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete the tasks in this guide.
Membership in Schema Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete schema operations tasks.
Membership in Enterprise Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete topology-related tasks.
There are several tasks that require you to run a sample script. Sample scripts provide fictitious names, domains, servers, organizational units (OU)s, and other items for the purpose of providing concrete examples of the Active Directory-Modul cmdlets. If you use one of these sample scripts in your environment, change these names to fit your organizational structure. For more information about running Windows PowerShell scripts, see Running Windows PowerShell Scripts (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=119588).
The following links take you directly to the section of this guide that contains the group of tasks that you are trying to complete. For example, the Users link takes you to the section that contains all the tasks for managing users in AD DS or AD LDS.